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personification of Russia is traditionally feminine and most commonly maternal since medieval times. 
A cover of
magazine, approx. 1932, depicting Russia as a woman in a traditional costume liberated by a warrior in medieval armor with a shield depicting the
, trampling the
Most common terms for
national personification of Russia are:
Mother Russia ( Russian: ? , , "Mother Russia"; also, tr. Matushka Rossiya -?, tr. , "Russian Mother", Rossiya-matushka ?-, tr. , Mat'-Rossiya ? ?, tr. , "Mother Rus' "), Matushka Rus' Mother Motherland ( Russian: -?, ). tr. Rodina-mat'
In the Russian language, the concept of
motherland is rendered by two terms: " " ( ), literally, "place of birth" and " tr. rodina ?" ( ), literally "fatherland".
Harald Haarmann and Orlando Figes see the goddess Mokosh a source of the "Mother Russia" concept.  
October Revolution and the Russian Civil War, the image was in the propaganda of the supporters of the White movement, which interpreted the struggle against the Bolsheviks as a battle with "aliens" who were "oppressors of Mother Russia".
During the Soviet era, many statues of Mother Motherland were built, most to commemorate the
Great Patriotic War. These include:
( The Motherland Calls Russian: -? , ) a colossal statue in Volgograd, Russia, commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad tr. Rodina-mat' zovot
( Mother Motherland, Kyiv Ukrainian: -?, , "Mother Fatherland") or, and more commonly referred to as, Rodina-Mat ( tr. Bat?kivshchyna-Maty Russian: -?, ) is a monumental statue that is a part of the tr. Rodina-mat' Museum of The History of Ukraine in World War II
Mother Motherland (Saint Petersburg), a statue at the Piskarevskoye Memorial Cemetery, St. Petersburg, Russia
Mother Russia (Kaliningrad), a monument in Kaliningrad, Russia
Mother Motherland Mourning over Her Perished Sons ( Russian: -?, ? , ), tr. Rodina-mat', skorbyashchaya o pogibshikh synov'yakh Minsk, Belarus commemorating the dead in Afghanistan
Mother Motherland (Naberezhnye Chelny), a monument in Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia 
Mother Motherland (Pavlovsk), a memorial complex, Pavlovsk, Russia  Motherland Monument (Matveev Kurgan)
?. ?. (1999). ? ? (XI--XX ?). ?. pp. 35-46.
^ Harald Haarmann,
The soul of Mother Russia: Russian Symbols and Pre-Russian Cultural Identity, ReVision Archived 2016-04-09 at the Wayback Machine, June 22, 2000 (retrieved May 2, 2016)
Figes, Orlando (2002). Natasha's Dance: a cultural history of Russia. New York: Metropolitan Books. p. 321. ISBN . 9780805057836 [...] the goddess known as Mokosh, from whom the myth of 'Mother Russia' was conceived.
. ? -- ." , ? " -- ? -- ? ? ? ? ? ? ?. , , ? . ?, ? ? ? ? ? ? ?. ? ? ?
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-24 . Retrieved . CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
Further reading Ellen Rutten, Unattainable Bride Russia: Gendering Nation, State, and Intelligentsia in Russian Intellectual Culture, 2010, ISBN 0810126567. The book discusses personifications of Russia as a bride in 20th century Russian literature and art.