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A mirror reflecting a vase
Mirror, 1685-1700, oak veneered with ebony, 167.6 x 99.1 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
A first surface mirror coated with aluminum and enhanced with dielectric coatings. The angle of the incident light (represented by both the light in the mirror and the shadow behind it) matches the exact angle of reflection (the reflected light shining on the table).

A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection. This is different from other light-reflecting objects that do not preserve much of the original wave signal other than color and diffuse reflected light, such as flat-white paint.

The most familiar type of mirror is the plane mirror, which has a flat surface. Curved mirrors are also used, to produce magnified or diminished images or focus light or simply distort the reflected image.

Mirrors are commonly used for personal grooming, viewing oneself (where they are also called looking-glasses), viewing the area behind and on the sides on motor vehicles while driving, for decoration, and architecture. They are often used by technicians, mechanics and dentists for viewing around and behind obstructions. Mirrors are also used in scientific apparatus such as telescopes and lasers, cameras, and industrial machinery. Most mirrors are designed for visible light; however, mirrors designed for other wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are also used.

Types of glass mirrors

There are many types of glass mirrors, each representing a different manufacturing process and reflection type.

An aluminium glass mirror is made of a float glass manufactured using vacuum coating, i.e. aluminium powder is evaporated (or "sputtered") onto the exposed surface of the glass in a vacuum chamber and then coated with two or more layers of waterproof protective paint.[]

A low aluminium glass mirror is manufactured by coating silver and two layers of protective paint on the back surface of glass. A low aluminium glass mirror is very clear, light transmissive, smooth, and reflects accurate natural colors. This type of glass is widely used for framing presentations and exhibitions in which a precise color representation of the artwork is truly essential or when the background color of the frame is predominantly white.[]

A safety glass mirror is made by adhering a special protective film to the back surface of a silver glass mirror, which prevents injuries in case the mirror is broken. This kind of mirror is used for furniture, doors, glass walls, commercial shelves, or public areas.[]

A silkscreen printed glass mirror is produced using inorganic color ink that prints patterns through a special screen onto glass. Various colors, patterns, and glass shapes are available. Such a glass mirror is durable and more moisture resistant than ordinary printed glass and can serve for over 20 years. This type of glass is widely used for decorative purposes (e.g., on mirrors, table tops, doors, windows, kitchen chop boards, etc.).[]

A silver glass mirror is an ordinary mirror, coated on its back surface with silver, which produces images by reflection. This kind of glass mirror is produced by coating a silver, copper film and two or more layers of waterproof paint on the back surface of float glass, which perfectly resists acid and moisture. A silver glass mirror provides clear and actual images, is quite durable, and is widely used for furniture, bathroom and other decorative purposes.[1]

Decorative glass mirrors are usually handcrafted. A variety of shades, shapes and glass thickness are often available.[]


Photographer taking picture of himself in curved mirror at the Universum museum in Mexico City

Shape of a mirror's surface

A beam of light reflects off a mirror at an angle of reflection equal to its angle of incidence (if the size of a mirror is much larger than the wavelength of light). That is, if the beam of light is shining on a mirror's surface, at a ° angle vertically, then it reflects from the point of incidence at a ° angle, vertically in the opposite direction. This law mathematically follows from the interference of a plane wave on a flat boundary (of much larger size than the wavelength).

  • In a plane mirror, a parallel beam of light changes its direction as a whole, while still remaining parallel; the images formed by a plane mirror are virtual images, of the same size as the original object (see mirror image).
  • In a concave mirror, parallel beams of light become a convergent beam, whose rays intersect in the focus of the mirror. Also known as converging mirror
  • In a convex mirror, parallel beams become divergent, with the rays appearing to diverge from a common point of intersection "behind" the mirror.
  • Spherical concave and convex mirrors do not focus parallel rays to a single point due to spherical aberration.[2] However, the ideal of focusing to a point is a commonly used approximation. Parabolic reflectors resolve this, allowing incoming parallel rays (for example, light from a distant star) to be focused to a small spot; almost an ideal point. Parabolic reflectors are not suitable for imaging nearby objects because the light rays are not parallel.

Mirror image

A large convex mirror. Distortions in the image increase with the viewing distance.

Objects viewed in a (plane) mirror will appear laterally inverted (e.g., if one raises one's right hand, the image's left hand will appear to go up in the mirror), but not vertically inverted (in the image a person's head still appears above their body).[3] However, a mirror does not usually "swap" left and right any more than it swaps top and bottom. A mirror typically reverses the forward/backward axis. To be precise, it reverses the object in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface (the normal). Because left and right are defined relative to front-back and top-bottom, the "flipping" of front and back results in the perception of a left-right reversal in the image. (If you stand side-on to a mirror, the mirror really does reverse your left and right, because that's the direction perpendicular to the mirror.)

Looking at an image of oneself with the front-back axis flipped results in the perception of an image with its left-right axis flipped. When reflected in the mirror, your right hand remains directly opposite your real right hand, but it is perceived as the left hand of your image. When a person looks into a mirror, the image is actually front-back reversed, which is an effect similar to the hollow-mask illusion. Notice that a mirror image is fundamentally different from the object and cannot be reproduced by simply rotating the object.

For things that may be considered as two-dimensional objects (like text), front-back reversal cannot usually explain the observed reversal. In the same way that text on a piece of paper appears reversed if held up to a light and viewed from behind, text held facing a mirror will appear reversed, because the observer is behind the text. Another way to understand the reversals observed in images of objects that are effectively two-dimensional is that the inversion of left and right in a mirror is due to the way human beings turn their bodies. To turn from viewing the side of the object facing the mirror to view the reflection in the mirror requires the observer to look in the opposite direction. To look in another direction, human beings turn their heads about a vertical axis. This causes a left-right reversal in the image but not an up-down reversal. If a person instead turns by bending over and looking at the mirror image between their legs, up-down will appear reversed but not left-right. This sort of reversal is simply a change relative to the observer and not a change intrinsic to the image itself, as with a three-dimensional object.


Left: Bronze mirror, New Kingdom of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty, 1540-1296 BC, Cleveland Museum of Art (USA)
Right: seated woman holding a mirror; Ancient Greek Attic red-figure lekythos by the Sabouroff Painter, c. 470-460 BC, National Archaeological Museum, Athens (Greece)
Roman fresco of a woman fixing her hair using a mirror, from Stabiae, Italy, 1st century AD
'Adorning Oneself', detail from 'Admonitions of the Instructress to the Palace Ladies', Tang dynasty copy of an original by Chinese painter Gu Kaizhi, c. 344-405 AD
A sculpture of a lady looking into a mirror, from Halebidu, India, 12th century

The first mirrors used by humans were most likely pools of dark, still water, or water collected in a primitive vessel of some sort. The requirements for making a good mirror are a surface with a very high degree of flatness (preferably but not necessarily with high reflectivity), and a surface roughness smaller than the wavelength of the light. The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass. Examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) have been dated to around 6000 BC.[4] Mirrors of polished copper were crafted in Mesopotamia from 4000 BC,[4] and in ancient Egypt from around 3000 BC.[5] Polished stone mirrors from Central and South America date from around 2000 BC onwards.[4] In China, bronze mirrors were manufactured from around 2000 BC,[6] some of the earliest bronze and copper examples being produced by the Qijia culture. Mirrors made of other metal mixtures (alloys) such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India.[7] Mirrors of speculum metal or any precious metal were hard to produce and were only owned by the wealthy.[8] These stone and metal mirrors could be made in very large sizes, but were difficult to polish and get perfectly flat; a process that became more difficult with increased size; so they often produced warped or blurred images. Stone mirrors often had poor reflectivity compared to metals, yet metals scratch or tarnish easily, so they frequently needed polishing. Depending upon the color, both often yielded reflections with poor color rendering.[9] The poor image quality of ancient mirrors explains 1 Corinthians 13's reference to seeing "as in a mirror, darkly."

In her history of the mirror, Sabine Melchior-Bonnet draws significant attention to the relation of the mirror to Greek philosophy, specifically Socrates:

If well used, however, the mirror can aid moral meditation between man and himself. Socrates, we are told by Diogenes, urged young people to look at themselves in mirrors so that, if they were beautiful, they would become worthy of their beauty, and if they were ugly, they would know how to hide their disgrace through learning. The mirror, a tool by which to "know thyself," invited man to not mistake himself for God, to avoid pride by knowing his limits, and to improve himself. His was thus not a passive mirror of imitation but an active mirror of transformation. (p.106)[10]

Glass was a desirable material for mirrors. Stones and metals consist of small crystals (grains) separated by grain boundaries, so they reflect light as a mosaic of tiny, individual, closely spaced mirrors. Because glass is non-crystalline the surface is naturally smooth and free of grain boundaries, so it produces reflections with very little blur. In addition, glass is very hard and scratch-resistant. However, glass by itself has little reflectivity, so people began coating it with metals to increase the reflectivity. Metal-coated glass mirrors are said by the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder to have been invented in Sidon (modern-day Lebanon) in the first century AD, although no archeological evidence of them date from before the third century.[11] According to Pliny, the people of Sidon developed a technique for creating crude mirrors by coating blown glass with molten lead.[12][13] Glass mirrors backed with gold leaf are mentioned by Pliny in his Natural History, written in about 77 AD.[14] Because there were few ways to make a smooth piece of glass with a uniform thickness, these ancient glass-mirrors were made by blowing a glass bubble, and then cutting off a small, circular section, producing mirrors that were either concave or convex. These circular mirrors were typically small, from five to eight inches (13-20 cm) in diameter.[15] These small mirrors produced distorted images, yet were prized objects of high value. These ancient glass mirrors were very thin, thus very fragile, because the glass needed to be extremely thin to prevent cracking when coated with a hot, molten metal. Due to the poor quality, high cost, and small size of these ancient glass mirrors, solid metal-mirrors primarily of steel were usually preferred until the late nineteenth century.[16]

Parabolic mirrors were described and studied in classical antiquity by the mathematician Diocles in his work On Burning Mirrors.[17]Ptolemy conducted a number of experiments with curved polished iron mirrors,[18] and discussed plane, convex spherical, and concave spherical mirrors in his Optics.[19]Parabolic mirrors were also described by the physicist Ibn Sahl in the tenth century,[20] and Ibn al-Haytham discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries,[21] carried out a number of experiments with mirrors, and solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point.[22] By the 11th century, glass mirrors were being produced in Moorish Spain.[23]

In China, people began making mirrors by coating metallic objects with silver-mercury amalgams as early as 500 AD. This was accomplished by coating the mirror with the amalgam, and then heating it until the mercury boiled away, leaving only the silver behind.[24]

The problems of making metal-coated, glass mirrors were due to the difficulties in making glass that was very clear, as most ancient glass was tinted green from iron or other colors from various metallic-impurities. Lack of adequate heating temperatures also produced glass that was clouded with microscopic bubbles, so most ancient glass was typically translucent rather than transparent, and used mostly as jewelry until the advent of glass blowing around the first century.[25] These problems were overcome when people began mixing soda, limestone, potash, manganese, and fern ashes with the glass sometime around the 1600s, which lowered the melting temperature needed and augmented the natural iron-impurities, forming soda-lime glass. There was also no way for the ancients to make flat panes of glass with uniform thicknesses. The earliest methods for producing glass panes began in France, when people began blowing glass bubbles, and then spinning them rapidly to flatten them out into plates from which pieces could be cut. However, these pieces were still not uniform in thickness, so produced distorted images as well. A better method was to blow a cylinder of glass, cut off the ends, slice it down the center, and unroll it onto a flat hearth. This method produced the first mirror-quality glass panes, but it was very difficult and resulted in a lot of breakage. Even windows were primarily made of oiled paper or stained glass, until the mid-nineteenth century, due to the high cost of making clear, flat panes of glass.[26]

The method of making flat panes of clear glass from blown cylinders began in Germany and evolved through the Middle Ages, until being perfected by the Venetians in the sixteenth century. The Venetians began using lead glass for its crystal-clarity and its easier workability. Some time during the early Renaissance, European manufacturers perfected a superior method of coating glass with a tin-mercury amalgam, producing an amorphous coating with better reflectivity than crystalline metals and causing little thermal shock to the glass.[27] The exact date and location of the discovery is unknown, but in the sixteenth century, Venice, a city famed for its glass-making expertise, became a center of mirror production using this new technique. Glass mirrors from this period were extremely expensive luxuries.[28] For example, in the late seventeenth century, the Countess de Fiesque was reported to have traded an entire wheat farm for a mirror, considering it a bargain. These Venetian mirrors were limited in size to a maximum area of around 40 inches (100 cm) square, until the invention of the ribbon machine that allowed modern glass panes to be produced in bulk, during the late Industrial Revolution.[29] The Saint-Gobain factory, founded by royal initiative in France, was an important manufacturer, and Bohemian and German glass, often rather cheaper, was also important.

The invention of the silvered-glass mirror is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in 1835.[30] His process involved the deposition of a thin layer of metallic silver onto glass through the chemical reduction of silver nitrate. This silvering process was adapted for mass manufacturing and led to the greater availability of affordable mirrors. In the modern age, mirrors are often produced by the wet deposition of silver, or sometimes nickel or chromium (the latter used most often in automotive mirrors) via electroplating directly onto the glass substrate.[31]

Vacuum deposition began with the study of the sputtering phenomenon during the 1920s and 1930s, which was a common problem in gas discharge lamps in which metal ejected from the electrodes coated the glass, blocking output. However, turning sputtering into a reliable method of coating a mirror did not occur until the invention of semiconductors in the 1970s. Evaporation coating, pioneered by Pohl and Pringsheim in 1912, resulted from a similar problem in incandescent light bulbs in which the filament would slowly sublimate when heated in a vacuum, coating the cooler glass surface. Aluminum was a desirable material for mirrors, but was too dangerous to apply with electroplating. John D. Strong used evaporation coating to make the first aluminum telescope mirrors in the 1930s.[32] The first dielectric mirror was created in 1937 by Auwarter using evaporated rhodium, while the first metallic mirror to be enhanced with a dielectric coating of silicon dioxide was created by Hass the same year. In 1939 at the Schott Glass company, Walter Geffcken invented the first dielectric mirrors to use multilayer coatings (stacks).[33]


Four different mirrors, showing the difference in reflectivity. Clockwise from upper left: dielectric (80%), aluminum (85%), chrome (25%), and enhanced silver (99.9%). All are first-surface mirrors except the chrome mirror. The dielectric mirror reflects yellow light from the first-surface, but acts like an antireflection coating to purple light, thus produced a ghost reflection of the lightbulb from the second-surface.
A dielectric mirror-stack works on the principle of thin-film interference. Each layer has a different refractive index, allowing each interface to produce a small amount of reflection. When the thickness of the layers is proportional to the chosen wavelength, the multiple reflections constructively interfere. Stacks may consist of a few to hundreds of individual coats.

Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate.[34] The most common substrate is glass, due to its transparency, ease of fabrication, rigidity, hardness, and ability to take a smooth finish. The reflective coating is typically applied to the back surface of the glass, so that the reflecting side of the coating is protected from corrosion and accidental damage by the glass on one side and the coating itself and optional paint for further protection on the other.

In classical antiquity, mirrors were made of solid metal (bronze, later silver)[35] and were generally too expensive for use by common people, although during the Roman Empire even maid servants used widespread silver mirrors;[36] they were also prone to corrosion. Due to the low reflectivity of polished metal, these mirrors also gave a darker image than modern ones, making them unsuitable for indoor use with the artificial lighting of the time (candles or lanterns).[]

The method of making mirrors out of plate glass was invented by 13th-century Venetian glassmakers on the island of Murano, who covered the back of the glass with an amorphous coat of tin using a fire-gilding technique, obtaining near-perfect and undistorted reflection. For over one hundred years, Venetian mirrors installed in richly decorated frames served as luxury decorations for palaces throughout Europe, but the secret of the mercury process eventually arrived in London and Paris during the 17th century, due to industrial espionage. French workshops succeeded in large-scale industrialization of the process, eventually making mirrors affordable to the masses, although mercury's toxicity (a primary ingredient in gilding, which was boiled away forming noxious vapors) remained a problem.[37]

In modern times, the mirror substrate is shaped, polished and cleaned, and is then coated. Glass mirrors are most often coated with silver[38] or aluminium,[39] implemented by a series of coatings:[]

  1. Tin(II) chloride
  2. Silver
  3. Chemical activator
  4. Copper
  5. Paint

The tin(II) chloride is applied because silver will not bond with the glass. The activator causes the tin/silver to harden. Copper is added for long-term durability.[40] The paint protects the coating on the back of the mirror from scratches[41] and other accidental damage.

In some applications, generally those that are cost-sensitive or that require great durability, such as for mounting in a prison cell, mirrors may be made from a single, bulk material such as polished metal. However, metals consist of small crystals (grains) separated by grain boundaries. Thus, crystalline metals do not reflect with perfect uniformity.[42] Other methods like wet-deposition or electroplating produce a non-crystalline coating of amorphous metal (metallic glass). Lacking any grain boundaries, the amorphous coatings have higher reflectivity than crystalline metals of the same type. Electroplating must be performed by first coating the glass with carbon, to make the surface electrically conductive, thus the adhesion is often not as good as with wet-deposition. Both lack the ability to produce perfectly uniform thicknesses with high precision.[43] When high precision or reflectivity is not a requirement, the coating may be placed on the back of the mirror so that the light passes through the glass, and the coating is the second surface it encounters. Therefore, these are called second-surface mirrors, which have the added benefit of high durability, because the glass substrate can protect the coating from damage.[44]

For technical applications such as laser mirrors, the reflective coating is typically applied by vacuum deposition. Vacuum deposition provides an effective means of producing a very uniform coating, and controlling the thickness with high precision.[33] In applications where great precision and low losses are required, the coated side of the mirror may be the first material encountered by the light, referred to as a first-surface mirror. This eliminates refraction and double reflections, also called "ghost reflections" (a weak reflection from the surface of the glass, and a stronger one from the reflecting metal), and reduces absorption of light by the mirror.[45] Technical mirrors may use a silver, aluminium, or gold coating (the latter typically for infrared mirrors), and achieve reflectivities of 90-95% when new. A hard, protective, transparent overcoat may be applied to prevent oxidation of the reflective layer and scratching of the soft metal.

Applications requiring higher reflectivity or greater durability, where wide bandwidth is not essential, use dielectric coatings, which can achieve reflectivities as high as 99.997% over a limited range of wavelengths. Because they are often chemically stable and do not conduct electricity, dielectric coatings are almost always applied by methods of vacuum deposition, and most commonly by evaporation deposition. Because the coatings are usually transparent, absorption losses are negligible. Unlike with metals, the reflectivity of the individual dielectric-coatings is a function of Snell's law known as the Fresnel equations, determined by the difference in refractive index between layers. Therefore, the thickness and index of the coatings can be adjusted to be centered on any wavelength. Vacuum deposition can be achieved in a number of ways, including sputtering, evaporation deposition, arc deposition, reactive-gas deposition, and ion plating, among many others.[46]


Polishing the primary mirror for the Hubble Space Telescope. A deviation in the surface quality of approximately 4? resulted in poor images initially, which was eventually compensated for using corrective optics.
A dielectric, laser output-coupler that is 75-80% reflective between 500 and 600 nm. Left: The mirror is highly reflective to yellow and green but highly transmissive to red and blue. Right: The mirror transmits 25% of the 589 nm laser light. Because the smoke particles diffract more light than they reflect, the beam appears much brighter when reflecting back toward the observer.
Flatness errors, like rippled dunes across the surface, produced these artifacts, distortion, and low image quality in the far field reflection of a household mirror.

Mirrors can be manufactured to a wide range of engineering tolerances, including reflectivity, surface quality, surface roughness, or transmissivity, depending on the desired application. These tolerances can range from low, such as found in a normal household-mirror, to extremely high, like those used in lasers or telescopes. Increasing the tolerances allows better and more precise imaging or beam transmission over longer distances. In imaging systems this can help reduce anomalies (artifacts), distortion or blur, but at a much higher cost. Where viewing distances are relatively close or high precision is not a concern, lower tolerances can be used to make effective mirrors at affordable costs.


The reflectivity of a mirror is determined by the percentage of reflected light per the total of the incident light. The reflectivity may vary with wavelength. All or a portion of the light not reflected is absorbed by the mirror, while in some cases a portion may also transmit through. Although some small portion of the light will be absorbed by the coating, the reflectivity is usually higher for first-surface mirrors, eliminating both reflection and absorption losses from the substrate. The reflectivity is often determined by the type and thickness of the coating. When the thickness of the coating is sufficient to prevent transmission, all of the losses occur due to absorption. Aluminum is harder, less expensive, and more resistant to tarnishing than silver, and will reflect 85 to 90% of the light in the visible to near-ultraviolet range, but experiences a drop in its reflectance between 800 and 900 nm. Gold is very soft and easily scratched, costly, yet does not tarnish. Gold is greater than 96% reflective to near and far-infrared light between 800 and 12000 nm, but poorly reflects visible light with wavelengths shorter than 600 nm (yellow). Silver is expensive, soft, and quickly tarnishes, but has the highest reflectivity in the visual to near-infrared of any metal. Silver can reflect up to 98 or 99% of light to wavelengths as long as 2000 nm, but loses nearly all reflectivity at wavelengths shorter than 350 nm. Dielectric mirrors can reflect greater than 99.99% of light, but only for a narrow range of wavelengths, ranging from a bandwidth of only 10 nm to as wide as 100 nm for tunable lasers. However, dielectric coatings can also enhance the reflectivity of metallic coatings and protect them from scratching or tarnishing. Dielectric materials are typically very hard and relatively cheap, however the number of coats needed generally makes it an expensive process. In mirrors with low tolerances, the coating thickness may be reduced to save cost, and simply covered with paint to absorb transmission.[47]

Surface quality

Surface quality, or surface accuracy, measures the deviations from a perfect, ideal surface shape. Increasing the surface quality reduces distortion, artifacts, and aberration in images, and helps increase coherence, collimation, and reduce unwanted divergence in beams. For plane mirrors, this is often described in terms of flatness, while other surface shapes are compared to an ideal shape. The surface quality is typically measured with items like interferometers or optical flats, and are usually measured in wavelengths of light (?). These deviations can be much larger or much smaller than the surface roughness. A normal household-mirror made with float glass may have flatness tolerances as low as 9-14? per inch (25.4 mm), equating to a deviation of 5600 through 8800 nanometers from perfect flatness. Precision ground and polished mirrors intended for lasers or telescopes may have tolerances as high as ?/50 (1/50 of the wavelength of the light, or around 12 nm) across the entire surface.[48][47] The surface quality can be affected by factors such as temperature changes, internal stress in the substrate, or even bending effects that occur when combining materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion, similar to a bimetallic strip.[49]

Surface roughness

Surface roughness describes the texture of the surface, often in terms of the depth of the microscopic scratches left by the polishing operations. Surface roughness determines how much of the reflection is specular and how much diffuses, controlling how sharp or blurry the image will be.

For perfectly specular reflection, the surface roughness must be kept smaller than the wavelength of the light. Microwaves, which sometimes have a wavelength greater than an inch (~25 mm) can reflect specularly off a metal screen-door, continental ice-sheets, or desert sand, while visible light, having wavelengths of only a few hundred nanometers (a few hundred-thousandths of an inch), must meet a very smooth surface to produce specular reflection. For wavelengths that are approaching or are even shorter than the diameter of the atoms, such as X-rays, specular reflection can only be produced by surfaces that are at a grazing incidence from the rays.

Surface roughness is typically measured in microns, wavelength, or grit size, with ~80,000-100,000 grit or ~½?-¼? being "optical quality".[50][47][51]


Transmissivity is determined by the percentage of light transmitted per the incident light. Transmissivity is usually the same from both first and second surfaces. The combined transmitted and reflected light, subtracted from the incident light, measures the amount absorbed by both the coating and substrate. For transmissive mirrors, such as one-way mirrors, beam splitters, or laser output couplers, the transmissivity of the mirror is an important consideration. The transmissivity of metallic coatings are often determined by their thickness. For precision beam-splitters or output couplers, the thickness of the coating must be kept at very high tolerances to transmit the proper amount of light. For dielectric mirrors, the thickness of the coat must always be kept to high tolerances, but it is often more the number of individual coats that determine the transmissivity. For the substrate, the material used must also have good transmissivity to the chosen wavelengths. Glass is a suitable substrate for most visible-light applications, but other substrates such as zinc selenide or synthetic sapphire may be used for infrared or ultraviolet wavelengths.[52]


Wedge errors are caused by the deviation of the surfaces from perfect parallelism. An optical wedge is the angle formed between two plane-surfaces (or between the principle planes of curved surfaces) due to manufacturing errors or limitations, causing one edge of the mirror to be slightly thicker than the other. Nearly all mirrors and optics with parallel faces have some slight degree of wedge, which is usually measured in seconds or minutes of arc. For first-surface mirrors, wedges can introduce alignment deviations in mounting hardware. For second-surface or transmissive mirrors, wedges can have a prismatic effect on the light, deviating its trajectory or, to a very slight degree, its color, causing chromatic and other forms of aberration. In some instances, a slight wedge is desirable, such as in certain laser systems where stray reflections from the uncoated surface are better dispersed than reflected back through the medium.[53][54]

Surface defects

Surface defects are small-scale, discontinuous imperfections in the surface smoothness. Surface defects are larger (in some cases much larger) than the surface roughness, but only affect small, localized portions of the entire surface. These are typically found as scratches, digs, pits (often from bubbles in the glass), sleeks (scratches from prior, larger grit polishing operations that were not fully removed by subsequent polishing grits), edge chips, or blemishes in the coating. These defects are often an unavoidable side-effect of manufacturing limitations, both in cost and machine precision. If kept low enough, in most applications these defects will rarely have any adverse effect, unless the surface is located at an image plane where they will show up directly. For applications that require extremely low scattering of light, extremely high reflectance, or low absorption due to high energy-levels that could destroy the mirror, such as lasers or Fabry-Perot interferometers, the surface defects must be kept to a minimum.[55]


A cheval glass
Reflections in a spherical convex mirror. The photographer is seen at top right.
A side-mirror on a racing car
Rear view mirror

Personal grooming

Mirrors are commonly used as aids to personal grooming.[56] They may range from small sizes, good to carry with oneself, to full body sized; they may be handheld, mobile, fixed or adjustable. A classic example of the latter is the cheval glass, which may be tilted.

Safety and easier viewing

Convex mirrors
Convex mirrors provide a wider field of view than flat mirrors,[57] and are often used on vehicles,[58] especially large trucks, to minimize blind spots. They are sometimes placed at road junctions, and corners of sites such as parking lots to allow people to see around corners to avoid crashing into other vehicles or shopping carts. They are also sometimes used as part of security systems, so that a single video camera can show more than one angle at a time.[] Convex mirrors as decoration are used in interior design to provide a predominantly experiential effect.[59]
Mouth mirrors or "dental mirrors"
Mouth mirrors or "dental mirrors" are used by dentists to allow indirect vision and lighting within the mouth. Their reflective surfaces may be either flat or curved.[60] Mouth mirrors are also commonly used by mechanics to allow vision in tight spaces and around corners in equipment.
Rear-view mirrors
Rear-view mirrors are widely used in and on vehicles (such as automobiles, or bicycles), to allow drivers to see other vehicles coming up behind them.[61] On rear-view sunglasses, the left end of the left glass and the right end of the right glass work as mirrors.

One-way mirrors and windows

One-way mirrors
One-way mirrors (also called two-way mirrors) work by overwhelming dim transmitted light with bright reflected light.[62] A true one-way mirror that actually allows light to be transmitted in one direction only without requiring external energy is not possible as it violates the second law of thermodynamics.[]:
One-way windows
One-way windows can be made to work with polarized light in the laboratory without violating the second law. This is an apparent paradox that stumped some great physicists, although it does not allow a practical one-way mirror for use in the real world.[63][64]Optical isolators are one-way devices that are commonly used with lasers.


With the sun as light source, a mirror can be used to signal by variations in the orientation of the mirror. The signal can be used over long distances, possibly up to 60 kilometres (37 mi) on a clear day. This technique was used by Native American tribes and numerous militaries to transmit information between distant outposts.

Mirrors can also be used for search to attract the attention of search and rescue parties. Specialized type of mirrors are available and are often included in military survival kits.


Televisions and projectors

Microscopic mirrors are a core element of many of the largest high-definition televisions and video projectors. A common technology of this type is Texas Instruments' DLP. A DLP chip is a postage stamp-sized microchip whose surface is an array of millions of microscopic mirrors. The picture is created as the individual mirrors move to either reflect light toward the projection surface (pixel on), or toward a light absorbing surface (pixel off).

Other projection technologies involving mirrors include LCoS. Like a DLP chip, LCoS is a microchip of similar size, but rather than millions of individual mirrors, there is a single mirror that is actively shielded by a liquid crystal matrix with up to millions of pixels. The picture, formed as light, is either reflected toward the projection surface (pixel on), or absorbed by the activated LCD pixels (pixel off). LCoS-based televisions and projectors often use 3 chips, one for each primary color.

Large mirrors are used in rear projection televisions. Light (for example from a DLP as mentioned above) is "folded" by one or more mirrors so that the television set is compact.

Solar power

Parabolic troughs near Harper Lake in California

Mirrors are integral parts of a solar power plant. The one shown in the adjacent picture uses concentrated solar power from an array of parabolic troughs.[65]


E-ELT mirror segments under test

Telescopes and other precision instruments use front silvered or first surface mirrors, where the reflecting surface is placed on the front (or first) surface of the glass (this eliminates reflection from glass surface ordinary back mirrors have). Some of them use silver, but most are aluminium, which is more reflective at short wavelengths than silver. All of these coatings are easily damaged and require special handling. They reflect 90% to 95% of the incident light when new. The coatings are typically applied by vacuum deposition. A protective overcoat is usually applied before the mirror is removed from the vacuum, because the coating otherwise begins to corrode as soon as it is exposed to oxygen and humidity in the air. Front silvered mirrors have to be resurfaced occasionally to keep their quality. There are optical mirrors such as mangin mirrors that are second surface mirrors (reflective coating on the rear surface) as part of their optical designs, usually to correct optical aberrations.[66]

Deformable thin-shell mirror. It is 1120 millimetres across but just 2 millimetres thick, making it much thinner than most glass windows.[67]

The reflectivity of the mirror coating can be measured using a reflectometer and for a particular metal it will be different for different wavelengths of light. This is exploited in some optical work to make cold mirrors and hot mirrors. A cold mirror is made by using a transparent substrate and choosing a coating material that is more reflective to visible light and more transmissive to infrared light.

A hot mirror is the opposite, the coating preferentially reflects infrared. Mirror surfaces are sometimes given thin film overcoatings both to retard degradation of the surface and to increase their reflectivity in parts of the spectrum where they will be used. For instance, aluminum mirrors are commonly coated with silicon dioxide or magnesium fluoride. The reflectivity as a function of wavelength depends on both the thickness of the coating and on how it is applied.

A dielectric coated mirror used in a dye laser. The mirror is over 99% reflective at 550 nanometers, (yellow), but will allow most other colors to pass through.
A dielectric mirror used in tunable lasers. With a center wavelength of 600 nm and bandwidth of 100 nm, the coating is totally reflective to the orange construction paper, but only reflects the reddish hues from the blue paper.

For scientific optical work, dielectric mirrors are often used. These are glass (or sometimes other material) substrates on which one or more layers of dielectric material are deposited, to form an optical coating. By careful choice of the type and thickness of the dielectric layers, the range of wavelengths and amount of light reflected from the mirror can be specified. The best mirrors of this type can reflect >99.999% of the light (in a narrow range of wavelengths) which is incident on the mirror. Such mirrors are often used in lasers.

In astronomy, adaptive optics is a technique to measure variable image distortions and adapt a deformable mirror accordingly on a timescale of milliseconds, to compensate for the distortions.

Although most mirrors are designed to reflect visible light, surfaces reflecting other forms of electromagnetic radiation are also called "mirrors". The mirrors for other ranges of electromagnetic waves are used in optics and astronomy. Mirrors for radio waves (sometimes known as reflectors) are important elements of radio telescopes.

Face-to-face mirrors

Two or more mirrors aligned exactly parallel and facing each other can give an infinite regress of reflections, called an infinity mirror effect. Some devices use this to generate multiple reflections:

Military applications

It has been said that Archimedes used a large array of mirrors to burn Roman ships during an attack on Syracuse. This has never been proven or disproved. On the TV show MythBusters, a team from MIT tried to recreate the famous "Archimedes Death Ray". They were unsuccessful at starting a fire on the ship.[70] Previous attempts to light the boat on fire using only the bronze mirrors available in Archimedes' time were unsuccessful, and the time taken to ignite the craft would have made its use impractical, resulting in the MythBusters team deeming the myth "busted". It was however found that the mirrors made it very difficult for the passengers of the targeted boat to see, likely helping to cause their defeat, which may have been the origin of the myth. (See solar power tower for a practical use of this technique.)

Seasonal lighting

A multi-facet mirror in the Kibble Palace conservatory, Glasgow, Scotland

Due to its location in a steep-sided valley, the Italian town of Viganella gets no direct sunlight for seven weeks each winter. In 2006 a EUR100,000 computer-controlled mirror, 8×5 m, was installed to reflect sunlight into the town's piazza. In early 2007 the similarly situated village of Bondo, Switzerland, was considering applying this solution as well.[71][72] In 2013, mirrors were installed to reflect sunlight into the town square in the Norwegian town of Rjukan.[73] Mirrors can be used to produce enhanced lighting effects in greenhouses or conservatories.


Mirrored building in Manhattan - 2008
Trump International Hotel and Tower reflects the skyline along the Chicago River in downtown Chicago

Mirrors are a popular design theme in architecture, particularly with late modern and post-modernist high-rise buildings in major cities. Early examples include the Campbell Center in Dallas, which opened in 1972,[74] and the John Hancock Tower in Boston.

More recently, two skyscrapers designed by architect Rafael Viñoly, the Vdara in Las Vegas and 20 Fenchurch Street in London, have experienced unusual problems due to their concave curved glass exteriors acting as respectively cylindrical and spherical reflectors for sunlight. In 2010, the Las Vegas Review Journal reported that sunlight reflected off the Vdara's south-facing tower could singe swimmers in the hotel pool, as well as melting plastic cups and shopping bags; employees of the hotel referred to the phenomenon as the "Vdara death ray",[75] aka the "fryscraper." In 2013, sunlight reflecting off 20 Fenchurch Street melted parts of a Jaguar car parked nearby and scorching or igniting the carpet of a nearby barber shop.[76] This building had been nicknamed the "walkie-talkie" because its shape was supposedly similar to a certain model of two-way radio; but after its tendency to overheat surrounding objects became known, the nickname changed to the "walkie-scorchie."

Fine art


Painters depicting someone gazing into a mirror often also show the person's reflection. This is a kind of abstraction--in most cases the angle of view is such that the person's reflection should not be visible. Similarly, in movies and still photography an actor or actress is often shown ostensibly looking at him- or herself in the mirror, and yet the reflection faces the camera. In reality, the actor or actress sees only the camera and its operator in this case, not their own reflection. In the psychology of perception, this is known as the Venus effect.

The mirror is the central device in some of the greatest of European paintings:

Mirrors have been used by artists to create works and hone their craft:

  • Filippo Brunelleschi discovered linear perspective with the help of the mirror.[77]
  • Leonardo da Vinci called the mirror the "master of painters". He recommended, "When you wish to see whether your whole picture accords with what you have portrayed from nature take a mirror and reflect the actual object in it. Compare what is reflected with your painting and carefully consider whether both likenesses of the subject correspond, particularly in regard to the mirror."[78]
  • Many self-portraits are made possible through the use of mirrors, such as the great self-portraits by Dürer, Frida Kahlo, Rembrandt, and Van Gogh. M. C. Escher used special shapes of mirrors in order to achieve a much more complete view of his surroundings than by direct observation in Hand with Reflecting Sphere (also known as Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror).

Mirrors are sometimes necessary to fully appreciate art work:

  • István Orosz's anamorphic works are images distorted such that they only become clearly visible when reflected in a suitably shaped and positioned mirror.[79]


Mirrors in interior design: "Waiting room in the house of M.me B.", Art Deco project by Italian architect Arnaldo dell'Ira, Rome, 1939.

Contemporary anamorphic artist Jonty Hurwitz uses cylindrical mirrors to project distorted sculptures.[80]

Other artistic mediums

Grove Of Mirrors by Hilary Arnold Baker, Romsey

Some other contemporary artists use mirrors as the material of art:

  • A Chinese magic mirror is an art in which the face of the bronze mirror projects the same image that was cast on its back. This is due to minute curvatures on its front.[81]
  • Specular holography uses a large number of curved mirrors embedded in a surface to produce three-dimensional imagery.
  • Paintings on mirror surfaces (such as silkscreen printed glass mirrors)
  • Special mirror installations
    • Follow Me mirror labyrinth by artist, Jeppe Hein (see also, Entertainment: Mirror mazes, below)
    • Mirror Neon Cube by artist, Jeppe Hein

Religious Function of the real and depicted mirror

In the Middle Ages mirrors existed in various shapes for multiple uses. Mostly they were used as an accessory for personal hygiene but also as tokens of courtly love, made from ivory in the ivory carving centers in Paris, Cologne and the Southern Netherlands.[82] They also had their uses in religious contexts as they were integrated in a special form of pilgrims badges or pewter/lead mirror boxes[83] since the late 14th century. Burgundian ducal inventories show us that the dukes owned a mass of mirrors or objects with mirrors, not only with religious iconography or inscriptions, but combined with reliquaries, religious paintings or other objects that were distinctively used for personal piety.[84] Considering mirrors in paintings and book illumination as depicted artifacts and trying to draw conclusions about their functions from their depicted setting, one of these functions is to be an aid in personal prayer to achieve self-knowledge and knowledge of God, in accord with contemporary theological sources. E.g. the famous Arnolfini-Wedding by Jan van Eyck shows a constellation of objects that can be recognized as one which would allow a praying man to use them for his personal piety: the mirror surrounded by scenes of the Passion to reflect on it and on oneself, a rosary as a device in this process, the veiled and cushioned bench to use as a prie-dieu, and the abandoned shoes that point in the direction in which the praying man kneeled.[85] The metaphorical meaning of depicted mirrors is complex and many-layered, e.g. as an attribute of Mary, the "speculum sine macula", or as attributes of scholarly and theological wisdom and knowledge as they appear in book illuminations of different evangelists and authors of theological treatises. Depicted mirrors - orientated on the physical properties of a real mirror - can be seen as metaphors of knowledge and reflection and are thus able to remind the beholder to reflect and get to know himself. The mirror may function simultaneously as a symbol and a device of a moral appeal. That is also the case if it is shown in combination with virtues and vices, a combination which also occurs more frequently in the 15th century: The moralizing layers of mirror metaphors remind the beholder to examine himself thoroughly according to his own virtuous or vicious life. This is all the more true if the mirror is combined with iconography of death. Not only is Death as a corpse or skeleton holding the mirror for the still living personnel of paintings, illuminations and prints, but the skull appears on the convex surfaces of depicted mirrors, showing the painted and real beholder his future face.[86]


Chimneypiece and overmantel mirror, c. 1750 V&A Museum no. 738:1 to 3-1897
Glasses with mirrors - Prezi HQ
A bar mirror bearing the logo of Dunville's Whiskey.

Mirrors are frequently used in interior decoration and as ornaments:

  • Mirrors, typically large and unframed, are frequently used in interior decoration to create an illusion of space and amplify the apparent size of a room.[87] They come also framed in a variety of forms, such as the pier glass and the overmantel mirror.
  • Mirrors are used also in some schools of feng shui, an ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space to achieve harmony with the environment.
  • The softness of old mirrors is sometimes replicated by contemporary artisans for use in interior design. These reproduction antiqued mirrors are works of art and can bring color and texture to an otherwise hard, cold reflective surface. It is an artistic process that has been attempted by many and perfected by few.[]
  • A decorative reflecting sphere of thin metal-coated glass, working as a reducing wide-angle mirror, is sold as a Christmas ornament called a bauble.
  • Some pubs and bars hang mirrors depicting the logo of a brand of liquor, beer or drinking establishment.


  • Illuminated rotating disco balls covered with small mirrors are used to cast moving spots of light around a dance floor.
  • The hall of mirrors, commonly found in amusement parks, is an attraction in which a number of distorting mirrors are used to produce unusual reflections of the visitor.
  • Mirrors are employed in kaleidoscopes, personal entertainment devices invented in Scotland by Sir David Brewster.
  • Mirrors are often used in magic to create an illusion. One effect is called Pepper's ghost.
  • Mirror mazes, often found in amusement parks as well, contain large numbers of mirrors and sheets of glass. The idea is to navigate the disorientating array without bumping into the walls. Mirrors in attractions like this are often made of Plexiglas as to assure that they do not break.[88]

Film and television

  • Candyman is a horror film about a malevolent spirit summoned by speaking its name in front of a mirror.
  • Mirrors is a horror film about haunted mirrors that reflect different scenes than those in front of them.
  • Poltergeist III features mirrors that do not reflect reality and which can be used as portals to the afterlife.
  • Oculus is a horror film about a haunted mirror that causes people to hallucinate and commit acts of violence.
  • The 10th Kingdom miniseries requires the characters to use a magic mirror to travel between New York City (the 10th Kingdom) and the Nine Kingdoms of fairy tale.


An illustration from page 30 of Mjallhvít (Snow White) an 1852 Icelandic translation of the Grimm-version fairytale
Taijitu within a frame of trigrams and a demon warding mirror. These charms are believed to frighten away evil spirits and to protect the dwelling from bad luck

Mirrors play a powerful role in cultural literature.

  • Christian Bible passages, 1 Corinthians 13:12 ("Through a Glass Darkly") and 2 Corinthians 3:18, reference a dim mirror image or poor mirror reflection.
  • Narcissus of Greek mythology wastes away while gazing, self-admiringly, at his reflection in water.
  • The Song dynasty history Zizhi Tongjian Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance by Sima Guang is so titled because "mirror" (?, jiàn) is used metaphorically in Chinese to refer to gaining insight by reflecting on past experience or history.
  • In the European fairy tale, Snow White (collected by the Brothers Grimm in 1812), the evil queen asks, "Mirror, mirror, on the wall... who's the fairest of them all?"
  • In Alfred, Lord Tennyson's famous poem The Lady of Shalott (1833, revised in 1842), the titular character possesses a mirror that enables her to look out on the people of Camelot, as she is under a curse that prevents her from seeing Camelot directly.
  • Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale The Snow Queen, in which the devil, in a form of an evil troll,[89] has made a magic mirror that distorts the appearance of everything that it reflects.
  • Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There (1871) is one of the best-loved uses of mirrors in literature. The text itself utilizes a narrative that mirrors that of its predecessor, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.[90]
  • In Oscar Wilde's novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890), a portrait serves as a magical mirror that reflects the true visage of the perpetually youthful protagonist, as well as the effect on his soul of each sinful act.[91][92]
  • The short story Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius by Jorge Luis Borges begins with the phrase "I owe the discovery of Uqbar to the conjunction of a mirror and an encyclopedia" and contains other references to mirrors.
  • The Trap, a short story by H.P. Lovecraft and Henry S. Whitehead, centers around a mirror. "It was on a certain Thursday morning in December that the whole thing began with that unaccountable motion I thought I saw in my antique Copenhagen mirror. Something, it seemed to me, stirred--something reflected in the glass, though I was alone in my quarters."[93]
  • The magical objects in the Harry Potter series (1997-2011) include the Mirror of Erised and two-way mirrors.
  • Under Appendix: Variant Planes & Cosmologies of the Dungeons & Dragons Manual Of The Planes (2000), is The Plane of Mirrors (page 204).[94] It describes the Plane of Mirrors as a space existing behind reflective surfaces, and experienced by visitors as a long corridor. The greatest danger to visitors upon entering the plane is the instant creation of a mirror-self with the opposite alignment of the original visitor.
  • The Mirror Thief, a novel by Martin Seay (2016),[95] includes a fictional account of industrial espionage surrounding mirror manufacturing in 16th century Venice.
  • The Reaper's Image, a short story by Stephen King, concerns a rare Elizabethan mirror that displays the Reaper's image when viewed, which symbolises the death of the viewer.
  • Kilgore Trout, a protagonist of Kurt Vonnegut's novel Breakfast of Champions, believes that mirrors are windows to other universes, and refers to them as "leaks," a recurring motif in the book.

Mirrors and animals

Only a few animal species have been shown to have the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror, most of them mammals. Experiments have found that the following animals can pass the mirror test:

Other types of mirrors

4.5-metre (15 ft) high acoustic mirror near Kilnsea Grange, East Yorkshire, UK
A hot mirror used in a camera to reduce red eye

Other types of reflecting device are also called mirrors.

  • Acoustic mirrors are passive devices used to reflect and perhaps to focus sound waves. Acoustic mirrors were used for selective detection of sound waves, especially during World War II. They were used for detection of enemy aircraft, prior to the development of radar. Acoustic mirrors are used for remote probing of the atmosphere; they can be used to form a narrow diffraction-limited beam.[107] They can also be used for underwater imaging.
  • Active mirrors are mirrors that amplify the light they reflect. They are used to make disk lasers.[108] The amplification is typically over a narrow range of wavelengths, and requires an external source of power.
  • Atomic mirrors are devices which reflect matter waves. Usually, atomic mirrors work at grazing incidence. Such mirrors can be used for atomic interferometry and atomic holography. It has been proposed that they can be used for non-destructive imaging systems with nanometer resolution.[109]
  • Cold mirrors are dielectric mirrors that reflect the entire visible light spectrum, while efficiently transmitting infrared wavelengths. These are the converse of hot mirrors.
  • Corner reflectors use three flat mirrors to reflect light back towards its source, they may also be implemented with prisms that reflect using total internal reflection that have no mirror surfaces. They are used for emergency location, and traffic reflectors.
  • Hot mirrors reflect infrared light while allowing visible light to pass. These can be used to separate useful light from unneeded infrared to reduce heating of components in an optical device. They can also be used as dichroic beamsplitters. (Hot mirrors are the converse of cold mirrors.)
  • Metallic reflectors are used to reflect infrared light (such as in space heaters or microwaves).
  • Polished metal mirrors can function in the same way as ordinary glass mirrors (e.g. Sky Mirror).
  • Non-reversing mirrors are mirrors that provide a non-reversed image of their subjects.
  • X-ray mirrors produce specular reflection of X-rays. All known types work only at angles near grazing incidence, and only a small fraction of the rays are reflected.[110] See also X-ray optics.
  • Flying relativistic mirrors use a shockwave (wake wave) in a plasma to produce not only specular but also coherent reflection of high-energy radiation with very short wavelengths, and are used in some types of X-ray lasers. The wake wave is produced by a very intense laser-pulse focused into the low-density plasma, which creates a wall of charged particles and free electrons moving at an extremely high velocity. Based on the Theory of Special Relativity, because of the wake wave's speed, it can reflect radiation with wavelengths much shorter than visible or UV light.[111]
  • Phase-conjugating mirrors are mirrors that reverse the phase difference between incident beams.[112] In general PC mirror reverses the wavefront of arbitrarily distorted incident beam. PC mirrors are used for laser beam combination,[113][114] correction of atmospheric distortions and self-guiding of laser beams. Reversal of wavefront means a perfect reversal of photons linear momentum and angular momentum. The reversal of angular momentum means reversal of both polarization state and orbital angular momentum.[115]
    Vortex photon (blue) with linear momentum and angular momentum reflects from perfect phase-conjugating mirror. Normal to mirror is , propagation axis is . Reflected photon (magenta) has opposite linear momentum and angular momentum . Because of conservation laws PC mirror experiences recoil: the vortex phonon (orange) with doubled linear momentum and angular momentum is excited within mirror.
    Reversal of orbital angular momentum of optical vortex is due to the perfect match of helical phase profiles of the incident and reflected beams. Optical phase conjugation is implemented via stimulated Brillouin scattering,[116] four-wave mixing, three-wave mixing, static linear holograms and some other tools.

See also


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  • Le miroir: révélations, science-fiction et fallacies. Essai sur une légende scientifique, Jurgis Baltru?aitis, Paris, 1978. ISBN 2020049856.
  • Mirror, Mirror: A History of the Human Love Affair with Reflection, Mark Pendergrast. Basic Books (2003). ISBN 0-465-05471-4.
  • On reflection, Jonathan Miller, National Gallery Publications Limited (1998). ISBN 0-300-07713-0.
  • The Mirror: A History, Sabine Melchior-Bonnet, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0-415-92448-0
  • Lo specchio, la strega e il quadrante. Vetrai, orologiai e rappresentazioni del 'principium individuationis' dal Medioevo all'Età moderna, Francesco Tigani, Roma, 2012. ISBN 978-88-548-4876-4.

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