Minister of War
Ministre de la guerre | |
---|---|
Ministry of War | |
Status | Abolished |
Member of | Government |
Reports to | Prime Minister |
Nominator | Prime Minister |
Appointer | President |
Term length | No fixed term |
Precursor | Secretary of State for War |
Formation | 25 May 1791 |
First holder | Louis Lebègue Duportail |
Final holder | Paul Coste-Floret |
Abolished | 31 October 1947 |
Succession | Minister of the Armed Forces |
The Minister of War (French: Ministre de la guerre) was the leader and most senior official of the French Ministry of War. It was a position in the Government of France from 1791 to 1947, date to which it was merged with the offices of Minister of the Navy and Minister of Air to form a new Minister of the Armed Forces.
For most of its existence and until the beginning of the 20th century, ministers had always been Marshals or Generals. The Third Republic saw the gradual replacement of the military by civilian politicians to the office. It was also subject to the governmental instability of the regime, leading to ministers seating only for few days.
On 27 April 1791, the National Constituent Assembly issued a decree organizing the six ministries of Justice, Interior, Finances, War, Navy and Foreign Affairs. The decree was signed into law on 25 May 1791 by King Louis XVI.^{[1]} This law determined the responsibilities of the minister, giving him full authority on the French Army and the sole provost duties of the National Gendarmerie. It also resolved that the minister would be responsible for the administration and finances of his department.
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | King | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
Ministry established | |||||||||
1 | Louis Lebègue Duportail | 196 days | Louis XVI | Louis XVI | ^{[a]} | ||||
2 | Louis de Narbonne-Lara | 94 days | ^{[2]} | ||||||
3 | Pierre Marie de Grave | 61 days | ^{[3]} | ||||||
4 | Joseph Servan | 34 days | ^{[4]} | ||||||
5 | Charles du Périer Dumouriez | 5 days | ^{[5]} | ||||||
6 | Pierre de Lajard | 35 days | ^{[6]} | ||||||
7 | Charles d'Abancourt | 18 days | ^{[7]} | ||||||
8 | Joseph Servan | 43 days | ^{[8]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term^{[b]} | Cabinet | Head of State | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
8 | Joseph Servan | 11 days | National Convention | National Convention | ^{[c]} | ||||
Interim by Pierre Lebrun-Tondu, Minister of Foreign Affairs, from 3 October 1792 to 24 January 1793. | |||||||||
9 | Jean-Nicolas Pache | 11 days | National Convention | National Convention | ^{[9]} | ||||
10 | Pierre Riel de Beurnonville | 59 days | ^{[10]} | ||||||
11 | Jean Bouchotte | 1 year, 16 days | ^{[11]} | ||||||
All ministries suspended and replaced by the Executive Commissions between 20 April 1794 and 3 November 1795. | ^{[12]} | ||||||||
12 | Jean-Baptiste Aubert du Bayet | 97 days | Directory | Directory | ^{[13]} | ||||
13 | Claude Petiet | 1 year, 165 days | |||||||
14 | Barthélemy Schérer | 1 year, 213 days | ^{[14]} | ||||||
15 | Louis de Milet de Mureau | 131 days | ^{[15]} | ||||||
16 | Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte | 74 days | ^{[16]} | ||||||
17 | Edmond Dubois-Crancé | 54 days | ^{[17]} | ||||||
18 | Louis-Alexandre Berthier | 146 days | Consulate | Napoléon Bonaparte | ^{[18]} | ||||
19 | Lazare Carnot | 33 days | ^{[19]} | ||||||
Interim by Jean-Gérard Lacuée, Councillor of State, from 5 May to 8 October 1800. | ^{[20]} | ||||||||
20 | Louis-Alexandre Berthier | 3 years, 223 days | Consulate | Napoléon Bonaparte | ^{[21]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | Emperor | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
20 | Louis-Alexandre Berthier Prince de Neuchâtel |
3 years, 83 days | Napoléon | Napoleon I | ^{[d]} | ||||
21 | Henri Guillaume Clarke Duc de Feltre |
6 years, 103 days | ^{[22]} | ||||||
22 | Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno Comte Daru |
132 days | ^{[23]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | King | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
23 | Pierre Antoine Comte Dupont de l'Étang |
237 days | Provisional Government | Louis XVIII | ^{[24]} | ||||
Restoration | |||||||||
24 | Jean-de-Dieu Soult Duc de Dalmatie |
105 days | ^{[e]} | ||||||
25 | Henri Guillaume Clarke Duc de Feltre |
9 days |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | Emperor | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
26 | Louis Nicolas d'Avout Duc d'Auerstaedt, Prince d'Eckmühl |
111 days | Hundred Days | Napoleon I | ^{[25]} | ||||
Executive Commission | Napoleon II |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | King | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
27 | Laurent de Gouvion Marquis de Saint-Cyr |
81 days | Talleyrand | Louis XVIII | ^{[26]} | ||||
28 | Henri Guillaume Clarke Duc de Feltre |
1 year, 349 days | de Richelieu I | ||||||
29 | Laurent de Gouvion Marquis de Saint-Cyr |
2 years, 68 days | de Richelieu I Dessolles |
^{[27]} | |||||
30 | Victor de Faÿ Marquis de La Tour-Maubourg |
2 years, 25 days | Decazes de Richelieu II |
^{[28]} | |||||
31 | Claude Victor Perrin Duc de Bellune |
1 year, 99 days | de Villèle | ^{[29]} | |||||
Interim by Alexandre Elisabeth Michel, Vicomte Digeon, from 23 March to 15 April 1823. | ^{[30]} | ||||||||
32 | Claude Victor Perrin Duc de Bellune |
187 days | de Villèle | Louis XVIII | |||||
33 | Ange Hyacinthe Maxence Baron de Damas |
175 days | ^{[31]} | ||||||
34 | Aimé Marie Gaspard Comte de Clermont-Tonnerre |
3 years, 268 days | ^{[32]} | ||||||
Charles X | |||||||||
35 | Louis Victor de Caux Vicomte de Blacquetot |
1 year, 216 days | de Martignac | ^{[33]} | |||||
36 | Louis Auguste Victor Comte de Ghaisnes de Bourmont |
355 days | de Polignac | ^{[34]} | |||||
37 | Étienne Maurice Comte Gérard |
115 days | de Rochechouart de Mortemart Paris Municipal Commission Cabinet Provisional cabinet First cabinet |
^{[35]} | |||||
Louis Philippe I | |||||||||
38 | Jean-de-Dieu Soult Duc de Dalmatie |
3 years, 243 days | Laffitte Casimir-Périer Soult I |
^{[36]} | |||||
39 | Étienne Maurice Comte Gérard |
115 days | Gérard | ||||||
40 | Simon Bernard Général-Baron |
8 days | Maret | ||||||
41 | Édouard Mortier Duc de Trévise |
114 days | Mortier | ||||||
Interim by Henri de Rigny, Minister without portfolio, from 12 March to 30 April 1835. | |||||||||
42 | Nicolas Joseph Marquis Maison |
1 year, 142 days | de Broglie Thiers I |
Louis Philippe I | |||||
Interim by Claude du Campe de Rosamel, Minister of Navy, from 6 September to 19 September 1836. | ^{[37]} | ||||||||
43 | Simon Bernard Général-Baron |
2 years, 193 days | Molé I - II | Louis Philippe I | ^{[38]} | ||||
44 | Amédée Despans-Cubières | 42 days | Transitional cabinet | ^{[39]} | |||||
45 | Antoine Schneider | 294 days | Soult II | ^{[40]} | |||||
46 | Amédée Despans-Cubières | 242 days | Thiers II | ^{[41]} | |||||
47 | Jean-de-Dieu Soult Duc de Dalmatie |
5 years, 12 days | Soult III | ^{[42]} | |||||
48 | Alexandre Moline de Saint-Yon | 1 year, 180 days | ^{[43]} | ||||||
49 | Camille Trézel | 291 days | Soult III Guizot |
^{[44]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | Emperor | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
61 | Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud |
1 year, 99 days | Napoléon III | Napoleon III | ^{[d]} | ||||
62 | Jean-Baptiste Philibert Comte Vaillant |
5 years, 55 days | ^{[57]} | ||||||
63 | Jacques Louis César Alexandre Comte Randon |
7 years, 260 days | ^{[58]} | ||||||
64 | Adolphe Niel | 2 years, 205 days | ^{[59]} | ||||||
Interim by Charles Rigault de Genouilly, Minister of Navy, from 13 August to 21 August 1869. | |||||||||
65 | Edmond Le Boeuf | 332 days | Napoléon IV Ollivier |
Napoleon III | ^{[60]} | ||||
Interim by Charles Dejean, Councillor of State, from 19 July to 9 August 1870. | ^{[61]} | ||||||||
66 | Charles Cousin-Montauban Comte de Palikao |
26 days | Cousin-Montauban | Napoleon III | ^{[62]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | President | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
67 | Adolphe Le Flô | 274 days | National Defence Dufaure I |
Jules Trochu^{[g]} | ^{[63]} | ||||
Adolphe Thiers | |||||||||
68 | Ernest de Cissey | 1 year, 358 days | Dufaure I - II | ^{[64]} | |||||
69 | François du Barail | 358 days | de Broglie I - II | Patrice de MacMahon | ^{[65]} | ||||
70 | Ernest de Cissey | 2 years, 85 days | de Cissey Buffet Dufaure III - IV |
^{[66]} | |||||
71 | Jean Berthaut | 1 year, 100 days | Dufaure IV Simon de Broglie III |
^{[67]} | |||||
72 | Gaëtan de Rochebouët | 20 days | de Rochebouët | ^{[68]} | |||||
73 | Jean-Louis Borel | 1 year, 31 days | Dufaure V | ^{[69]} | |||||
74 | Henri Gresley | 349 days | Dufaure V Waddington |
^{[70]} | |||||
Jules Grévy | |||||||||
75 | Jean-Joseph Farre | 1 year, 260 days | Waddington de Freycinet I Ferry I |
^{[71]} | |||||
76 | Jean-Baptiste Campenon | 77 days | Gambetta | ^{[72]} | |||||
77 | Jean-Baptiste Billot | 1 year, 1 day | de Freycinet II Duclerc |
^{[73]} | |||||
78 | Jean Thibaudin | 251 days | Fallières Ferry II |
^{[74]} | |||||
79 | Jean-Baptiste Campenon | 1 year, 86 days | Ferry II | ^{[75]} | |||||
80 | Jules Lewal | 36 days | ^{[76]} | ||||||
81 | Jean-Baptiste Campenon | 276 days | Brisson I | ^{[77]} | |||||
82 | Georges Boulanger | 1 year, 143 days | de Freycinet III Goblet |
^{[78]} | |||||
83 | Théophile Ferron | 196 days | Rouvier I | ^{[79]} | |||||
84 | François Logerot | 113 days | Tirard I | Sadi Carnot | ^{[80]} | ||||
85 | Charles de Freycinet | 4 years, 283 days | Floquet Tirard II de Freycinet IV Loubet Ribot I |
^{[81]} | |||||
86 | Julien Loizillon | 326 days | Ribot II Dupuy I |
^{[82]} | |||||
87 | Auguste Mercier | 1 year, 56 days | Casimir-Perier Dupuy II - III |
^{[83]} | |||||
Jean Casimir-Perier | |||||||||
88 | Émile Zurlinden | 277 days | Ribot III | ^{[84]} | |||||
89 | Jacques Cavaignac | 180 days | Bourgeois | Félix Faure | ^{[85]} | ||||
90 | Jean-Baptiste Billot | 2 years, 60 days | Méline | ^{[86]} | |||||
91 | Jacques Cavaignac | 69 days | Brisson II | ^{[87]} | |||||
92 | Émile Zurlinden | 12 days | ^{[88]} | ||||||
93 | Charles Chanoine | 38 days | ^{[89]} | ||||||
Interim by Édouard Lockroy, Minister of Navy, from 25 October to 1 November 1898. | ^{[90]} | ||||||||
94 | Charles de Freycinet | 186 days | Dupuy IV - V | Félix Faure | ^{[91]} | ||||
Émile Loubet | |||||||||
95 | Camille Krantz | 47 days | Dupuy V | ^{[92]} | |||||
96 | Gaston de Galliffet | 341 days | Waldeck-Rousseau | ^{[93]} | |||||
97 | Louis André | 4 years, 170 days | Waldeck-Rousseau Combes |
^{[94]} | |||||
98 | Henri Berteaux | 362 days | Combes Rouvier II |
^{[95]} | |||||
99 | Eugène Étienne | 347 days | Rouvier II - III Sarrien |
^{[96]} | |||||
Armand Fallières | |||||||||
100 | Georges Picquart | 2 years, 272 days | Clemenceau I | ^{[97]} | |||||
101 | Jean Brun | 1 year, 214 days | Briand I - II | ^{[98]} | |||||
Interim by Aristide Briand, President of the Council of Ministers, from 23 February to 2 March 1911. | ^{[99]} | ||||||||
102 | Henri Berteaux | 80 days | Monis | Armand Fallières | ^{[100]} | ||||
Interim by Jean Cruppi, Minister of Foreign Affairs, from 21 May to 27 May 1911. | ^{[101]} | ||||||||
103 | François Goiran | 15 days | Monis | Armand Fallières | ^{[102]} | ||||
104 | Adolphe Messimy | 201 days | Caillaux | ^{[103]} | |||||
105 | Alexandre Millerand | 364 days | Poincaré I | ^{[104]} | |||||
106 | Albert Lebrun | 9 days | ^{[105]} | ||||||
107 | Eugène Étienne | 322 days | Briand III - IV Barthou |
^{[106]} | |||||
Raymond Poincaré | |||||||||
108 | Joseph Noulens | 182 days | Doumergue I | ^{[107]} | |||||
109 | Théophile Delcassé | 4 days | Ribot IV | ^{[108]} | |||||
110 | Adolphe Messimy | 74 days | Viviani I | ^{[109]} | |||||
111 | Alexandre Millerand | 1 year, 64 days | Viviani II | ^{[110]} | |||||
112 | Joseph Gallieni | 139 days | Briand V | ^{[111]} | |||||
113 | Pierre Roques | 271 days | ^{[112]} | ||||||
114 | Hubert Lyautey | 93 days | Briand VI | ^{[113]} | |||||
Interim by Lucien Lacaze, Minister of Navy, from 15 March to 20 March 1917. | ^{[114]} | ||||||||
115 | Paul Painlevé | 241 days | Ribot V Painlevé I |
Raymond Poincaré | ^{[115]} | ||||
116 | Georges Clemenceau | 2 years, 65 days | Clemenceau II | ^{[116]} | |||||
117 | André Lefèvre | 331 days | Millerand I - II Leygues |
^{[117]} | |||||
Paul Deschanel | |||||||||
Alexandre Millerand | |||||||||
118 | Flaminius Raiberti | 31 days | Leygues | ^{[118]} | |||||
119 | Louis Barthou | 364 days | Briand VII | ^{[119]} | |||||
120 | André Maginot | 2 years, 151 days | Poincaré II - III François-Marsal |
^{[120]} | |||||
121 | Charles Nollet | 307 days | Herriot I | Gaston Doumergue | ^{[121]} | ||||
122 | Paul Painlevé | 195 days | Painlevé II | ^{[122]} | |||||
123 | Édouard Daladier | 31 days | Painlevé III | ^{[123]} | |||||
124 | Paul Painlevé | 207 days | Briand VIII - IX | ^{[124]} | |||||
125 | Adolphe Guillaumat | 207 days | Briand X | ^{[125]} | |||||
126 | Paul Painlevé | 3 years, 107 days | Herriot II Poincaré IV-V Briand XI |
^{[126]} | |||||
127 | André Maginot | 110 days | Tardieu I | ^{[127]} | |||||
128 | René Besnard | 9 days | Chautemps I | ^{[128]} | |||||
129 | André Maginot | 286 days | Tardieu II | ^{[129]} | |||||
130 | Louis Barthou | 45 days | Steeg | ^{[130]} | |||||
131 | André Maginot | 345 days | Laval I - II | ^{[131]} | |||||
Paul Doumer | |||||||||
Interim by Charles Dumont, Minister of Navy, from 7 January to 14 January 1932. | - | ||||||||
132 | André Tardieu | 37 days | Laval III | Paul Doumer | ^{[132]} | ||||
133 | François Piétri^{[h]} | 104 days | Tardieu III | ^{[133]} | |||||
134 | Joseph Paul-Boncour | 198 days | Herriot III | Albert Lebrun | ^{[134]} | ||||
135 | Édouard Daladier | 1 year, 43 days | Paul-Boncour Daladier I Sarraut I Chautemps II |
^{[135]} | |||||
136 | Jean Fabry^{[i]} | 5 days | Daladier II | ^{[136]} | |||||
137 | Joseph Paul-Boncour^{[i]} | 5 days | ^{[137]} | ||||||
138 | Philippe Pétain | 272 days | Doumergue II | ^{[138]} | |||||
139 | Louis Maurin | 211 days | Flandin I Bouisson |
^{[139]} | |||||
140 | Jean Fabry | 231 days | Laval IV | ^{[140]} | |||||
141 | Louis Maurin | 132 days | Sarraut II | ^{[141]} | |||||
142 | Édouard Daladier^{[i]} | 3 years, 349 days | Blum I Chautemps III - IV Blum II Daladier III - IV - V Reynaud |
^{[142]} | |||||
143 | Paul Reynaud | 29 days | Reynaud | ^{[143]} | |||||
144 | Louis Colson | 24 days | Pétain | ^{[144]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | Chief of State | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
- | Louis Colson^{[j]} | 58 days | Laval V | Philippe Pétain | ^{[145]} | ||||
- | Charles Huntziger^{[j]} | 1 year, 66 days | Laval V Flandin II Darlan |
^{[146]} | |||||
- | François Darlan^{[k]}^{[j]} | 158 days | Darlan | ||||||
- | Eugène Bridoux^{[j]} | 2 years, 124 days | Laval VI | ^{[147]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | Leader | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
145 | Paul Legentilhomme^{[l]} | 2 years, 46 days | CNF | Charles de Gaulle | ^{[148]} | ||||
CFLN | |||||||||
146 | André Le Troquer^{[l]} | 147 days | ^{[149]} | ||||||
147 | André Diethelm^{[l]} | 159 days | ^{[150]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Cabinet | President | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
(147) | André Diethelm | 1 year, 72 days | de Gaulle I | Charles de Gaulle | ^{[151]} |
No. | Portrait | Name | Term | Government | President | Ref. | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Took office | Left office | Time in office | |||||||
148 | Paul Coste-Floret serving with Defence Minister François Billoux |
273 days | Ramadier I | Vincent Auriol | ^{[152]} | ||||
Ministry disestablished |