Minister of War (France)
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Minister of War France
Minister of War
Ministre de la guerre
RANDON2.jpg
Longest serving
Jacques Randon

5 May 1859 - 20 January 1867
Ministry of War
StatusAbolished
Member ofGovernment
Reports toPrime Minister
NominatorPrime Minister
AppointerPresident
Term lengthNo fixed term
PrecursorSecretary of State for War
Formation25 May 1791
First holderLouis Lebègue Duportail
Final holderPaul Coste-Floret
Abolished31 October 1947
SuccessionMinister of the Armed Forces

The Minister of War (French: Ministre de la guerre) was the leader and most senior official of the French Ministry of War. It was a position in the Government of France from 1791 to 1947, date to which it was merged with the offices of Minister of the Navy and Minister of Air to form a new Minister of the Armed Forces.

History

For most of its existence and until the beginning of the 20th century, ministers had always been Marshals or Generals. The Third Republic saw the gradual replacement of the military by civilian politicians to the office. It was also subject to the governmental instability of the regime, leading to ministers seating only for few days.

Powers and functions

On 27 April 1791, the National Constituent Assembly issued a decree organizing the six ministries of Justice, Interior, Finances, War, Navy and Foreign Affairs. The decree was signed into law on 25 May 1791 by King Louis XVI.[1] This law determined the responsibilities of the minister, giving him full authority on the French Army and the sole provost duties of the National Gendarmerie. It also resolved that the minister would be responsible for the administration and finances of his department.

Officeholders

Kingdom of France

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet King Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
Ministry established
1 Duportail exb.jpg Louis Lebègue Duportail 196 days Louis XVI Louis XVI [a]
2 Louis Marie de Narbonne-Lara.png Louis de Narbonne-Lara 94 days [2]
3 Blanco portrait.svg Pierre Marie de Grave 61 days [3]
4 AduC 055 Servan (J. de Gerbey, 1741-1808).JPG Joseph Servan 34 days [4]
5 Charles-François Dumouriez.PNG Charles du Périer Dumouriez 5 days [5]
6 Blanco portrait.svg Pierre de Lajard 35 days [6]
7 Blanco portrait.svg Charles d'Abancourt 18 days [7]
8 AduC 055 Servan (J. de Gerbey, 1741-1808).JPG Joseph Servan 43 days [8]

First Republic

No. Portrait Name Term[b] Cabinet Head of State Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
8 AduC 055 Servan (J. de Gerbey, 1741-1808).JPG Joseph Servan

11 days National Convention National Convention [c]
Interim by Pierre Lebrun-Tondu, Minister of Foreign Affairs, from 3 October 1792 to 24 January 1793.
9 AduC 122 Pache (J.N., 1746-1823).JPG Jean-Nicolas Pache

11 days National Convention National Convention [9]
10 Pierre Riel - marquis de Beurnonville.jpg Pierre Riel de Beurnonville

59 days [10]
11 Bouchotte retouche.JPG Jean Bouchotte

1 year, 16 days [11]
All ministries suspended and replaced by the Executive Commissions between 20 April 1794 and 3 November 1795. [12]
12 Aubert du Bayet peinture Guerin.jpg Jean-Baptiste Aubert du Bayet

97 days Directory Directory [13]
13 AduC 259 Petiet (Claude, 1749-1806).JPG Claude Petiet

1 year, 165 days
14 Scherer.jpg Barthélemy Schérer

1 year, 213 days [14]
15 Blanco portrait.svg Louis de Milet de Mureau

131 days [15]
16 Charles XIV John in his days as a French field marshall.jpg Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte

74 days [16]
17 Edmond Louis Dubois-Crancé - François Bonneville.jpg Edmond Dubois-Crancé

54 days [17]
18 Louis-Alexandre Berthier, maréchal de camp, chef d'état-major en 1792 (1753-1815).jpg Louis-Alexandre Berthier

146 days Consulate Napoléon Bonaparte [18]
19 Lazare-Carnot-par-Boilly.jpg Lazare Carnot

33 days [19]
Interim by Jean-Gérard Lacuée, Councillor of State, from 5 May to 8 October 1800. [20]
20 Louis-Alexandre Berthier, maréchal de camp, chef d'état-major en 1792 (1753-1815).jpg Louis-Alexandre Berthier

3 years, 223 days Consulate Napoléon Bonaparte [21]

First Empire

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet Emperor Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
20 Louis-Alexandre Berthier.png Louis-Alexandre Berthier
Prince de Neuchâtel
3 years, 83 days Napoléon Napoleon I [d]
21 Hunebourg.jpg Henri Guillaume Clarke
Duc de Feltre
6 years, 103 days [22]
22 Gros - Pierre-Antoine-Noël-Mathieu Bruno, comte Daru (1767-1829).jpg Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno
Comte Daru
132 days [23]

Restoration

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet King Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
23 Pierre-Antoine, comte Dupont de l'Étang.jpg Pierre Antoine
Comte Dupont de l'Étang
237 days Provisional Government Louis XVIII [24]
Restoration
24 Jean-de-Dieu Soult, maréchal duc de Dalmatie (1769-1851).jpg Jean-de-Dieu Soult
Duc de Dalmatie
105 days [e]
25 Hunebourg.jpg Henri Guillaume Clarke
Duc de Feltre
9 days

Hundred Days

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet Emperor Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
26 Louis nicolas davout.jpg Louis Nicolas d'Avout
Duc d'Auerstaedt, Prince d'Eckmühl
111 days Hundred Days Napoleon I [25]
Executive Commission Napoleon II

Kingdom of France

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet King Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
27 Laurent de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr.jpg Laurent de Gouvion
Marquis de Saint-Cyr
81 days Talleyrand Louis XVIII [26]
28 Hunebourg.jpg Henri Guillaume Clarke
Duc de Feltre
1 year, 349 days de Richelieu I
29 Laurent de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr.jpg Laurent de Gouvion
Marquis de Saint-Cyr
2 years, 68 days de Richelieu I
Dessolles
[27]
30 Lefèvre (attribué à) - Victor de La Tour-Maubourg.jpg Victor de Faÿ
Marquis de La Tour-Maubourg
2 years, 25 days Decazes
de Richelieu II
[28]
31 Claude-Victor Perrin.jpg Claude Victor Perrin
Duc de Bellune
1 year, 99 days de Villèle [29]
Interim by Alexandre Elisabeth Michel, Vicomte Digeon, from 23 March to 15 April 1823. [30]
32 Claude-Victor Perrin.jpg Claude Victor Perrin
Duc de Bellune
187 days de Villèle Louis XVIII
33 Ange Hyacinthe Maxence de Damas.jpg Ange Hyacinthe Maxence
Baron de Damas
175 days [31]
34 Aimé Marie Gaspard de Clermont-Tonnerre 2.jpg Aimé Marie Gaspard
Comte de Clermont-Tonnerre
3 years, 268 days [32]
Charles X
35 Louis-Victor de Caux de Blacquetot (1775-1845).jpg Louis Victor de Caux
Vicomte de Blacquetot
1 year, 216 days de Martignac [33]
36 Louis Auguste Victor de Ghaisne de Bourmont.jpg Louis Auguste Victor
Comte de Ghaisnes de Bourmont
355 days de Polignac [34]
37 Étienne Maurice Gérard 1773-1852.jpg Étienne Maurice
Comte Gérard
115 days de Rochechouart de Mortemart
Paris Municipal Commission Cabinet
Provisional cabinet
First cabinet
[35]
Louis Philippe I
38 Jean-de-Dieu Soult, maréchal duc de Dalmatie (1769-1851).jpg Jean-de-Dieu Soult
Duc de Dalmatie
3 years, 243 days Laffitte
Casimir-Périer
Soult I
[36]
39 Étienne Maurice Gérard 1773-1852.jpg Étienne Maurice
Comte Gérard
115 days Gérard
40 Bernard, Simon.jpg Simon Bernard
Général-Baron
8 days Maret
41 Dubufe - Marshal Mortier.jpg Édouard Mortier
Duc de Trévise
114 days Mortier
Interim by Henri de Rigny, Minister without portfolio, from 12 March to 30 April 1835.
42 Cogniet - Nicolas-Joseph Maison (1771-1840) - MV 1168.jpg Nicolas Joseph
Marquis Maison
1 year, 142 days de Broglie
Thiers I
Louis Philippe I
Interim by Claude du Campe de Rosamel, Minister of Navy, from 6 September to 19 September 1836. [37]
43 Bernard, Simon.jpg Simon Bernard
Général-Baron
2 years, 193 days Molé I - II Louis Philippe I [38]
44 Amédée Louis Despans-Cubières (1786-1853).png Amédée Despans-Cubières 42 days Transitional cabinet [39]
45 Général Virgile Schneider (1779-1847).png Antoine Schneider 294 days Soult II [40]
46 Amédée Louis Despans-Cubières (1786-1853).png Amédée Despans-Cubières 242 days Thiers II [41]
47 Jean-de-Dieu Soult, maréchal duc de Dalmatie (1769-1851).jpg Jean-de-Dieu Soult
Duc de Dalmatie
5 years, 12 days Soult III [42]
48 Blanco portrait.svg Alexandre Moline de Saint-Yon 1 year, 180 days [43]
49 Trezel, Camille.jpg Camille Trézel 291 days Soult III
Guizot
[44]

Second Republic

Second Empire

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet Emperor Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
61 Leroy de Saint-Arnaud - photo Pierson.jpg Jacques Leroy
de Saint-Arnaud
1 year, 99 days Napoléon III Napoleon III [d]
62 Jean-Baptiste Vaillant.jpg Jean-Baptiste Philibert
Comte Vaillant
5 years, 55 days [57]
63 RANDON2.jpg Jacques Louis César Alexandre
Comte Randon
7 years, 260 days [58]
64 Le maréchal Niel.jpg Adolphe Niel 2 years, 205 days [59]
Interim by Charles Rigault de Genouilly, Minister of Navy, from 13 August to 21 August 1869.
65 Edmond Leboeuf.png Edmond Le Boeuf 332 days Napoléon IV
Ollivier
Napoleon III [60]
Interim by Charles Dejean, Councillor of State, from 19 July to 9 August 1870. [61]
66 Palikao.jpg Charles Cousin-Montauban
Comte de Palikao
26 days Cousin-Montauban Napoleon III [62]

Third Republic

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet President Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
67 ADOLPHELEFLO2.jpg Adolphe Le Flô 274 days National Defence
Dufaure I
Jules Trochu[g] [63]
Adolphe Thiers
68 Le général Ernest Louis Octave Courtot de Cissey (1810-1882).jpg Ernest de Cissey 1 year, 358 days Dufaure I - II [64]
69 Portrait of François Claude du Barail.jpg François du Barail 358 days de Broglie I - II Patrice de MacMahon [65]
70 Le général Ernest Louis Octave Courtot de Cissey (1810-1882).jpg Ernest de Cissey 2 years, 85 days de Cissey
Buffet
Dufaure III - IV
[66]
71 Jean Auguste Berthaut 3100.JPG Jean Berthaut 1 year, 100 days Dufaure IV
Simon
de Broglie III
[67]
72 Rochebouët.jpg Gaëtan de Rochebouët 20 days de Rochebouët [68]
73 Jean-Louis Borel - L'Illustration.jpg Jean-Louis Borel 1 year, 31 days Dufaure V [69]
74 Blanco portrait.svg Henri Gresley 349 days Dufaure V
Waddington
[70]
Jules Grévy
75 General Farre.jpg Jean-Joseph Farre 1 year, 260 days Waddington
de Freycinet I
Ferry I
[71]
76 Campenon, Jean Baptiste Marie Edouard.jpeg Jean-Baptiste Campenon 77 days Gambetta [72]
77 Jean-Baptiste Billot.jpg Jean-Baptiste Billot 1 year, 1 day de Freycinet II
Duclerc
[73]
78 Thibaudin (Halle aux charges, 1883-10-08).jpg Jean Thibaudin 251 days Fallières
Ferry II
[74]
79 Campenon, Jean Baptiste Marie Edouard.jpeg Jean-Baptiste Campenon 1 year, 86 days Ferry II [75]
80 Jules Louis Lewal.jpg Jules Lewal 36 days [76]
81 Campenon, Jean Baptiste Marie Edouard.jpeg Jean-Baptiste Campenon 276 days Brisson I [77]
82 Georges Ernest Boulanger by Atelier Nadar.jpg Georges Boulanger 1 year, 143 days de Freycinet III
Goblet
[78]
83 Théophile Ferron.jpg Théophile Ferron 196 days Rouvier I [79]
84 François Auguste LOGEROT.jpg François Logerot 113 days Tirard I Sadi Carnot [80]
85 Freycinet, de Saulces de, Charles, Nadar, Gallica.jpg Charles de Freycinet 4 years, 283 days Floquet
Tirard II
de Freycinet IV
Loubet
Ribot I
[81]
86 Julien Loizillon.jpg Julien Loizillon 326 days Ribot II
Dupuy I
[82]
87 Auguste Mercier.jpg Auguste Mercier 1 year, 56 days Casimir-Perier
Dupuy II - III
[83]
Jean Casimir-Perier
88 Zurlinden.jpg Émile Zurlinden 277 days Ribot III [84]
89 Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignac.jpg Jacques Cavaignac 180 days Bourgeois Félix Faure [85]
90 Jean-Baptiste Billot.jpg Jean-Baptiste Billot 2 years, 60 days Méline [86]
91 Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignac.jpg Jacques Cavaignac 69 days Brisson II [87]
92 Zurlinden.jpg Émile Zurlinden 12 days [88]
93 Chanoine.jpg Charles Chanoine 38 days [89]
Interim by Édouard Lockroy, Minister of Navy, from 25 October to 1 November 1898. [90]
94 Freycinet, de Saulces de, Charles, Nadar, Gallica.jpg Charles de Freycinet 186 days Dupuy IV - V Félix Faure [91]
Émile Loubet
95 Krantz, Camille.jpg Camille Krantz 47 days Dupuy V [92]
96 Galliffet, Gaston de.jpg Gaston de Galliffet 341 days Waldeck-Rousseau [93]
97 Chromo général André (cropped).jpg Louis André 4 years, 170 days Waldeck-Rousseau
Combes
[94]
98 Maurice Berteaux.jpg Henri Berteaux 362 days Combes
Rouvier II
[95]
99 Eugène Étienne 1914.jpg Eugène Étienne 347 days Rouvier II - III
Sarrien
[96]
Armand Fallières
100 Picquart.jpg Georges Picquart 2 years, 272 days Clemenceau I [97]
101 Jean Brun.jpg Jean Brun 1 year, 214 days Briand I - II [98]
Interim by Aristide Briand, President of the Council of Ministers, from 23 February to 2 March 1911. [99]
102 Maurice Berteaux.jpg Henri Berteaux 80 days Monis Armand Fallières [100]
Interim by Jean Cruppi, Minister of Foreign Affairs, from 21 May to 27 May 1911. [101]
103 François Goiran.jpg François Goiran 15 days Monis Armand Fallières [102]
104 Adolphe Messimy 1914.jpg Adolphe Messimy 201 days Caillaux [103]
105 Alexandre Millerand 1914.jpg Alexandre Millerand 364 days Poincaré I [104]
106 Albert Lebrun 1932 (2).jpg Albert Lebrun 9 days [105]
107 Eugène Étienne 1914.jpg Eugène Étienne 322 days Briand III - IV
Barthou
[106]
Raymond Poincaré
108 Joseph Noulens-1919.jpg Joseph Noulens 182 days Doumergue I [107]
109 Théophile Delcassé.jpg Théophile Delcassé 4 days Ribot IV [108]
110 Adolphe Messimy 1914.jpg Adolphe Messimy 74 days Viviani I [109]
111 Alexandre Millerand 1914.jpg Alexandre Millerand 1 year, 64 days Viviani II [110]
112 Joseph Gallieni 01.jpg Joseph Gallieni 139 days Briand V [111]
113 Pierre Auguste Roques.jpg Pierre Roques 271 days [112]
114 LYAUTEY PHOTO.jpg Hubert Lyautey 93 days Briand VI [113]
Interim by Lucien Lacaze, Minister of Navy, from 15 March to 20 March 1917. [114]
115 Paul Painlevé 1923.jpg Paul Painlevé 241 days Ribot V
Painlevé I
Raymond Poincaré [115]
116 Georges Clemenceau par Nadar.jpg Georges Clemenceau 2 years, 65 days Clemenceau II [116]
117 André Lefèvre (politician).jpg André Lefèvre 331 days Millerand I - II
Leygues
[117]
Paul Deschanel
Alexandre Millerand
118 Flaminius Raiberti 1913.jpg Flaminius Raiberti 31 days Leygues [118]
119 Louis Barthou 01.jpg Louis Barthou 364 days Briand VII [119]
120 Andre maginot loc.jpg André Maginot 2 years, 151 days Poincaré II - III
François-Marsal
[120]
121 Charles Nollet-1924.jpg Charles Nollet 307 days Herriot I Gaston Doumergue [121]
122 Paul Painlevé 1923.jpg Paul Painlevé 195 days Painlevé II [122]
123 Édouard Daladier.jpg Édouard Daladier 31 days Painlevé III [123]
124 Paul Painlevé 1923.jpg Paul Painlevé 207 days Briand VIII - IX [124]
125 Adolphe Guillaumat 1921.jpg Adolphe Guillaumat 207 days Briand X [125]
126 Paul Painlevé 1923.jpg Paul Painlevé 3 years, 107 days Herriot II
Poincaré IV-V
Briand XI
[126]
127 Andre maginot loc.jpg André Maginot 110 days Tardieu I [127]
128 René Besnard.jpg René Besnard 9 days Chautemps I [128]
129 Andre maginot loc.jpg André Maginot 286 days Tardieu II [129]
130 Louis Barthou 01.jpg Louis Barthou 45 days Steeg [130]
131 Andre maginot loc.jpg André Maginot 345 days Laval I - II [131]
Paul Doumer
Interim by Charles Dumont, Minister of Navy, from 7 January to 14 January 1932. -
132 André Tardieu 1928.jpg André Tardieu 37 days Laval III Paul Doumer [132]
133 Piétri-1929.jpg François Piétri[h] 104 days Tardieu III [133]
134 Joseph Paul-Boncour 1923.jpg Joseph Paul-Boncour 198 days Herriot III Albert Lebrun [134]
135 Édouard Daladier.jpg Édouard Daladier 1 year, 43 days Paul-Boncour
Daladier I
Sarraut I
Chautemps II
[135]
136 Jean Fabry.jpg Jean Fabry[i] 5 days Daladier II [136]
137 Joseph Paul-Boncour 1923.jpg Joseph Paul-Boncour[i] 5 days [137]
138 Pétain - Portrait photographique 1941.jpg Philippe Pétain 272 days Doumergue II [138]
139 Louis Maurin-1934.jpg Louis Maurin 211 days Flandin I
Bouisson
[139]
140 Jean Fabry.jpg Jean Fabry 231 days Laval IV [140]
141 Louis Maurin-1934.jpg Louis Maurin 132 days Sarraut II [141]
142 Édouard Daladier.jpg Édouard Daladier[i] 3 years, 349 days Blum I
Chautemps III - IV
Blum II
Daladier III - IV - V
Reynaud
[142]
143 Paul Reynaud 1940.jpg Paul Reynaud 29 days Reynaud [143]
144 Blanco portrait.svg Louis Colson 24 days Pétain [144]

Vichy France

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet Chief of State Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
- Blanco portrait.svg Louis Colson[j] 58 days Laval V Philippe Pétain [145]
- Général Charles Huntziger.jpg Charles Huntziger[j] 1 year, 66 days Laval V
Flandin II
Darlan
[146]
- François Darlan.jpg François Darlan[k][j] 158 days Darlan
- Blanco portrait.svg Eugène Bridoux[j] 2 years, 124 days Laval VI [147]

Free France

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet Leader Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
145 Blanco portrait.svg Paul Legentilhomme[l] 2 years, 46 days CNF Charles de Gaulle [148]
CFLN
146 André Le Troquer.png André Le Troquer[l] 147 days [149]
147 André Diethelm.jpg André Diethelm[l] 159 days [150]

Provisional Government

No. Portrait Name Term Cabinet President Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
(147) André Diethelm.jpg André Diethelm 1 year, 72 days de Gaulle I Charles de Gaulle [151]

Fourth Republic

No. Portrait Name Term Government President Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
148 Blanco portrait.svg Paul Coste-Floret
serving with
Defence Minister François Billoux
273 days Ramadier I Vincent Auriol [152]
Ministry disestablished

Notes

  1. ^ Secretary of State for War at the creation of the ministry.
  2. ^ Dates in italic correspond to the French Republican calendar, used between 1793 (and retroactively 1792) and 1805.
  3. ^ Remained in office at the proclamation of the Republic.
  4. ^ a b Remained in office at the proclamation of the Empire.
  5. ^ Soult, as Minister of War, started countersigning the ordinance of Louis XVIII on 26 November 1814.
  6. ^ As Chief of the Executive Power.
  7. ^ President of the Government of National Defence.
  8. ^ As Minister of National Defence.
  9. ^ a b c As Minister of War and National Defence.
  10. ^ a b c d As Secretary of State of War.
  11. ^ Ad interim initially, as Secretary of State of the Navy.
  12. ^ a b c As Commissioner of War.

References

  1. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (25 May 1791). "Law on the organisation of the Ministry". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (7 December 1791). "Note from the King to the National Assembly". archive.org (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (10 March 1792). "Note from the King to the National Assembly". archive.org (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (10 May 1792). "Note from the King to the National Assembly". archive.org (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (13 June 1792). "Note from the King to the National Assembly". archive.org (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (18 June 1792). "Note from the King to the National Assembly". archive.org (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (23 July 1792). "Note from the King to the National Assembly". archive.org (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ Government of the French Republic (10 August 1792). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  9. ^ Government of the French Republic (24 January 1793). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  10. ^ Government of the French Republic (4 February 1793). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  11. ^ Government of the French Republic (4 April 1793). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ Government of the French Republic (1 April 1794). "Law abolishing the Provisional Executive Council". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  13. ^ Government of the French Republic (3 November 1795). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ Government of the French Republic (23 July 1797). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  15. ^ Government of the French Republic (21 February 1799). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  16. ^ Government of the French Republic (2 July 1799). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ Government of the French Republic (14 September 1799). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ Government of the French Republic (7 November 1799). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  19. ^ Government of the French Republic (2 April 1800). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ Government of the French Republic (5 May 1800). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  21. ^ Government of the French Republic (8 October 1800). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  22. ^ Government of the French Empire (9 August 1807). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  23. ^ Government of the French Empire (20 March 1815). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  24. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (3 April 1814). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  25. ^ Government of the French Empire (20 March 1815). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  26. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (9 July 1815). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  27. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (12 September 1817). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  28. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (19 November 1819). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  29. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (14 December 1821). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  30. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (23 March 1823). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  31. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (19 October 1823). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  32. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (4 August 1824). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  33. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (4 January 1828). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  34. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (8 August 1829). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  35. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (29 July 1830). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  36. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (17 November 1830). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  37. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (6 September 1836). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  38. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (19 September 1836). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  39. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (31 March 1839). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  40. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (12 May 1839). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  41. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (1 March 1840). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  42. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (29 October 1840). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  43. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (10 November 1845). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  44. ^ Government of the Kingdom of France (9 May 1847). "Ordonnance on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  45. ^ Government of the French Republic (24 February 1848). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  46. ^ Government of the French Republic (25 February 1848). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  47. ^ Government of the French Republic (19 March 1848). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ Government of the French Republic (20 March 1848). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  49. ^ Government of the French Republic (5 April 1848). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  50. ^ Government of the French Republic (11 May 1848). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  51. ^ Government of the French Republic (17 May 1848). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  52. ^ Government of the French Republic (28 June 1848). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  53. ^ Government of the French Republic (22 October 1850). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  54. ^ Government of the French Republic (9 January 1851). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  55. ^ Government of the French Republic (24 January 1851). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  56. ^ Government of the French Republic (26 October 1851). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  57. ^ Government of the French Empire (11 March 1854). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  58. ^ Government of the French Empire (5 May 1859). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  59. ^ Government of the French Empire (20 January 1867). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  60. ^ Government of the French Empire (21 August 1869). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  61. ^ Government of the French Empire (19 July 1870). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  62. ^ Government of the French Empire (9 August 1870). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  63. ^ Government of the French Republic (4 September 1870). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  64. ^ Government of the French Republic (5 June 1871). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  65. ^ Government of the French Republic (29 May 1873). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  66. ^ Government of the French Republic (22 May 1874). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  67. ^ Government of the French Republic (15 August 1876). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  68. ^ Government of the French Republic (23 November 1877). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  69. ^ Government of the French Republic (13 December 1877). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  70. ^ Government of the French Republic (13 January 1879). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  71. ^ Government of the French Republic (28 December 1879). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  72. ^ Government of the French Republic (14 November 1881). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  73. ^ Government of the French Republic (30 January 1882). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  74. ^ Government of the French Republic (31 January 1883). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  75. ^ Government of the French Republic (9 October 1883). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  76. ^ Government of the French Republic (3 January 1885). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  77. ^ Government of the French Republic (6 April 1885). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  78. ^ Government of the French Republic (7 January 1886). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  79. ^ Government of the French Republic (30 May 1887). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  80. ^ Government of the French Republic (12 December 1887). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  81. ^ Government of the French Republic (3 April 1888). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  82. ^ Government of the French Republic (11 January 1893). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  83. ^ Government of the French Republic (3 December 1893). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  84. ^ Government of the French Republic (28 January 1895). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  85. ^ Government of the French Republic (1 November 1895). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  86. ^ Government of the French Republic (29 April 1896). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  87. ^ Government of the French Republic (28 June 1898). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  88. ^ Government of the French Republic (5 September 1898). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  89. ^ Government of the French Republic (17 September 1898). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  90. ^ Government of the French Republic (25 October 1898). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  91. ^ Government of the French Republic (1 November 1898). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  92. ^ Government of the French Republic (6 May 1899). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  93. ^ Government of the French Republic (22 June 1899). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  94. ^ Government of the French Republic (29 May 1900). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  95. ^ Government of the French Republic (15 November 1904). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  96. ^ Government of the French Republic (12 November 1905). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  97. ^ Government of the French Republic (25 October 1906). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  98. ^ Government of the French Republic (24 July 1909). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  99. ^ Government of the French Republic (23 February 1911). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  100. ^ Government of the French Republic (2 March 1911). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  101. ^ Government of the French Republic (21 May 1911). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  102. ^ Government of the French Republic (27 May 1911). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  103. ^ Government of the French Republic (27 June 1911). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  104. ^ Government of the French Republic (14 January 1912). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  105. ^ Government of the French Republic (12 January 1913). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  106. ^ Government of the French Republic (21 January 1913). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  107. ^ Government of the French Republic (9 December 1913). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  108. ^ Government of the French Republic (9 June 1914). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  109. ^ Government of the French Republic (9 June 1914). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  110. ^ Government of the French Republic (26 August 1914). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  111. ^ Government of the French Republic (29 October 1915). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  112. ^ Government of the French Republic (16 March 1916). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  113. ^ Government of the French Republic (12 December 1916). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  114. ^ Government of the French Republic (15 March 1917). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  115. ^ Government of the French Republic (20 March 1917). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  116. ^ Government of the French Republic (16 November 1917). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  117. ^ Government of the French Republic (20 January 1920). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  118. ^ Government of the French Republic (16 December 1920). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  119. ^ Government of the French Republic (16 January 1921). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  120. ^ Government of the French Republic (15 January 1922). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  121. ^ Government of the French Republic (14 June 1924). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  122. ^ Government of the French Republic (17 April 1925). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  123. ^ Government of the French Republic (29 October 1925). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  124. ^ Government of the French Republic (28 November 1925). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  125. ^ Government of the French Republic (23 June 1926). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  126. ^ Government of the French Republic (19 July 1926). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  127. ^ Government of the French Republic (3 November 1929). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  128. ^ Government of the French Republic (21 February 1930). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  129. ^ Government of the French Republic (2 March 1930). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  130. ^ Government of the French Republic (13 December 1930). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  131. ^ Government of the French Republic (27 January 1931). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  132. ^ Government of the French Republic (14 January 1932). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  133. ^ Government of the French Republic (14 January 1932). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  134. ^ Government of the French Republic (3 June 1932). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  135. ^ Government of the French Republic (18 December 1932). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  136. ^ Government of the French Republic (30 January 1934). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  137. ^ Government of the French Republic (4 February 1934). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  138. ^ Government of the French Republic (9 February 1934). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  139. ^ Government of the French Republic (8 November 1934). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  140. ^ Government of the French Republic (7 June 1935). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  141. ^ Government of the French Republic (24 January 1936). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  142. ^ Government of the French Republic (4 June 1936). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  143. ^ Government of the French Republic (18 May 1940). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  144. ^ Government of the French Republic (16 June 1940). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  145. ^ Government of the French State (10 July 1940). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  146. ^ Government of the French State (6 September 1940). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  147. ^ Government of the French State (18 April 1942). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  148. ^ Government of Free France (24 September 1941). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  149. ^ Government of Free France (9 November 1943). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  150. ^ Government of Free France (4 April 1944). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  151. ^ Government of the French Republic (10 September 1944). "Decree on the composition of the government". gallica.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  152. ^ Government of the French Republic (22 January 1947). "Decree on the composition of the government". legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020.

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