Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people experiencing a variety of psychological conditions. Mindfulness practice has been employed to reduce symptoms of depression, to reduce stress,anxiety, and in the treatment of drug addiction. Programs based on mindfulness models have been adopted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans' centers, and other environments, and mindfulness programs have been applied for additional outcomes such as for healthy aging, weight management, athletic performance, helping children with special needs, and as an intervention during the perinatal period.
Clinical studies have documented both physical- and mental-health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children. Research studies have consistently shown a positive relationship between trait mindfulness and psychological health. The practice of mindfulness appears to provide therapeutic benefits to people with psychiatric disorders, including to those with psychosis. Studies also indicate that rumination and worry contribute to the onset of a variety of mental disorders, and that mindfulness-based interventions significantly reduce both rumination and worry. Further, the practice of mindfulness may be a preventive strategy to halt the development of mental-health problems.
The necessity for more high-quality research in this field has also been identified--such as the need for more randomized controlled studies, for providing more methodological details in reported studies and for the use of larger sample sizes.
Mindfulness practice involves the process of developing the skill of bringing one's attention to whatever is happening in the present moment.
Watching the breath, body-scan and other techniques
One method is to sit in a straight-backed chair or sit cross-legged on the floor or a cushion, close one's eyes and bring attention to either the sensations of breathing in the proximity of one's nostrils or to the movements of the abdomen when breathing in and out.[web 1] In this meditation practice, one does not try to control one's breathing, but attempts to simply be aware of one's natural breathing process/rhythm. When engaged in this practice, the mind will often run off to other thoughts and associations, and if this happens, one passively notices that the mind has wandered, and in an accepting, non-judgmental way, returns to focusing on breathing.
In body-scan meditation the attention is directed at various areas of the body and noting body sensations that happen in the present moment.
One could also focus on sounds, sensations, thoughts, feelings and actions that happen in the present. In this regard, a famous exercise, introduced by Kabat-Zinn in his MBSR program, is the mindful tasting of a raisin, in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully.[note 4] By enabling reconnection with internal hunger and satiety cues, mindful eating has been suggested to be a means of maintaining healthy and conscious eating patterns.
Meditators are recommended to start with short periods of 10 minutes or so of meditation practice per day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing.
Mindfulness meditation is part of Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology.
Sati and sm?ti
The Buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart sm?ti. It is often translated as "bare attention," but in the Buddhist tradition it has a broader meaning and application, and the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion.
According to Bryan Levman writing in the Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, "the word sati incorporates the meaning of 'memory' and 'remembrance' in much of its usage in both the suttas and the [traditional Buddhist] commentary, and... without the memory component, the notion of mindfulness cannot be properly understood or applied, as mindfulness requires memory for its effectiveness".
According to Robert Sharf, sm?ti originally meant "to remember," "to recollect," "to bear in mind," as in the Vedic tradition of remembering the sacred texts. The term sati also means "to remember." In the Satipah?na-sutta the term sati means to remember the dharmas, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen. Sharf refers to the Milindapañha, which explained that the arising of sati calls to mind the wholesome dhammas such as the four foundations of mindfulness, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven awakening-factors, the noble eightfold path, and the attainment of insight. According to Rupert Gethin,
[sati] should be understood as what allows awareness of the full range and extent of dhammas; sati is an awareness of things in relation to things, and hence an awareness of their relative value. Applied to the satipah?nas, presumably what this means is that sati is what causes the practitioner of yoga to "remember" that any feeling he may experience exists in relation to a whole variety or world of feelings that may be skillful or unskillful, with faults or faultless, relatively inferior or refined, dark or pure."[note 5]
Sharf further notes that this has little to do with "bare attention," the popular contemporary interpretation of sati, "since it entails, among other things, the proper discrimination of the moral valence of phenomena as they arise."
The scholar of religion Georges Dreyfus has also expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as "bare attention" or "nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness", stressing that mindfulness in a Buddhist context means also "remembering", which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information.[note 6] Robert H. Sharf notes that Buddhist practice is aimed at the attainment of "correct view", not just "bare attention".[web 2][note 7]Jay Garfield, quoting Shantideva and other sources, stresses that mindfulness is constituted by the union of two functions, calling to mind and vigilantly retaining in mind. He demonstrates that there is a direct connection between the practice of mindfulness and the cultivation of morality - at least in the context of Buddhism from which modern interpretations of mindfulness are stemming.
The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids (1843-1922) first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in samm?-sati "Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind". Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered samm?-sati as "Correct meditation", Davids explained:
sati is literally 'memory' but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 'mindful and thoughtful' (sato sampajâno); and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist."
John D. Dunne asserts that the translation of sati and sm?ti as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish "retention" as the preferred alternative.
Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of "sati" as "memory".[note 8] The terms sati/smriti have been translated as:
A.M. Haynes and G. Feldman have highlighted that mindfulness can be seen as a strategy that stands in contrast to a strategy of avoidance of emotion on the one hand and to the strategy of emotional over engagement on the other hand. Mindfulness can also be viewed as a means to develop self-knowledge and wisdom.
Trait, state and practice
According to Brown, Ryan, and Creswell, definitions of mindfulness are typically selectively interpreted based on who is studying it and how it is applied. Some have viewed mindfulness as a mental state, while others have viewed it as a set of skills and techniques. A distinction can also be made between the state of mindfulness and the trait of mindfulness.
According to David S. Black, whereas "mindfulness" originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and "a capacity attainable only by certain people", scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness.[note 9] Black mentions three possible domains:
A trait, a dispositional characteristic (a relatively long lasting trait), a person's tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states;
A state, an outcome (a state of awareness resulting from mindfulness training), being in a state of present-moment awareness;
A practice (mindfulness meditation practice itself).[note 10]
According to Brown, mindfulness is:
A quality of consciousness manifest in, but not isomorphic with, the activities through which it is enhanced."
Several mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs:
Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI)
Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS)
Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS)
Mindfulness Questionnaire (MQ)
Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R)
Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS)
According to Bishop, et alia, mindfulness is, "A kind of nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness in which each thought, feeling, or sensation that arises in the attentional field is acknowledged and accepted as it is."
The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) measures mindfulness as a state-like phenomenon, that is evoked and maintained by regular practice.
The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) is a 21-item survey with an overall state mindfulness scale, and 2 sub-scales (state mindfulness of mind, and state mindfulness of body).
Mindfulness as a practice is described as:
"Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices"
"Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally"[note 1]
"Bringing one's complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis"
According to Steven F. Hick, mindfulness practice involves both formal and informal meditation practices, and nonmeditation-based exercises. Formal mindfulness, or meditation, is the practice of sustaining attention on body, breath or sensations, or whatever arises in each moment. Informal mindfulness is the application of mindful attention in everyday life. Nonmeditation-based exercises are specifically used in dialectical behavior therapy and in acceptance and commitment therapy. 
In a paper that described a consensus among clinical psychologists on an operational and testable definition, Bishop, Lau, et al. (2004) proposed a two-component model of mindfulness:
The first component involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment. The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward one's experiences in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance.:232
In this two-component model, self-regulated attention (the first component) "involves bringing awareness to current experience - observing and attending to the changing fields of "objects" (thoughts, feelings, sensations), from moment to moment - by regulating the focus of attention". Orientation to experience (the second component) involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state (e.g. relaxation), but rather to just notice each object that arises in the stream of consciousness.:233
The five-aggregate model
An ancient model of the mind, generally known as the five-aggregate model enables one to understand the moment-to-moment manifestation of subjective conscious experience, and therefore can be a potentially useful theoretical resource to guide mindfulness interventions.
The five aggregates are described as follows:
Material form: includes both the physical body and external matter where material elements are continuously moving to and from the material body.
Feelings: can be pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.
Perceptions: represent being aware of attributes of an object (e.g. color, shape, etc.)
Volition: represents bodily, verbal, or psychological behavior.
Sensory consciousness: refers to input from the five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or touch sensations) or a thought that happens to arise in the mind.
This model describes how sensory consciousness results in the generation of feelings, perception or volition, and how individuals' previously conditioned attitudes and past associations influence this generation. The five aggregates are described as constantly arising and ceasing in the present moment.
Cultivating self-knowledge and wisdom
The practice of mindfulness can be utilized to gradually develop self-knowledge and wisdom. In this regard, Buddhist teachings provide detailed instructions on how one can carry out an inquiry into the nature of the mind, and this guidance can help one to make sense of one's subjective experience. This could include understanding what the "present moment" is, how various thoughts, etc., arise following input from the senses, the conditioned nature of thoughts, and other realizations. In Buddhist teachings, ultimate wisdom refers to gaining deep insight into all phenomena or "seeing things as they are."
Definitions arising in modern teaching of meditation
Since the 1970s, most books on meditation use definitions of mindfulness similar to Jon Kabat-Zinn's definition as "present moment awareness". However, recently a number of teachers of meditation have proposed quite different definitions of mindfulness. Shinzen Young says a person is mindful when they have mindful awareness, and defines that to be when "concentration power, sensory clarity, and equanimity [are] working together."John Yates (Culadasa) defines mindfulness to be "the optimal interaction between attention and peripheral awareness", where he distinguishes attention and peripheral awareness as two distinct modes in which one may be conscious of things.
The English term mindfulness already existed before it came to be used in a (western) Buddhist context. It was first recorded as myndfulness in 1530 (John Palsgrave translates French pensée), as mindfulnesse in 1561, and mindfulness in 1817. Morphologically earlier terms include mindful (first recorded in 1340), mindfully (1382), and the obsolete mindiness (c. 1200).
Mindfulness as a modern, Western practice is founded on Zen and modern vipassana,[note 11] and involves the training of sati, which means "moment to moment awareness of present events", but also "remembering to be aware of something".
Sati is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: samm?-sati, Sanskrit samyak-sm?ti) is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path. Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a 'power' (Pali: bala) which contributes to the attainment of nirvana. This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion (Pali: moha) have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.
According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way in early Buddhism to liberation, "constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths."[note 12] According to Vetter, dhyana may have been the original core practice of the Buddha, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness.
According to Rhys Davids, the doctrine of mindfulness is "perhaps the most important" after the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. T.W. Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.
The aim of zazen is just sitting, that is, suspending all judgmental thinking and letting words, ideas, images and thoughts pass by without getting involved in them.
Vipassana is practiced in tandem with samatha, and also plays a central role in other Buddhist traditions. According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassan?, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation.
Vipassan?-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Therav?da Buddhism meditation practices, which employs vipassan? and ?n?p?na meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the Satipah?na Sutta.
Anapanasati, satipah?na, and vipassana
Anapanasati is mindfulness of breathing. "Sati" means mindfulness; "?n?p?na" refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The Anapanasati Sutta gives an exposition on this practice.[note 14]
Satipah?na is the establishment of mindfulness in one's day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one's body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: paññ?, Sanskrit: prajñ?).
Samprajaña, apram?da and atappa
In contemporary Theravada practice, "mindfulness" also includes samprajaña, meaning "clear comprehension" and apram?da meaning "vigilance".[note 15] All three terms are sometimes (confusingly) translated as "mindfulness", but they all have specific shades of meaning.
He held that in the proper practice of right mindfulness, sati has to be integrated with sampajañña, clear comprehension, and it is only when these two work together that right mindfulness can fulfill its intended purpose.[note 16]
Monitoring mental processes
According to Buddhadasa, the aim of mindfulness is to stop the arising of disturbing thoughts and emotions, which arise from sense-contact.
According to Grzegorz Polak, the four upassan? (foundations of mindfulness) have been misunderstood by the developing Buddhist tradition, including Theravada, to refer to four different foundations. According to Polak, the four upassan? do not refer to four different foundations, but to the awareness of four different aspects of raising mindfulness:
Kabat-Zinn himself refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with the other eminent Transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman:
The collective experience[note 17] of sages, yogis, and Zen masters offers a view of the world which is complementary to the predominantly reductionist and materialistic one currently dominating Western thought and institutions. But this view is neither particularly "Eastern" nor mystical. Thoreau saw the same problem with our ordinary mind state in New England in 1846 and wrote with great passion about its unfortunate consequences.
The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were themselves influenced by Transcendentalism and other 19th-century manifestations of Western esotericism. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church,[web 6] which in India collaborated with Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) and his Brahmo Samaj. He found that Unitarianism came closest to true Christianity, and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians. This influence worked through on Vivekananda, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west. Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention, which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the Buddhist sutras through English translations from the Pali Text Society. It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the Theosophical Society. Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings of D.T. Suzuki, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes.
Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR
In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program at the University of Massachusetts to treat the chronically ill. This program sparked the application of mindfulness ideas and practices in Medicine:230-1 for the treatment of a variety of conditions in both healthy and unhealthy people. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.
Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern World, particularly from Buddhist traditions. Kabat-Zinn himself was first introduced to meditation by Philip Kapleau, a Zen missionary who came to speak at MIT where Kabat-Zinn was a student. Kabat-Zinn went on to study meditation with other Zen-Buddhist teachers such as Thích Nh?t H?nh and Seungsahn. He also studied at the Insight Meditation Society and eventually taught there. One of MBSR's techniques - the "body scan" - was derived from a meditation practice ("sweeping") of the Burmese U Ba Khin tradition, as taught by S. N. Goenka in his Vipassana retreats, which he began in 1976. It has since been widely adapted to secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts.[note 18][note 19]
Popularization, "mindfulness movement"
Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from Buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology. In this context mindfulness is defined as moment-by-moment awareness of thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment, characterized mainly by "acceptance" - attention to thoughts and feelings without judging whether they are right or wrong. Mindfulness focuses the human brain on what is being sensed at each moment, instead of on its normal rumination on the past or the future.Mindfulness may be seen as a mode of being, and can be practiced outside a formal setting. The terminology used by scholars of religion, scientists, journalists, and popular media writers to describe this movement of mindfulness "popularization," and the many new contexts of mindfulness practice which have cropped up, has regularly evolved over the past 20 years, with some[which?] criticisms arising.
According to Jon Kabat-Zinn the practice of mindfulness may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary. Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins. Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adopted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a mindfulness-based program developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and yoga to help people become more mindful. While MBSR has its roots in spiritual teachings, the program itself is secular.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a psychological therapy designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with Major depressive disorder (MDD). It uses traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods and adds in newer psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression. Mindfulness and mindfulness meditation, focus on becoming aware of all incoming thoughts and feelings and accepting them, but not attaching or reacting to them.
Like CBT, MBCT functions on the theory that when individuals who have historically had depression become distressed, they return to automatic cognitive processes that can trigger a depressive episode. The goal of MBCT is to interrupt these automatic processes and teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming stimuli, and instead accepting and observing them without judgment. This mindfulness practice allows the participant to notice when automatic processes are occurring and to alter their reaction to be more of a reflection.
Research supports the effects of MBCT in people who have been depressed three or more times and demonstrates reduced relapse rates by 50%.
Mindfulness is a "core" exercise used in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with borderline personality disorder. DBT is dialectic, explains Linehan, in the sense of "the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis." As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:
This emphasis in DBT on a balance of acceptance and change owes much to my experiences in studying meditation and Eastern spirituality. The DBT tenets of observing, mindfulness, and avoidance of judgment are all derived from the study and practice of Zen meditations.
Mode deactivation therapy
Mode deactivation therapy (MDT) is a treatment methodology that is derived from the principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy and incorporates elements of Acceptance and commitment therapy, Dialectical behavior therapy, and mindfulness techniques. Mindfulness techniques such as simple breathing exercises are applied to assist the client in awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of unpleasant and distressing thoughts and feelings as they occur in the present moment. Mode Deactivation Therapy was developed and is established as an effective treatment for adolescents with problem behaviors and complex trauma-related psychological problems, according to recent publications by Jack A. Apsche and Joan Swart.
Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain (McCracken et al. 2007), stress (Grossman et al. 2004), anxiety and depression (Hofmann et al. 2010), substance abuse (Melemis 2008:141-157), and recurrent suicidal behavior (Williams et al. 2006). Bell (2009) gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly family therapy, starting with a discussion of mysticism and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.
The Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita, who trained in Zen meditation, developed Morita therapy upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment.
The British doctor Clive Sherlock developed Adaptation Practice in 1977. Adaptation Practice is a structured program of self-discipline.
Internal Family Systems Model (IFS), developed by Richard C. Schwartz, emphasizes the importance of both therapist and client engaging in therapy from the Self, which is the IFS term for one's "spiritual center". The Self is curious about whatever arises in one's present experience and open and accepting toward all manifestations.
In 2012 Congressman Tim Ryan of Ohio published A Mindful Nation, and has received a $1 million federal grant to teach mindfulness in schools in his home district.
Mindful Kids Miami is a tax-exempt, 501 (c)(3), non-profit corporation established in 2011 dedicated to making age-appropriate mindfulness training available to school children in Miami-Dade County public and private schools. This is primarily accomplished by training educators and other childcare providers to incorporate mindfulness practices in the children's daily activities.
In 2000, The Inner Kids Program, a mindfulness-based program developed for children, was introduced into public and private school curricula in the greater Los Angeles area.
MindUP, a classroom-based program spearheaded by Goldie Hawn's Hawn Foundation, teaches students to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. For the last decade, MindUP has trained teachers in over 1,000 schools in cities from Arizona to Washington.
The Holistic Life Foundation, a non-profit organization that created an in-school mindfulness program called Mindful Moment, is currently serving almost 350 students daily at Robert W. Coleman Elementary School and approximately 1300 students at Patterson Park High School in Baltimore, Maryland. At Patterson High School, the Mindful Moment program engages the school's faculty along with the students during a 15-minute mindfulness practice at the beginning and end of each school day.
Mindful Life Project, a non-profit 501(c)3 based out of Richmond, California, teaches mindfulness to elementary school students in underserved schools in the South Richmond school district. Utilizing curriculum, "Rise-Up" is a regular school day intervention program serving 430 students weekly, while "Mindful Community" is currently implemented at six South Richmond partner schools. These in-school mindfulness programs have been endorsed by Richmond Mayor Gayle McLaughlin, who has recommended additional funding to expand the program in order to serve all Richmond youth.
Mindfulness practices are becoming more common within educational institutions including Elementary and Secondary schools. This has been referred to as part of a 'contemplative turn' in education that has emerged since the turn of the millennium. The applications of mindfulness in schools are aimed at calming and relaxation of students as well as for students and educators to build compassion and empathy for others. An additional benefit to Mindfulness in education is for the practice to reduce anxiety and stress in students. Based on a broad meta-analytical review, scholars argued that the application of mindfulness practice enhances the goals of education in the 21st century, which include adapting to a rapidly changing world and being a caring and committed citizen. Within educational systems, the application of mindfulness practices shows an improvement of students' attention and focus, emotional regulation, creativity, and problem solving skills. As discussed by Ergas and Todd, the development of this field since the turn of the millennium has brought diverse possibilities as well as complexities, given the origins of mindfulness within Buddhism and the processes of its secularization and measurement based on science.
Renshaw and Cook state, "As scientific interest in the utility of Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI) in schools grew steadily, popular interest in mindfulness in schools seemed to grow exponentially". Despite research on mindfulness being comparatively unexamined, especially with young students, the practice has seen a spike in use within the educational arena. "A relatively recent addition to discourse around preventing school expulsion and failure, mindfulness is gaining popularity for its potential to improve students' social, emotional, behavioral, and learning-related cognitive control, thereby improving academic outcomes". Researchers and educators are interested in how mindfulness can provide optimal conditions for a students' personal development and academic success. Current research on mindfulness in education is limited but can provide insight into the potential benefits for students, and areas of improvement for future studies.
Mindfulness in the classroom is being touted as a promising new intervention tool for young students. According to Choudhury and Moses, "Although still marginal and in some cases controversial, secular programs of mindfulness have been implemented with ambitious goals of improving attentional focus of pupils, social-emotional learning in "at-risk" children and youth, not least, to intervene in problems of poverty and incarceration". Emerging research is concerned with studying teachers and programs using mindfulness practices with students and is discovering tension arising from the moral reframing of eastern practices in western school settings. As cited by Renshaw and Cook, "Unlike most other approaches to contemporary school-based intervention, which are squarely grounded in behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and ecological systems theories, MBIs have their origins in Eastern religious traditions". Some school administrators are concerned about implementing such practices, and parents have been reported to take their children out of mindfulness programs because of their personal religious beliefs. Yet, MBI's continue to be accepted by the mainstream in both primary and secondary schools because, "Mindfulness practices, particularly in relation to children who might otherwise be considered broken or unredeemable, fill a critical niche - one that allows its advocates to imagine a world where people can change, become more compassionate, resilient, reflective, and aware; a world with a viable future". As mindfulness in education continues to develop, ethical consequences will remain a controversial issue because the generic description for the "benefits" and "results" of MBI's are largely concerned with individual and inward-focused achievement, rather than the original Buddhist ideal of global human connection.
Available research reveals a relationship between mindfulness and attention. Semple, Lee, Rosa, & Miller argue, "Anxiety can impair attention and promote emotionally reactive behaviors that interfere with the development of good study skills, so it seems reasonable that increased mindfulness would be associated with less anxiety". They conducted a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children (MBCT-C) that found promise in managing anxiety for elementary school-aged children, and suggests that those who completed the program displayed fewer attention problems. In addition, Flook shows how an eight-week mindfulness awareness program was evaluated in a random and controlled school setting and measured the effects of awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Their findings concluded, "Participation in the mindfulness awareness program was associated with improvements in behavioral regulation, metacognition, and overall executive functions". In the study by Flook parents and teachers completed questionnaires which propose that participation in mindfulness programs is associated with improvements in child behavioral regulation. These perspectives are a valuable source of data given that caregivers and educators interact with the children daily and across a variety of settings. According to Eklund, Omalley, and Meyer, "School-based practitioners should find promise in the evidence supporting mindfulness-based practices with children, parents, and educators". Lastly, a third study by Zenner, Herrnleben-Kurz, and Walach concluded, "Analysis suggest that mindfulness-based interventions for children and youths are able to increase cognitive capacity of attending and learning by nearly one standard deviation and yield". Application of Mindfulness-Based Interventions continue to increase in popularity and practice.
Mindfulness-Based Interventions are rising across western culture, but its effectiveness in school programs is still being determined. Research contends, "Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness among young people". Although much of the available studies find a high number of mindfulness acceptability among students and teachers, more research needs to be conducted on its effects on well-being and mental health for students. A firmly controlled experiment, Johnson, Burke, Brinkman, and Wade evaluated "the impact of an existing and widely available school-based mindfulness program, no improvements were demonstrated on any outcome measured either immediately post-intervention or at three-month follow-up". Many questions remain on which practices best implement effective and reliable mindfulness programs at schools, and further research is needed to identify the optimal methods and measurement tools for mindfulness in education.
Mindfulness training appears to be getting popular in the business world, and many large corporations have been incorporating practicing mindfulness into their culture. For example, companies such as Google, Apple, Procter & Gamble, General Mills, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Army offer mindfulness coaching, meditation breaks and other resources to their employees to improve workplace functioning.
The introduction of mindfulness in corporate settings still remains in early stages and its potential long-term impact requires further assessment. Mindfulness has been found to result in better employee well-being, lower levels of frustration, lower absenteeism and burnout as well as an improved overall work environment. Since high levels of mindfulness correlate with ethical decision-making and increase personal awareness and emotional regulation, mindfulness training has been suggested as a way to promote ethical intentions and behavior for business students.
Legal and law enforcement organizations are also showing interest in mindfulness:
Mindfulness has been taught in prisons, reducing hostility and mood disturbance among inmates, and improving their self-esteem. Additional studies indicate that mindfulness interventions can result in significant reductions in anger, reductions in substance use, increased relaxation capacity, self-regulation and optimism.
Mindfulness has gained increasing empirical attention since 1970 and has been studied as an intervention for stress reduction and treatment of addiction. A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs (that included a combined total of 8683 participants consisting of different patient categories as well as healthy adults and children) reported evidence supporting the use of mindfulness programs to alleviate symptoms of a variety of mental and physical disorders. However, in 2019, this study was retracted because of errors in the survey methodology and because of omissions from two of the authors' competing interest statements.
A meta-analysis on meditation research published in JAMA in 2014, (that included a combined total of 3515 participants), found insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, and weight. The same meta-analysis also concluded that there is moderate evidence that meditation reduces anxiety, depression, and pain, but there is no evidence that meditation is more effective than active treatment (drugs, exercise, other behavioral therapies). However, this study included a highly heterogeneous group of meditation styles (i.e., it did not focus exclusively on mindfulness meditation), which is a significant limitation of this study.
Thousands of studies on meditation have been conducted, though the overall methodological quality of some of the studies is poor. Recent reviews have pointed out many of these issues. Nonetheless, mindfulness meditation is a popular subject for research, and many claim potential benefits for a wide array of conditions and outcomes. For example, the practice of mindfulness has been used as a potential tool for weight management, to achieve optimal athletic performance, as a beneficial intervention for children with special needs and their parents, as a viable treatment option for people with insomnia an effective intervention for healthy aging, as a strategy for managing dermatological conditions and as a useful intervention during pregnancy and the perinatal period. Recent studies have also demonstrated that mindfulness meditation significantly attenuates physical pain through multiple, unique mechanisms.
Mindfulness-based approaches have been tested for a range of health problems including anxiety disorder, mood disorder, substance abuse disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, ADHD, insomnia, coping with medical conditions, with many populations including children, adolescents, parents, teachers, therapists, and physicians. As a major subject of increasing research interest, 52 papers were published in 2003, rising to 477 by 2012. Nearly 100 randomized controlled trials had been published by early 2014.
A 2013 statement from the American Heart Association said that, when it comes to lowering blood pressure, that behavioral therapies, transcendental meditation, other meditation techniques, yoga, other relaxation therapies, and biofeedback approaches generally had modest, mixed, or no consistent evidence demonstrating their efficacy. Exercise-based regimens, such as aerobics, had relatively stronger supporting evidence.
Nevertheless, MBSR can have a beneficial effect helping with the depression and psychological distress associated with chronic illness. Meditation also may allow you to modulate pain stronger. When participants in research were exposed to pain from heating, the brainsscans of the mindfulness meditation group (by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging) showed their brains notice the pain equally, however it does not get converted to a perceived pain signal. As such they experienced up to 40-50% less pain.
Preliminary evidence suggests efficacy of mindfulness meditation in the treatment of substance use disorders; however, further study is required. MBSR might be beneficial for people with fibromyalgia: there is no evidence of long-term benefit but low-quality evidence of a small short-term benefit.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is suggested to have positive results for the improvement of attention regulation, intelligence-related measures, creativity, learning ability, cognitive style, motor skills and perceptional abilities.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is also suggested to enact comparable neurophysiological effects related to attention and self-regulation as pharmacological treatments for ADHD.
Research studies have also focused on the effects of mindfulness on the brain using neuroimaging techniques, physiological measures and behavioral tests. Research on the neural perspective of how mindfulness meditation works suggests that it exerts its effects in components of attention regulation, body awareness and emotional regulation. When considering aspects such as sense of responsibility, authenticity, compassion, self-acceptance and character, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation contributes to a more coherent and healthy sense of self and identity. Neuroimaging techniques suggest that mindfulness practices such as mindfulness meditation are associated with "changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network and default mode network structures." Further, mindfulness meditation may prevent or delay the onset of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, mindfulness-induced emotional and behavioral changes have been found to be related to functional and structural changes in the brain. It has also been suggested that the default mode network of the brain can be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic benefits of meditation. Recent research also suggest that the practice of mindfulness could influence genetic expression leading to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases and favourable changes in biomarkers.
Grey matter concentrations in brain regions that regulate emotion, self-referential processing, learning and memory processes have shown changes in density following MBSR. Additionally, MBSR practice has been associated with improvement of the immune system which could explain the correlation between stress reduction and increased quality of life. Part of these changes are a result of the thickening of the prefrontal cortex (executive functioning) and hippocampus (learning and memorisation ability), the shrinking of the amygdala (emotion and stress response) and the strengthening of the connections between brain cells. Long-term meditators have larger amounts of gyrification ("folding" of the cortex, which may allow the brain to process information faster) than people who do not meditate. Further, a direct correlation was found between the amount of gyrification and the number of meditation years, possibly providing further proof of the brain's neuroplasticity, or ability to adapt to environmental changes.
Associations of mindfulness with other variables
Mindfulness (as a trait, distinguished from mindfulness practice) has been linked to many outcomes. In an overview, Keng, Smoski, and Robins summarize: "Trait mindfulness has been associated with higher levels of life satisfaction, agreeableness, conscientiousness, vitality, self esteem, empathy, sense of autonomy, competence, optimism, and pleasant affect. Studies have also demonstrated significant negative correlations between mindfulness and depression, neuroticism, absentmindedness, dissociation, rumination, cognitive reactivity, social anxiety, difficulties in emotion regulation, experiential avoidance, alexithymia, intensity of delusional experience in the context of psychosis, and general psychological symptoms." (References to underlying studies omitted from quotation.)
Effects on mindfulness
The mechanisms that make people less or more mindful have not been researched as much as the effects of mindfulness on other variables. Yet, studies have yielded some insight into these mechanisms.
Mindfulness practice has been found to indeed increase mindfulness.
Some studies found that mindfulness was related to meditation experience 
, although the results depended somewhat on the exact way mindfulness was measured.
Bergomi et al. found that "Results provide evidence for the associations between self-reported mindfulness and meditation practice and suggest that mindfulness is particularly associated with continued practice in the present, rather than with accumulated practice over years." Increased mindfulness levels after an eight-week course have been found for both MBSR and MBCT.
Some research into other mechanisms has been done. One study conceptualised such mechanisms in terms of competition for attention. In a test of that framework, mindfulness was found to be associated (as predicted) with having an activated intention to be mindful, with feeling good, and with not being hurried of very busy. Regarding the relationship between feeling good and being mindful, a different study found that causality probably works both ways: feeling good increases mindfulness, and mindfulness increases feeling good.
Concerns and criticism
Many of the above cited review studies however also indicate the necessity for more high-quality research in this field such as conducting intervention studies using larger sample sizes, the use of more randomized controlled studies and the need for providing more methodological details in reported studies. The majority of studies also either measure mindfulness as a trait, and in research that use mindfulness interventions in clinical practice, the lack of true randomisation poses a problem for understanding the true effectiveness of mindfulness. Experimental methods using randomised samples, though, suggest that mindfulness as a state or temporary practice can influence felt emotions such as disgust and promote abstract decision-making. There are also a few review studies that have found little difference between mindfulness interventions and control groups, though they did also indicate that their intervention group was treated too shortly for the research to be conclusive. These studies also list the need for more robust research investigations. Several issues pertaining to the assessment of mindfulness have also been identified including the current use of self-report questionnaires. Potential for bias also exists to the extent that researchers in the field are also practitioners and possibly subject to pressures to publish positive or significant results.
Various scholars have criticized how mindfulness has been defined or represented in recent western psychology publications.
These modern understandings depart significantly from the accounts of mindfulness in early Buddhist texts and authoritative commentaries in the Theravada and Indian Mahayana traditions.:62 Adam Valerio has introduced the idea that conflict between academic disciplines over how mindfulness is defined, understood, and popularly presented may be indicative of a personal, institutional, or paradigmatic battle for ownership over mindfulness, one where academics, researchers, and other writers are invested as individuals in much the same way as religious communities.
The popularization of mindfulness as a "commodity" has been criticized, being termed "McMindfulness" by some critics.[web 8][web 9] According to Safran, the popularity of mindfulness is the result of a marketing strategy:
"McMindfulness is the marketing of a constructed dream; an idealized lifestyle; an identity makeover."
According to Purser and Loy, mindfulness is not being used as a means to awaken to insight in the "unwholesome roots of greed, ill will and delusion,"[web 8] but reshaped into a "banal, therapeutic, self-help technique" that has the opposite effect of reinforcing those passions.[web 8] While mindfulness is marketed as a means to reduce stress, in a Buddhist context it is part of an all-embracing ethical program to foster "wise action, social harmony, and compassion."[web 8] The privatization of mindfulness neglects the societal and organizational causes of stress and discomfort, instead propagating adaptation to these circumstances.[web 8] According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, "[A]bsent a sharp social critique, Buddhist practices could easily be used to justify and stabilize the status quo, becoming a reinforcement of consumer capitalism."[web 8] The popularity of this new brand of mindfulness has resulted in the commercialization of meditation through self-help books, guided meditation classes, and mindfulness retreats.
Buddhist commentators have criticized the movement as being presented as equivalent to Buddhist practice, while in reality it is very possibly denatured with undesirable consequences, such as being ungrounded in the traditional reflective morality and therefore, astray from traditional Buddhist ethics. Criticisms suggest it to be either de-moralized or re-moralized into clinically based ethics. The conflict is often presented in concern to the teacher's credentials and qualifications, rather than the student's actual practice. Reformed Buddhist-influenced practices are being standardized and manualized in a clearly distinct separation from Buddhism seen as a religion based in monastic temples, as expressed as mindfulness in a new psychology ethic practiced in modern meditation centers.
In media reports, people have attributed unexpected effects of increasing fear and anxiety, panic or "meltdowns" after practicing, which they suggest could expose bipolar vulnerability or repressed PTSD symptoms. However, according to published peer-reviewed academic articles, these negative effects of meditation are rare for mindfulness meditation, and appear to happen due to a poor understanding of what actually constitutes mindfulness/meditation practices.
^ abBaer cites Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994): Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion, p.4.
^While translated as "mindfulness," and often interpreted as "bare attention," the term sati has a broader connotation: "memory," "retention," "mindfulness, alertness, self-possession." In a Buddhist context it has a wider meaning and purpose, related to vipassana, namely [Sampajañña discerning] what is beneficial and what is not, and calming the mind by this discernment.
^Kabat-Zinn, in Full Catastrophe Living (Revised Edition) (2013), p. lxiv advises to use CD's with guided mindfulness practices: "Almost everybody finds it easier, when embarking for the first time on a daily meditation practice, to listen to an instructor-guided audio program and let it "carry them along" in the early stages, until they get the hang of it from the inside, rather than attempting to follow instructions from a book, however clear and detailed they may be."
Compare Rupert Gethin (2004), On the practice of Buddhist meditation, pp. 202-03, noting that the Buddhist sutras hardly explain how to meditate, and then stating that "the effective practice of meditation requires the personal instruction of a teacher." Gethin seems to echo Vetter (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, who notes that the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta describes the Buddha as instructing his first followers in turn: instructing two or three of them, while the others go out begging for food, signifying the need for personal instruction to learn ho to practice dhyana.
^Quotes from Gethin, Rupert M.L. (1992), The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhi?a Dhamm?. Brill's Indological Library, 7. Leiden and New York: Brill
^Dreyfus concludes his examination by stating: "[T]he identification of mindfulness with bare attention ignores or, at least, underestimates the cognitive implications of mindfulness, its ability to bring together various aspects of experience so as to lead to the clear comprehension of the nature of mental and bodily states. By over-emphasizing the nonjudgmental nature of mindfulness and arguing that our problems stem from conceptuality, contemporary authors are in danger of leading to a one-sided understanding of mindfulness as a form of therapeutically helpful spacious quietness. I think that it is important not to lose sight that mindfulness is not just a therapeutic technique but is a natural capacity that plays a central role in the cognitive process. It is this aspect that seems to be ignored when mindfulness is reduced to a form of nonjudgmental present-centered form of awareness of one's experiences.
^Sharf: "Mahasi's technique did not require familiarity with Buddhist doctrine (notably abhidhamma), did not require adherence to strict ethical norms (notably monasticism), and promised astonishingly quick results. This was made possible through interpreting sati as a state of "bare awareness" - the unmediated, non-judgmental perception of things "as they are," uninflected by prior psychological, social, or cultural conditioning. This notion of mindfulness is at variance with premodern Buddhist epistemologies in several respects. Traditional Buddhist practices are oriented more toward acquiring "correct view" and proper ethical discernment, rather than "no view" and a non-judgmental attitude."[web 2]
^"The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning "to remember," and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.
^Black: "[S]everal decades of research methodology and scientific discovery have defrayed these myths; mindfulness is now widely considered to be an inherent quality of human consciousness. That is, a capacity of attention and awareness oriented to the present moment that varies in degree within and between individuals, and can be assessed empirically and independent of religious, spiritual, or cultural beliefs.
^Majjhima Nikaya (MN), sutta number 118. See Thanissaro, 2006. Other discourses that describe the full four tetrads can be found in the Samyutta Nikaya's Anapana-samyutta (Ch. 54), such as SN 54.6 (Thanissaro, 2006a), SN 54.8 (Thanissaro, 2006b) and SN 54.13 (Thanissaro, 1995a). The one-tetrad exposition of anapanasati is found, for instance, in the Kayagata-sati Sutta (MN 119; Thanissaro, 1997), the Maha-satipatthana Sutta (DN 22; Thanissaro, 2000) and the Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10; Thanissaro, 1995b).
^[I]n Buddhist discourse, there are three terms that together map the field of mindfulness [...] [in their Sanskrit variants] sm?ti (Pali: sati), samprajaña (Pali: Sampajañña) and apram?da (Pali: appamada).
^ According to this correspondence, Ven. Nyanaponika spent his last ten years living with and being cared for by Bodhi. Bodhi refers to Nyanaponika as "my closest kalyamitta in my life as a monk."
^The resort to "experience" as the ground for religious truths is a strategy which goes back to Schleiermacher, as a defense against the growing influence of western rationality on the religious life of Europeans in the 19th century. See Sharf (1995), Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience.
^"Historically a Buddhist practice, mindfulness can be considered a universal human capacity proposed to foster clear thinking and open-heartedness. As such, this form of meditation requires no particular religious or cultural belief system." - Mindfulness in Medicine by Ludwig and Kabat-Zinn, available at jama.ama-assn.org
^"Kabat-Zinn (2000) suggests that mindfulness practice may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary. Thus, Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins (Kabat-Zinn, 1982;Linehan, 1993b)." - Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review by Ruth A. Baer
^ abcKhoury, Bassam; Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E.; Fournier, Claude (2015). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 78 (6): 519-28. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.03.009. PMID25818837. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a review of MBSR for healthy individuals. The meta-analysis included 29 studies enrolling 2668 participants... The results obtained are robust and are maintained at follow-up. When combined, mindfulness and compassion strongly correlated with clinical effects.
^ abSharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E. (2014). "Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction as a Stress Management Intervention for Healthy Individuals". Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 19 (4): 271-86. doi:10.1177/2156587214543143. PMID25053754. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program... Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management.
^Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro (2013). "Are Mindfulness-Based Interventions Effective for Substance Use Disorders? A Systematic Review of the Evidence". Substance Use & Misuse. 49 (5): 492-512. doi:10.3109/10826084.2013.770027. PMID23461667.
^Black, David S (2014). "Mindfulness-Based Interventions: An Antidote to Suffering in the Context of Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction". Substance Use & Misuse. 49 (5): 487-91. doi:10.3109/10826084.2014.860749. PMID24611846.
^Aust, J.; Bradshaw, T. (2017). "Mindfulness interventions for psychosis: A systematic review of the literature". Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 24 (1): 69-83. doi:10.1111/jpm.12357. PMID27928859.
^Louise S.; et al. (2018). "Mindfulness-and acceptance-based interventions for psychosis: our current understanding and a meta-analysis". Schizophrenia Research. 192: 57-63. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2017.05.023. PMID28545945.
^Deanna Kaplan; et al. (2017). "Maladaptive repetitive thought as a transdiagnostic phenomenon and treatment target: An integrative review". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 74 (7): 1126-36. doi:10.1002/jclp.22585. PMID29342312.
^ abQuerstret, Dawn; Cropley, Mark (2013). "Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: A systematic review". Clinical Psychology Review. 33 (8): 996-1009. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.08.004. PMID24036088.
^Gu, Jenny; Strauss, Clara; Bond, Rod; Cavanagh, Kate (2015). "How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies". Clinical Psychology Review. 37: 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006. PMID25689576.
^Cheng FK (2016). "Is meditation conducive to mental well-being for adolescents? An integrative review for mental health nursing". International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 4: 7-19. doi:10.1016/j.ijans.2016.01.001.
^ abcBrown, Kirk Warren; Ryan, Richard M; Creswell, J. David (2007). "Mindfulness: Theoretical Foundations and Evidence for its Salutary Effects". Psychological Inquiry. 18 (4): 211-37. doi:10.1080/10478400701598298.
^James H. Austin (2014), Zen-Brain Horizons: Toward a Living Zen, MIT Press, p. 83
^Hayes, A.M (2004). "Clarifying the Construct of Mindfulness in the Context of Emotion Regulation and the Process of Change in Therapy". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 11 (3): 255-62. CiteSeerX10.1.1.168.5070. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bph080.
^"Much of the interest in the clinical applications of mindfulness has been sparked by the introduction of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), a manualized treatment program originally developed for the management of chronic pain (Kabat-Zinn, 1982; Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, & Burney, 1985; Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, Burney, & Sellers, 1987)." - Bishop et al, 2004, "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition"
^"What Is Mindfulness?". The Greater Good Science Center. The Greater Good Science Center at the University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved .
^ abValerio, Adam (2016). "Owning Mindfulness: A Bibliometric Analysis of Mindfulness Literature Trends Within and Outside of Buddhist Contexts". Contemporary Buddhism. 17: 157-83. doi:10.1080/14639947.2016.1162425.
^Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben (2011). "The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (6): 1032-40. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.05.002. PMID21802618.
^Manicavasgar, Vijaya; Parker, Gordon; Perich, Tania (2011). "Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs cognitive behaviour therapy as a treatment for non-melancholic depression". Journal of Affective Disorders. 130 (1-2): 138-44. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.09.027. PMID21093925.
^Zettle, Robert D (2005). "The evolution of a contextual approach to therapy: From comprehensive distancing to ACT". International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 1 (2): 77-89. doi:10.1037/h0100736.
^Murdock, N. L. (2009). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill/Pearson
^Apsche JA, DiMeo L (2010). Mode Deactivation Therapy for aggression and oppositional behavior in adolescents: An integrative methodology using ACT, DBT, and CBT. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger. ISBN978-1608821075.
^Swart, Joan; Apsche, Jack (2014). "Family mode deactivation therapy (FMDT) mediation analysis". International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 9: 1-13. doi:10.1037/h0101009.
^Kurtz, Ron (1990). Body-Centered Psychotherapy, The Hakomi Method. LifeRhythm.
^Schwartz, Richard C. (2013). Internal Family Systems Therapy. Guilford Publications. ISBN978-1462513956.
^ abRenshaw, Tyler L; Cook, Clayton R (2017). "Introduction to the Special Issue: Mindfulness in the Schools-Historical Roots, Current Status, and Future Directions". Psychology in the Schools. 54: 5-12. doi:10.1002/pits.21978.
^ abEklund, Katie; O'Malley, Meagan; Meyer, Lauren (2017). "Gauging Mindfulness in Children and Youth: School-Based Applications". Psychology in the Schools. 54: 101-14. doi:10.1002/pits.21983.
^ abChoudhury, Suparna; Moses, Joshua M (2016). "Mindful interventions: Youth, poverty, and the developing brain". Theory & Psychology. 26 (5): 591-606. doi:10.1177/0959354316669025.
^Semple, Randye J; Lee, Jennifer; Rosa, Dinelia; Miller, Lisa F (2009). "A Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children: Promoting Mindful Attention to Enhance Social-Emotional Resiliency in Children". Journal of Child and Family Studies. 19 (2): 218-29. doi:10.1007/s10826-009-9301-y.
^Flook, Lisa; Smalley, Susan L; Kitil, M. Jennifer; Galla, Brian M; Kaiser-Greenland, Susan; Locke, Jill; Ishijima, Eric; Kasari, Connie (2010). "Effects of Mindful Awareness Practices on Executive Functions in Elementary School Children". Journal of Applied School Psychology. 26 (1): 70-95. doi:10.1080/15377900903379125.
^Johnson, Catherine; Burke, Christine; Brinkman, Sally; Wade, Tracey (2016). "Effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program for transdiagnostic prevention in young adolescents". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 81: 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2016.03.002. PMID27054828.
^ abGood, Darren J; Lyddy, Christopher J; Glomb, Theresa M; Bono, Joyce E; Brown, Kirk Warren; Duffy, Michelle K; Baer, Ruth A; Brewer, Judson A; Lazar, Sara W (2015). "Contemplating Mindfulness at Work". Journal of Management. 42 (1): 114-42. doi:10.1177/0149206315617003.
^Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant Leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
^ abSchultz, Patricia P; Ryan, Richard M; Niemiec, Christopher P; Legate, Nicole; Williams, Geoffrey C (2014). "Mindfulness, Work Climate, and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Employee Well-being". Mindfulness. 6 (5): 971. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0338-7.
^Lampe M (2012). "Mindfulness-based business ethics education". Academy of Educational Leadership Journal. 16 (3).
^Meditation classes raise attorneys mindfulness (2009). New Orleans CityBusiness.
^Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School (2008). Program on Negotiation Webcasts.
^Samuelson, Marlene; Carmody, James; Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Bratt, Michael A (2016). "Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Massachusetts Correctional Facilities". The Prison Journal. 87 (2): 254-68. doi:10.1177/0032885507303753.
^Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Slade, Karen; Griffiths, Mark D (2013). "Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived interventions in correctional settings: A systematic review". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 18 (3): 365-72. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2013.01.002.
^Dafoe, Terra; Stermac, Lana (2013). "Mindfulness Meditation as an Adjunct Approach to Treatment Within the Correctional System". Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 52 (3): 198-216. doi:10.1080/10509674.2012.752774.
^Rochman, B. (2009, September 6, 2009). Samurai Mind Training for Modern American Warriors. Time.
^Gotink, R.A., Chu, P., Busschbach, J.J.V., Benson, H., Fricchione, G.L., and Hunink, M.G.M. (2015) Standardised mindfulness-based interventions in healthcare: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0124344. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124344
^The PLOS ONE Editors (2019) Retraction: Standardised Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Healthcare: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of RCTs. PLoS ONE 14(4): e0215608. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215608
^Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EMS, Gould NF, Rowland-Seymour A, Sharma R, et al. Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):357-68. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13018PMID24395196
^Rogers, Jeffrey M; Ferrari, Madeleine; Mosely, Kylie; Lang, Cathryne P; Brennan, Leah (2017). "Mindfulness-based interventions for adults who are overweight or obese: A meta-analysis of physical and psychological health outcomes". Obesity Reviews. 18 (1): 51-67. doi:10.1111/obr.12461. PMID27862826.
^Colzato, Lorenza S; Kibele, Armin (2017). "How Different Types of Meditation Can Enhance Athletic Performance Depending on the Specific Sport Skills". Journal of Cognitive Enhancement. 1 (2): 122-26. doi:10.1007/s41465-017-0018-3.
^Petcharat, Manika; Liehr, Patricia (2017). "Mindfulness training for parents of children with special needs: Guidance for nurses in mental health practice". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 30 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1111/jcap.12169. PMID28449389.
^Fuchs, Wendy W; Mundschenk, Nancy J; Groark, Brian (2017). "A Promising Practice: School-Based Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Children with Disabilities". Journal of International Special Needs Education. 20 (2): 56-66. doi:10.9782/2159-4341-20.2.56.
^Cachia, Renee L; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W (2016). "Mindfulness in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Narrative Analysis". Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 3 (2): 165-78. doi:10.1007/s40489-016-0074-0.
^Hutton, Jane (Sep 2016). "How can mindfulness help patients with skin conditions". Dermatological Nursing. 15 (3): 32-35. OCLC6841989774.
^Isgut, Monica; Smith, Alicia K; Reimann, Eduardo Schuch; Kucuk, Omer; Ryan, Joanne (2017). "The impact of psychological distress during pregnancy on the developing fetus: Biological mechanisms and the potential benefits of mindfulness interventions". Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 45 (9): 999-1011. doi:10.1515/jpm-2016-0189. PMID28141546.
^Brook, R.D.; Appel, L.J.; Rubenfire, M.; Ogedegbe, G.; Bisognano, J.D.; Elliott, W.J.; Fuchs, F.D.; Hughes, J.W.; Lackland, D.T.; Staffileno, B.A.; Townsend, R.R.; Rajagopalan, S. (2013). "Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association". Hypertension. 61 (6): 1360-83. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. PMID23608661.
^Bohlmeijer, Ernst; Prenger, Rilana; Taal, Erik; Cuijpers, Pim (2010). "The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: A meta-analysis". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 68 (6): 539-44. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.10.005. PMID20488270.
^Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost; Schmidt, Stefan (2013). "A systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulness-based stress reduction for the fibromyalgia syndrome". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 75 (6): 500-10. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.10.010. PMID24290038.
^Cranson, Robert W; Orme-Johnson, David W; Gackenbach, Jayne; Dillbeck, Michael C; Jones, Christopher H; Alexander, Charles N (1991). "Transcendental meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study". Personality and Individual Differences. 12 (10): 1105-16. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90040-I.
^Aron A.; et al. (1981). "'The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum' A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning". College Student Journal. 15: 140-46.
^Dillbeck, Michael C (1982). "Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem solving". Memory & Cognition. 10 (3): 207-15. doi:10.3758/bf03197631. PMID6750312.
^Dillbeck, Michael C; Assimakis, Panayotis D; Raimondi, Dennis; Orme-Johnson, David W; Rowe, Robin (2016). "Longitudinal Effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program on Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Style". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 62 (3): 731-38. doi:10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.521.
^Fergusson, Lee C; Bonshek, Anna J; Masson, Gildas Le (2006). "Vedic Science Based Education and Nonverbal Intelligence: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study in Cambodia". Higher Education Research & Development. 15: 73-82. doi:10.1080/0729436960150106.
^ abHölzel, Britta K; Lazar, Sara W; Gard, Tim; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Vago, David R; Ott, Ulrich (2011). "How Does Mindfulness Meditation Work? Proposing Mechanisms of Action from a Conceptual and Neural Perspective". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 6 (6): 537-59. doi:10.1177/1745691611419671. PMID26168376.
^Crescentini, Cristiano; Matiz, Alessio; Fabbro, Franco (2015). "Improving Personality/Character Traits in Individuals with Alcohol Dependence: The Influence of Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation". Journal of Addictive Diseases. 34 (1): 75-87. doi:10.1080/10550887.2014.991657. PMID25585050.
^ abGotink, Rinske A; Meijboom, Rozanna; Vernooij, Meike W; Smits, Marion; Hunink, M.G. Myriam (2016). "8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction induces brain changes similar to traditional long-term meditation practice - A systematic review". Brain and Cognition. 108: 32-41. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2016.07.001. PMID27429096.
^Larouche, Eddy; Hudon, Carol; Goulet, Sonia (2015). "Potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: An interdisciplinary perspective". Behavioural Brain Research. 276: 199-212. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.05.058. PMID24893317.
^Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E (2017). "The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 56 (1): 275-86. doi:10.3233/JAD-160899. PMID27983555.
^ abShonin, Edo; Gordon, William Van; Griffiths, Mark D (2014). "Are there risks associated with using mindfulness in the treatment of psychopathology?". Clinical Practice. 11 (4): 389-92. doi:10.2217/cpr.14.23.
^Wong SY; et al. (2018). "The Safety of Mindfulness-Based Interventions: a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials". Mindfulness: 1-14.
Bazzano, Manu (2014), After Mindfulness: New Perspectives on Psychology and Meditation, Palgrave Macmillan
Bernhard, Jeffrey D; Kristeller, Jean; Kabat-Zinn, Jon (1988). "Effectiveness of relaxation and visualization techniques as an adjunct to phototherapy and photochemotherapy of psoriasis". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 19 (3): 572-4. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(88)80329-3. PMID3049703.
Didonna, Fabrizio (2008), Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness, Springer Science & Business Media
Dreyfus, Georges (2013), "Is mindfulness present-centered and non-judgmental? A discussion of the cognitive dimensions of mindfulness", in Williams, J. Mark G.; Kabat-Zinn, Jon (eds.), Mindfulness: Diverse Perspectives on its Meaning, Origins and Applications, Routledge
Gehart, Diane R. (2012), Mindfulness and Acceptance in Couple and Family Therapy, Springer Science & Business Media
Germer, Christopher K. (2005), Mindfulness. What Is It? What does It Matter? In: Christopher K. Germer, Ronald D. Siegel, Paul R. Fulton, "Mindfulness and Psychotherapy", Guilford Press
Germer, C.K. (2009). The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself from Destructive Thoughts and Emotions. Guilford Press, ISBN978-1-59385-975-6
Germer, C.K., Siegel, R., Fulton, P.R., eds. (2013). Mindfulness and Psychotherapy: Second Edition. Guilford Press, ISBN978-1-4625-1137-2
Germer, Christopher K., Ronald Siegel, Paul R. Fulton (2005), Mindfulness and Psychotherapy, The Guilford Press, ISBN1-59385-139-1 (The use of mindfulness in psychology, and the history of mindfulness)
Grossman, Paul; Niemann, Ludger; Schmidt, Stefan; Walach, Harald (2004). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 57 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7. PMID15256293.
Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding" Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.
Marlatt, GA & Kristeller, J; Mindfulness and meditation. WR Miller (Ed.), Integrating spirituality in treatment: Resources for practitioners, American Psychological Association Books, Washington, DC (1999), pp. 67-84
McCracken, Lance M; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy; Vowles, Kevin E (2007). "The role of mindfulness in a contextual cognitive-behavioral analysis of chronic pain-related suffering and disability". Pain. 131 (1-2): 63-9. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2006.12.013. PMID17257755.
McCown, Donald; Micozzi, Marc S. (2011), New World Mindfulness: From the Founding Fathers, Emerson, and Thoreau to Your Personal Practice, Inner Traditions / Bear & Co
McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN978-0195183276
Melemis, Steven M. (2008). Make Room for Happiness: 12 Ways to Improve Your Life by Letting Go of Tension. Better Health, Self-Esteem and Relationships. Modern Therapies. ISBN978-1-897572-17-7
Miller, John J; Fletcher, Ken; Kabat-Zinn, Jon (1995). "Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders". General Hospital Psychiatry. 17 (3): 192-200. doi:10.1016/0163-8343(95)00025-M. PMID7649463.
Nemcova, M. and Hajek, K. (2009). Introduction to Satitherapy - Mindfulness and Abhidhamma Principles in Person-Centered Integrative Psychotherapy. Morrisville, Lulu.com. ISBN978-1-4092-5900-8
Nyanaponika (1998), Het hart van boeddhistische meditatie (The heart of Buddhist Meditation), Asoka
Ockene, J. K; Ockene, I. S; Kabat-Zinn, J; Greene, H. L; Frid, D (1990). "Teaching risk-factor counseling skills to medical students, house staff, and fellows". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 6 (2 Suppl): 35-42. PMID2383411.
Ockene, Judith K; Sorensen, Glorian; Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Ockene, Ira S; Donnelly, Gary (1988). "Benefits and costs of lifestyle change to reduce risk of chronic disease". Preventive Medicine. 17 (2): 224-34. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(88)90065-5. PMID3047727.
Orsillo, S.M., Roemer, L. (2011). The Mindful Way through Anxiety: Break Free from Chronic Worry and Reclaim Your Life. Guilford Press, ISBN978-1-60623-464-8
Polak, Grzegorz (2011), Reexamining Jhana: Towards a Critical Reconstruction of Early Buddhist Soteriology, UMCS
Safran, Jeremy D. (2014), "Straight Talk. Cutting through the spin on psychotherapy and mental health", Psychology Today
Saxe, Gordon A; Hébert, James R; Carmody, James F; Kabat-Zinn, JON; Rosenzweig, Penny H; Jarzobski, David; Reed, George W; Blute, Robert D (2001). "Can Diet in Conjunction with Stress Reduction Affect the Rate of Increase in Prostate Specific Antigen After Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer?". The Journal of Urology. 166 (6): 2202-7. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65535-8. PMID11696736.
Vetter, Tilmann (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, BRILL
Weiss, Andrew (2004). Beginning Mindfulness: Learning the Way of Awareness. New World Library
Williams, J. Mark G; Duggan, Danielle S; Crane, Catherine; Fennell, Melanie J. V (2006). "Mindfulness-Based cognitive therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal behavior". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 62 (2): 201-10. doi:10.1002/jclp.20223. PMID16342287.
^ abcdefPurser, Ron; Order, ContributorRonald Purser is a professor of management at San Francisco State University He is an ordained teacher in the Korean Buddhist Taego; Loy, co-host of the podcast The Mindful Cranks David; Teacher, ContributorZen (July 1, 2013). "Beyond McMindfulness". HuffPost.
McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN978-0195183276
Braun, Erik Braun (2016). The Birth of Insight. Meditation, Modern Buddhism, and the Burmese Monk Ledi Sayadaw. The University Of Chicago Press.
Wilson, Jeff (2014), Mindful America: Meditation and the Mutual Transformation of Buddhism and American Culture, Oxford University Press
Nyanaponika. The Heart of Buddhist Meditation: Satipah?na : a Handbook of Mental Training Based on the Buddha's Way of Mindfulness, with an Anthology of Relevant Texts Translated from the Pali and Sanskrit.
William Hart (2011), The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation As Taught by S.N. Goenka, Pariyatti
Didonna, Fabrizio (2008), Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness, Springer Science & Business Media
Amanda Ie, Christelle T. Ngnoumen, Ellen J. Langer (2014), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness (Two Volumes), John Wiley & Sons[ISBN missing]
Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life. Hyperion Books, 2005. ISBN1401307787