Milo%C5%A1 Forman
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Milo%C5%A1 Forman

Milo? Forman
Milos Forman.jpg
Forman in 2009
Born
Jan Tomá? Forman

(1932-02-18)18 February 1932
?áslav, Czechoslovakia
(now the Czech Republic)
Died13 April 2018(2018-04-13) (aged 86)
Occupation
  • Actor
  • director
  • screenwriter
  • professor
Years active1953-2018
(m. 1958; div. 1962)

V?ra K?esadlová
(m. 1964; div. 1999)

Martina Zbo?ilová
(m. 1999)
Children4
Signature
Milo? Forman (signature).svg

Jan Tomá? "Milo?" Forman (;[1]Czech: ['m?lo? 'forman]; 18 February 1932 - 13 April 2018) was a Czech-American film director, screenwriter, actor, and professor who rose to fame in his native Czechoslovakia before emigrating to the United States in 1968.

Forman was an important figure in the Czechoslovak New Wave. Film scholars and Czechoslovakian authorities saw his 1967 film The Firemen's Ball as a biting satire on Eastern European Communism, and it was banned for many years in his home country. He left Czechoslovakia for the United States, where he gained critical and financial success. In 1975, he directed One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) starring Jack Nicholson as a patient in a mental institution. The film received widespread acclaim, and five Academy Awards including for Best Picture and for Forman Best Director. The film was the second film to win all five major Oscars for Best Picture, Director, Screenplay, and Actor in Leading Role, Actress in Leading Role). In 1978, he directed the anti-war musical Hair which premiered at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival. The film was a financial and critical success. In 1981, he directed the turn of the century drama film, Ragtime which was known for its large ensemble. The film went on to receive 8 Academy Award nominations. His next feature was a period biographical film, Amadeus (1984), based on the life of famed classical musical Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart starring Tom Hulce, and F. Murray Abraham. The film was both a critical and financial success earning 11 nominations with 8 wins including for Best Picture, and another win for Forman as Best Director. In 1996, Forman also received another Academy Award for Best Director nomination for The People vs. Larry Flynt (1996).

Throughout Forman's distinguished career he won 2 Academy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival, Golden Bear at the Berlin Film Festival, a British Academy Film Award, a César Award, David di Donatello Award, and the Czech Lion.[2]

Career

Along with cinematographer Miroslav Ond?í?ek and longtime schoolfriend Ivan Passer, Forman filmed the silent documentary Semafor about the Semafor theater.[3] Forman's first important production was Audition, a documentary about competing singers.[4] He directed several Czech comedies in Czechoslovakia. He was in Paris negotiating the production of his first American film during the Prague Spring in 1968.[5] His employer, a Czech studio, fired him, so he decided to move to the United States.[6] He moved to New York, where he later became a professor of film at Columbia University in 1978 and co-chair (with his former teacher Franti?ek Daniel) of Columbia's film department.[5] One of his protégés was future director James Mangold, whom he mentored at Columbia.[7] He regularly collaborated with cinematographer Miroslav Ond?í?ek.[6]

1960s

Black Peter (1964)

Black Peter is one of the first and most representative of the Czechoslovak New Wave. It won the Golden Leopard award at the Locarno International Film Festival.

It covers the first few days in the working life of a Czech teenager. In Czechoslovakia in 1964, the aimless Petr (Ladislav Jakim) starts work as a security guard in a busy self-service supermarket; unfortunately, he is so lacking in confidence that even when he sees shoplifters, he cannot bring himself to confront them. He is similarly tongue-tied with the lovely Asa (Pavla Martínková) and during the lectures about personal responsibility and the dignity of labor that his blustering father (Jan Vostr?il) delivers at home.

Loves of a Blonde (1965)

Loves of a Blonde is one of the best-known movies of the Czechoslovak New Wave, and won awards at the Venice and Locarno film festivals. It was also nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1967.[8]

The Firemen's Ball (1967)

A 1967 originally Czechoslovak-Italian co-production, this was Forman's first color film. It is one of the best-known movies of the Czechoslovak New Wave. On the face of it a naturalistic representation of an ill-fated social event in a provincial town, the film has been seen by both film scholars and the then-authorities in Czechoslovakia as a biting satire on East European Communism, which resulted in it being banned for many years in Forman's home country.[9] The Czech term zhasnout (to switch lights off), associated with petty theft in the film, was used to describe the large-scale asset stripping that occurred in the country during the 1990s.[6]

It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Film.[10]

1970s

Taking Off (1971)

The first movie Forman made in the United States, Taking Off won the Grand Prix at the 1971 Cannes Film Festival. The film starred Lynn Carlin and Buck Henry, and also featured Linnea Heacock as Jeannie. The film was critically panned and left Forman struggling to find work.[4] Forman later said that it did so poorly he ended up owing the studio $500.[5]

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975)

Despite the failure of Taking Off, producers Michael Douglas and Saul Zaentz hired him to direct the adaptation of Ken Kesey's cult novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. Forman later said they hired him because he was in their price range.[5] Starring Jack Nicholson and Louise Fletcher, the adaptation was a critical and commercial success. The film won Oscars in the five most important categories: Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Picture and Best Adapted Screenplay. One of only three films in history to do so (alongside It Happened One Night and The Silence of the Lambs), it firmly established Forman's reputation.[4]

Hair (1979)

The success of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest allowed Forman to direct his long-planned film version of Hair in 1979, a rock musical based on the Broadway musical by James Rado, Gerome Ragni, and Galt MacDermot. The film starred Treat Williams, John Savage and Beverly D'Angelo. It was disowned by the writers of the original musical, and, although it received positive reviews, it did not do well financially.[6]

1980s

Amadeus (1984)

Forman's next important achievement was an adaptation of Peter Shaffer's Amadeus. Retelling the story of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Antonio Salieri, it starred Tom Hulce, Elizabeth Berridge, and F. Murray Abraham. The film was internationally acclaimed and won eight Oscars, including Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Actor (for Abraham).[5]

Valmont (1989)

Forman's adaptation of Pierre Choderlos de Laclos's novel Les Liaisons dangereuses had its premiere on November 17, 1989. Another film adaptation by Stephen Frears from the same source material had been released the previous year and overshadowed Forman's adaptation.[5] The film starred Colin Firth, Meg Tilly, and Annette Bening.[4]

1990s

The People vs. Larry Flynt (1996)

The 1996 biographical film of the pornography mogul Larry Flynt brought Forman another directing Oscar nomination.[2] The film starred Woody Harrelson, Courtney Love, and Edward Norton. Though critically acclaimed, it grossed only $20 million at the box office.[5]

Man on the Moon (1999)

The biography of famous actor and avant-garde comic Andy Kaufman (Jim Carrey, who won a Golden Globe for his performance) premiered on December 22, 1999. The film also starred Danny DeVito, Courtney Love, and Paul Giamatti. Several actors from One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest appeared in the film, including DeVito.

2000s

In 2000, Forman performed alongside actor Edward Norton in Norton's directorial debut, Keeping the Faith (2000), as the wise friend to Norton's conflicted priest.[9]

Goya's Ghosts (2006)

This biography of the Spanish painter Francisco Goya (an American-Spanish co-production) premiered on November 8, 2006. The film starred Natalie Portman, Javier Bardem, Stellan Skarsgård and Randy Quaid. It struggled at the box office.[5]

Unfinished projects

In the late 1950s, Forman and Josef ?kvorecký started adapting ?kvorecký's short story Eine kleine Jazzmusik for the screen. The script, named Kapela to vyhrála (The Band Won It), tells the story of a student jazz band during the Nazi Occupation of Czechoslovakia. The script was submitted to Barrandov Film Studios. The studio required changes and both artists continued to rewrite the script. Right before the film started shooting, the whole project was completely scrapped, most probably due to intervention from people at the top of the political scene, as ?kvorecký had just published his novel The Cowards, which was strongly criticized by communist politicians.[11] The story Eine kleine Jazzmusik was dramatized as a TV film in the 1990s.[12] In the spring and summer of 1968, ?kvorecký and Forman cooperated again by jointly writing a script synopsis to make a film version of The Cowards. After ?kvorecký fled the Warsaw Pact invasion the synopsis was translated into English, but no film was made.

In the mid-1960s Forman, Passer and Papou?ek were working on a script about a soldier secretly living in Lucerna Palace in Prague. They got stuck writing the script and went to a village firemen's ball. Inspired by the experience they decided to cancel the script and write The Firemen's Ball instead.[13]

In early 1970s Forman worked on a script with Thomas Berger based on his novel Vital Parts. They never managed to write a script.

In the early 1990s, Forman co-wrote a screenplay with Adam Davidson. The screenplay, titled Hell Camp, was about an American-Japanese love affair in the world of sumo wrestlers. The picture was funded by TriStar Pictures and cancelled just four days before shooting because of the disapproval of the Japan Sumo Association, while Forman refused to make the changes requested by the association.[11]

In the early 2000s, Forman developed a film project to be titled Ember, adapted by Jean-Claude Carrière from Hungarian novelist Sándor Márai's novel. The film was about two men in the former Austria-Hungary Empire from different social backgrounds who become friends in military school and meet again 41 years later. Forman cast Sean Connery and Klaus Maria Brandauer as well as Winona Ryder. Several months before shooting, Sean Connery and the Italian producer had a disagreement and Connery withdrew from the project. Forman was so convinced that Sean Connery fit the role that he didn't want to shoot the film without him and cancelled the project a few days before the shooting was due to start.[11]

In the late 2000s, the screenplay for Ghost of Munich was written by Forman, Jean-Claude Carriere, and Václav Havel (the former Czech president and writer, who had studied at school with Forman), inspired by the novel by the French novelist Georges-Marc Benamou. The story takes a closer look at the events that surrounded the Munich Agreement. The role of the French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier was supposed to have been played by the French actor Mathieu Amalric with his older self played by Gérard Depardieu. However, the production company Pathé was not able to fund the project.[11]

Personal life

Forman gave his 18-year-old sister-in-law Hana Brejchová her first film role in Loves of a Blonde, which earned her third place in the Best Actress category at the Venice Film Festival.[14]

Forman was born in ?áslav, Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic) to Anna ?vábová Forman who ran a summer hotel. When young, he believed his biological father to be professor Rudolf Forman.[15] During the Nazi occupation, Rudolf Forman was arrested for distributing banned books, and he died from typhus[16] in the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp in May 1944.[17][18][19] Another version has it that the cause of his death in Mittelbau-Dora was interrogation by the Gestapo, although it seems unlikely that the sub-camp of Buchenwald would have been a place for the Gestapo, the Secret State Police, to operate. Forman's mother had died in Auschwitz in March the previous year.[20][21] Forman said that he did not fully understand what had happened to them until he saw footage of the concentration camps when he was 16.[19]

Forman was subsequently raised by two uncles and by family friends.[22] His older brother Pavel was a painter 12 years his senior and he emigrated to Australia after the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia.[3] Forman later discovered that his biological father was in fact the Jewish architect Otto Kohn, a survivor of the Holocaust,[21][23] and Forman was thus a half-brother of mathematician Joseph J. Kohn.[3]

In his youth, Forman wanted to become a theatrical producer. After the war, he attended the King George boarding school in Pod?brady, where his fellow students included Václav Havel, the Ma?ín brothers, and future film-makers Ivan Passer and Jerzy Skolimowski.[24] He later studied screenwriting at the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague. He was assistant of Alfréd Radok, creator of Laterna Magika. Along with fellow filmmaker and friend Passer, he left Europe for the United States during the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in summer 1968.[25]

Forman's first wife was Czech movie star Jana Brejchová. They met while making ?tata (1957). They divorced in 1962. Forman had twin sons with his second wife Czech actress V?ra K?esadlová. They separated in 1969. Their sons Petr and Mat?j (b. 1964) are both involved in the theatre. Forman married Martina Zbo?ilová on November 28, 1999, and they also had twin sons Jim and Andy (born 1999).[5]

Forman was professor emeritus of film at Columbia University.[26] In 1996, asteroid 11333 Forman was named after him.[6] He wrote poems and published the autobiography Turnaround in 1994.[6] After a short illness, he died at Danbury Hospital near his home in Warren, Connecticut on Friday, 13 April 2018 at age 86.[27][28][29][30] He is interred at New Warren Cemetery in Warren, Connecticut.

Work

Film

Year English title[31] Director Writer Original title Ref.
1955 Leave It to Me Yes Nechte to na mn? [32]
1964 Black Peter Yes Yes ?erný Petr [33]
1965 Loves of a Blonde Yes Yes Lásky jedné plavovlásky [33]
1967 The Firemen's Ball Yes Yes Ho?í, má panenko [34]
1971 Taking Off Yes Yes [33]
1975 One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Yes [33]
1979 Hair Yes [33]
1981 Ragtime Yes [33]
1984 Amadeus Yes [33]
1989 Valmont Yes Yes [33]
1996 The People vs. Larry Flynt Yes [33]
1999 Man on the Moon Yes [33]
2006 Goya's Ghosts Yes Yes [33]

Documentary

Year English title[31] Director Writer Original title Ref.
1960 Magic Lantern II Yes Yes
1964 If Only They Ain't Had Them Bands Yes Yes Kdyby ty muziky nebyly [35]
Audition Yes Yes Konkurs [33]
1973 Visions of Eight Yes Segment: "The Decathlon" [33]

Short Films

Year English title[31] Director Writer Original title Ref.
1971 I Miss Sonia Henie Yes Short film [36]

Television

Year English title[31] Director Writer Original title Ref.
1966 A well paid walk Yes Dob?e placená procházka [37]

Acting credits

Year Film[31] Role Ref.
1953 Slovo d?lá ?enu (A Woman as Good as Her Word) Young Worker [32]
1956 St?íbrný vítr (Silver wind) dustojník u Stanku [32]
1986 Heartburn Dmitri [33]
1989 New Year's Day Lazlo [33]
2000 Keeping the Faith Father Havel [33]
2008 Chelsea on the Rocks Himself [33]
2009 Peklo s princeznou (Hell with a Princess) Erlebub [32]
2011 Beloved (Les Bien-aimés) Jaromil [33]

Theatre

Year Film[31] Director Writer Ref.
1958 Laterna magika Yes [38]
1960 Laterna magika II Yes [38]
1972 The Little Black Book Yes [38]
2007 A Walk Worthwhile Yes [38]

Awards and nominations

Honours and legacy

In 1977, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.[4] In 1985, he headed the Cannes Film Festival and in 2000 did the same for the Venice Film Festival.[9] He presided over a César Award ceremony in 1988.[48] In April 2007, he took part in the jazz opera Dob?e placená procházka, itself a remake of the TV film he made in 1966.[37] It premiered at the Prague National Theatre, directed by Forman's son, Petr Forman.[37] Named 30th greatest Czech by Nejv?t?í ?ech[49] Forman's films One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and Amadeus were selected for the National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" in 1993 and 2019 respectively[50]

Year Work Academy Awards BAFTA Awards Golden Globe Awards
Nominations Wins Nominations Wins Nominations Wins
1965 Loves of a Blonde 1 1
1967 The Firemen's Ball 1
1971 Taking Off 6
1973 Visions of Eight 1 1
1975 One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest 9 5 10 6 6 6
1979 Hair 2
1981 Ragtime 8 1 7
1984 Amadeus 11 8 9 4 6 4
1989 Valmont 1 1
1996 The People vs. Larry Flynt 2 5 2
1999 Man on the Moon 2 1
Total 33 13 27 10 30 14

See also

References

  1. ^ "Say How: F". National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ a b List of Milos Forman nominations Archived January 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Awardsdatabase.oscars.org (January 29, 2010). Retrieved on June 23, 2011.
  3. ^ a b c "The Story of Famed Czech Director Milo? Forman". Cityspy. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e "The Story of Famed Czech Director Milo? Forman (Part II)". CitySpy. Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Milos Forman, Oscar-Winning Director of 'One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest', Dies at 86". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Milos Forman's Masterclass". Grapevine. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "A Visit to James Mangold's Office". Criterion.com. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ "The 39th Academy Awards (1967) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Milos Forman, Oscar-Winning Director of 'One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest,' Dies at 86". Variety.com. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "The 41st Academy Awards (1969) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011.
  11. ^ a b c d "Unrealized Projects :: Milo? Forman". milosforman.com.
  12. ^ ?SFD: Eine kleine Jazzmusik (TV film)
  13. ^ "Ho?í, má panenko :: Milo? Forman". milosforman.com. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ "Hana Brejchová". ?esko-Slovenská filmová databáze. POMO Media Group. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ Milos Forman biography; filmreference.com; retrieved June 23, 2011.
  16. ^ Conf. scan of document from the Arolsen Archives where the words "Fleckfieber" (German for typhus) and apparently "Dora Hosp." are mentioned
  17. ^ See entry Rudolf Forman in the memorial book of the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp
  18. ^ See (untick the "Include synonym" box) documents on Rudolf Forman, prisoner number 16209, from his detention and death in Buchenwald in the Arolsen Archives
  19. ^ a b Wakeman, John. World Film Directors, Volume 2. H. W. Wilson Company. 1988. 349-356.
  20. ^ She can be found as Anna Forman at the link [http://www.auschwitz.org/muzeum/informacja-o-wiezniach/ (Information on Auschwitz Prisoners); her prisoner number seems to be unknown
  21. ^ a b Tugend, Tom. (July 19, 2007) Milos Forman directs Natalie Portman in 'Goya's Ghosts'--film melds art tour and history | Arts. Jewish Journal. Retrieved on June 23, 2011.
  22. ^ Milos Forman Biography, Britannica.com, February 14, 2018; retrieved February 25, 2018.
  23. ^ Turnaround Review - Milos Forman - Salem on Literature. Enotes.com. Retrieved on June 23, 2011.
  24. ^ I Had a Wild Life. The Guardian; retrieved June 23, 2011.
  25. ^ Penner, John (December 13, 2019). "Milos Forman, Ivan Passer and their 73-year friendship: Childhood, escaping Czechoslovakia and conquering Hollywood". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2020.
  26. ^ Milos Forman page at Columbia University. Directory.columbia.edu; retrieved June 23, 2011.
  27. ^ "Forman, Oscar-winning director of 'Cuckoo's Nest' and 'Amadeus', dies at 86". Reuters. April 14, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  28. ^ "Milos Forman, Oscar-winning director, dies at 86". The Boston Globe. April 14, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  29. ^ Piccalo, Gina. "Milo? Forman, Oscar-winning Czech director of 'One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest,' dies at 86". latimes.com.
  30. ^ "Forman, Oscar-winning director of "Cuckoo's Nest" and "Amadeus",..." April 14, 2018 – via uk.reuters.com.
  31. ^ a b c d e f "Milo? Forman". ?esko-Slovenská filmová databáze. Retrieved 2018.
  32. ^ a b c d "Filmography". MilosForman.com. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Milos Forman". BFI. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ "Festival de Cannes: The Fireman's Ball". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ "Kdyby ty muziky nebyly". Zurich Film Festival. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ "I Miss Sonia Henie". MilosForman.com. Retrieved 2018.
  37. ^ a b c "A Walk Worthwhile". MilosForman.com. Retrieved 2018.
  38. ^ a b c d "Theatre Projects". MilosForman.com. Retrieved 2018.
  39. ^ a b c d e "BAFTA Awards Search". BAFTA. Retrieved 2018.
  40. ^ a b c d "Milos Forman". Golden Globes. Retrieved 2018.
  41. ^ a b "Milos FORMAN -Festival de Cannes 2018". Cannes Festival. Retrieved 2018.
  42. ^ "Berlinale: 1997 Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2012.
  43. ^ a b "PRIZES & HONOURS 2000". berlinale.de. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  44. ^ a b c d "Results Milos Forman". Academie des Arted de Cinema. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/english/movie-details/one-flew-over-the-cuckoos-nest/movieawards/68667639.cms
  46. ^ "Hair". MilosForman.com. Retrieved 2018.
  47. ^ a b "Amadeus". MilosForman.com. Retrieved 2018.
  48. ^ "Présidences de Cérémonie". Academie des Arts et Techniques du Cinema. Retrieved 2018.
  49. ^ "Nejv?t?í ?ech". Ceskatelvize.cz. Retrieved 2018.
  50. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 2020.
  51. ^ "Loves of a Blonde". MilosForman.com. Retrieved 2018.
  52. ^ "KVIFF History". KVIFF.com. Retrieved 2018.
  53. ^ a b "Milos Forman named honorary citizen". Prague.tv. Retrieved 2018.
  54. ^ "News Articles in 2009". Emerson College.
  55. ^ "University Commencement, Morningside Campus". columbia.edu. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved 2015.

External links


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