Middle Persian
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Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(P?rs?k or P?rs?g)
RegionSasanian Empire (224-651)
EthnicityPersian people
EraEvolved into Early New Persian by the 9th century; thereafter used only by Zoroastrian priests for exegesis and religious instruction.
Indo-European
Early form
Pahlavi scripts, Manichaean alphabet, Avestan alphabet
Language codes
pal
Either:
pal - Zoroastrian Middle Persian ("Pahlavi")
xmn - Manichaean Middle Persian (Manichaean script)
Glottologpahl1241  [1]
Linguasphere58-AAC-ca

Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym as P?rs?k (or P?rs?g in its later form),[2][3] is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the literary language of the Sasanian Empire. For some time after the Sasanian collapse, Middle Persian continued to function as a prestige language.[4] It descended from Old Persian, the language of Achaemenid Empire, and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian.

Name

"Middle Iranian" is the name given to middle stage of development of the numerous Iranian languages and dialects.[5]:1 The middle stage of Iranian languages begins around 450 BCE and ends around 650 CE. One of those Middle Iranian languages is Middle Persian, i.e. the middle stage of the language of the Persians, an Iranian peoples of Persia proper, which lies in the south-western highlands on the border with Babylonia. The Persians called their language Parsik, meaning "Persian".

Another Middle Iranian language was Parthian, i.e. the language of the northwestern Iranian peoples of Parthia proper, which lies along the southern/south-eastern edge of the Caspian sea and is adjacent to the boundary between western and eastern Iranian languages. The Parthians called their language Parthawik, meaning "Parthian". Via regular sound changes Parthawik became Pahlawik, from which the word 'Pahlavi' eventually evolved. The -ik in parsik and parthawik was a regular Middle Iranian appurtenant suffix for "pertaining to". The New Persian equivalent of -ik is -i.

When the Arsacids (who were Parthians) came to power in the 3rd-century BCE, they inherited the use of written Greek (from the successors of Alexander the Great) as the language of government. Under the cultural influence of the Greeks (Hellenization), some Middle Iranian languages, such as Bactrian, also had begun to be written in Greek script. But yet other Middle Iranian languages began to be written in a script derived from Aramaic. This occurred primarily because written Aramaic had previously been the written language of government of the former Achaemenids, and the government scribes had carried that practice all over the empire. This practice had led to others adopting Imperial Aramaic as the language of communications, both between Iranians and non-Iranians, as well as between Iranians.[6]:1251-1253 The transition from Imperial Aramaic to Middle Iranian took place very slowly, with a slow increase of more and more Iranian words so that Aramaic with Iranian elements gradually changed into Iranian with Aramaic elements.[7]:1151 Under Arsacid hegemony, this Aramaic-derived writing system for Iranian languages came to be associated with the Parthians in particular (it may have originated in the Parthian chancellories[7]:1151), and thus the writing system came to be called pahlavi "Parthian" too.[8]:33

Aside from Parthian, Aramaic-derived writing was adopted for at least four other Middle Iranian languages, one of which was Middle Persian. In the 3rd-century CE, the Parthian Arsacids were overthrown by the Sassanids, who were natives of the south-west and thus spoke Middle Persian as their native language. Under Sassanid hegemony, the Middle Persian language became a prestige dialect and thus also came to be used by non-Persian Iranians. In the 7th-century, the Sassanids were overthrown by the Arabs. Under Arab influence, Iranian languages began be written in Arabic script (adapted to Iranian phonology), while Middle Persian began to rapidly evolve into New Persian and the name parsik became Arabicized farsi. Not all Iranians were comfortable with these Arabic-influenced developments, in particular, members of the literate elite, which in Sassanid times consisted primarily of Zoroastrian priests. Those former elites vigorously rejected what they perceived as 'Un-Iranian', and continued to use the "old" language (i.e. Middle Persian) and Aramaic-derived writing system.[8]:33 In time, the name of the writing system, pahlavi "Parthian", began to be applied to the "old" Middle Persian language as well, thus distinguishing it from the "new" language, farsi.[8]:32-33 Consequently, 'pahlavi' came to denote the particularly Zoroastrian, exclusively written, late form of Middle Persian.[9] Since almost all surviving Middle Persian literature is in this particular late form of exclusively written Zoroastrian Middle Persian, in popular imagination the term 'Pahlavi' became synonymous with Middle Persian itself.

The ISO 639 language code for Middle Persian is pal, which reflects the post-Sasanian era use of the term Pahlavi to refer to the language and not only the script.

Transition from Old Persian

In the classification of the Iranian languages, the Middle Period includes those languages which were common in Iran from the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in the fourth century BCE up to the fall of the Sasanian Empire in the seventh century CE.

The most important and distinct development in the structure of Iranian languages of this period is the transformation from the synthetic form of the Old Period (Old Persian and Avestan) to an analytic form:

Transition to New Persian

The modern-day descendant of Middle Persian is New Persian. The changes between late Middle and Early New Persian were very gradual, and in the 10th-11th centuries, Middle Persian texts were still intelligible to speakers of Early New Persian. However, there are definite differences that had taken place already by the 10th century:

  • Sound changes, such as
    • the dropping of unstressed initial vowels
    • the epenthesis of vowels in initial consonant clusters
    • the loss of -g when word final
    • change of initial w- to either b- or (gw- -> g-)
  • Changes in the verbal system, notably the loss of distinctive subjunctive and optative forms, and the increasing use of verbal prefixes to express verbal moods
  • a transition from split ergative back to consistent nominative-accusative morphosyntactic alignment[13][14]
  • Changes in the vocabulary, particularly the establishment of a superstratum or adstratum of Arabic loanwords replacing many Aramaic loans and native terms.
  • The substitution of Arabic script for Pahlavi script.

Surviving literature

Traces of Middle Persian are found in remnants of Sasanian inscriptions and Egyptian papyri, coins and seals, fragments of Manichaean writings, and treatises and Zoroastrian books from the Sasanian era, as well as in the post-Sasanian Zoroastrian variant of the language sometimes known as Pahlavi, which originally referred to the Pahlavi scripts,[15][16] and that was also the preferred writing system for several other Middle Iranian languages. Aside from the Aramaic alphabet-derived Pahlavi script,[17] Zoroastrian Middle Persian was occasionally also written in Pazend, a system derived from the Avestan alphabet that, unlike Pahlavi, indicated vowels and did not employ logograms. Manichaean Middle Persian texts were written in the Manichaean alphabet, which also derives from Aramaic but in an Eastern Iranian form via the Sogdian alphabet.

Pahlavi Middle Persian is the language of quite a large body of literature which details the traditions and prescriptions of Zoroastrianism, which was the state religion of Sasanian Iran (224 to c. 650) before the Muslim conquest of Persia. The earliest texts in Zoroastrian Middle Persian were probably written down in late Sasanian times (6th-7th centuries), although they represent the codification of earlier oral tradition.[18] However, most texts, including the translated versions of the Zoroastrian canon, date from the ninth to the 11th century, when Middle Persian had long ceased to be a spoken language, so they reflect the state of affairs in living Middle Persian only indirectly. The surviving manuscripts are usually 14th-century copies.[15] Other, less abundantly attested varieties are Manichaean Middle Persian, used for a sizable amount of Manichaean religious writings, including many theological texts, homilies and hymns (3rd-9th, possibly 13th century), and the Middle Persian of the Church of the East, evidenced in the Pahlavi Psalter (7th century); these were used until the beginning of the second millennium in many places in Central Asia, including Turpan and even localities in South India.[19] All three differ minimally from one another and indeed the less ambiguous and archaizing scripts of the latter two have helped to elucidate some aspects of the Sasanian-era pronunciation of the former.[20]

Samples

Below is transcription and translation of the first page of the facsimile known as Book of Arda Viraf, originally written in a Pahlavi script.

[21]

pad n?m ? yazd?n

?d?n g?w?nd k? ?w-b?r ahlaw zardu?t d?n ? pad?rift andar g?h?n raw?g be kard. t? bawandag?h [?] s?sad s?l d?n andar ab?zag?h ud mard?m andar ab?-gum?n?h b?d h?nd. ud pas gizistag gann?g m?n?g [?] druwand gum?n kardan ? mard?m?n pad ?n d?n r?y ?n gizistag *alek/sandar ? *hr?m?y?g ? muzr?y?g-m?ni?n wiy?b/?n?n?d *ud pad gar?n sezd ud *nibard ud *wig ? ?r?n-?ahr *fr?st?d. u-? ?y ?r?n dahibed ?zad ud dar ud xwad?y?h wi?uft ud aw?r?n kard. ud ?n d?n ?iy?n ham?g abest?g ud zand [?] abar g?w p?st?h? ? wir?stag pad ?b ? zarr nibi?tag andar staxr [?] p?bag?n pad diz [?] *nibi?t nih?d ?st?d. ?y pety?rag ? wad-baxt ? ahlom ? druwand ? an?g-kard?r *aleksandar [?] hr?m?y?g [?] mu/zr?y?g-m?ni?n abar ?wurd ud be s?xt.

In the name of God

Thus they have said that once the righteous Zoroaster accepted a religion, he established it in the world. After/Within the period of 300 years (the) religion remained in holiness and the people were in peace and without any doubt. But then, the sinful, corrupt and deceitful spirit, in order to cause people doubt this religion, illusioned/led astray that Alexander the Roman, resident of Egypt, and sent him to Iran with much anger and violence. He murdered the ruler of Iran and ruined court, and the religion, as all the Avesta and Zand (which were) written on the ox-hide and decorated with water-of-gold (gold leaves) and had been placed/kept in Stakhr of Papak in the 'citadel of the writings.' That wretched, ill-fated, heretic, evil/sinful Alexander, The Roman, who was dwelling in Egypt, and he burned them up.

Poetry

A sample Middle Persian poem from manuscript of Jamasp Asana:

Original in Middle Persian:
D?rom andarz-? az d?n?g?n
 
Az guft-? pn?g?n
 
? ?m?h b? wiz?rom
 
Pad r?st?h andar g?h?n
 
Agar ?n az man pad?r?d
 
Bav?d s?d-? d? g?h?n
 
Near literal translation into Modern Persian:
D?ram andarz-i az d?n?y?n
? ?
Az gofte-ye pi?iniy?n
Be ?om? be-goz?ram
Be r?st? andar jah?n
? ?
agar ?n az man paz?rid
Bovad s?d-e d? jah?n
? ?
Translation into English:
I have a counsel from the wise,
 
from the advises of the ancients,
 
I will pass it upon you
 
By truth in the world
 
If you accept this counsel
 
It will be your benefits for this life and the next
 

Other sample texts

buhr h?n h ? hormizd?n ham?g ki?war?g?n pad payk?ri?n yazd?n ?hang kard ud ham?g g?wi?n ? usk?r ud wiz?yi?n ?wurd pas az b?xtan ? ?d?rb?d pad g?wi?n ? pass?xt ab?g ham?g ?yn jud-sardag?n ud nask-murd?n-iz ? jud-ristag?n ?n-iz guft k? n?n ka-m?n d?n pad st? d?n d?d kas-iz ag-d?n?h b? n? hil?m w abar tuxg tuxm ud ham g?nag kard.

Shapur, the king of kings, son of Hormizd, induced all countrymen to orient themselves to god by disputation, and put forth all oral traditions for consideration and examination. After the triumph of ?durb?d, through his declaration put to trial by ordeal (in disputation) with all those sectaries and heretics who recognized (studied) the Nasks, he made the following statement: 'Now that we have gained an insight into the Religion in the worldly existence, we shall not tolerate anyone of false religion, and we shall be more zealous.

Andar xwad?y?h buhr ? ohrmazd?n t?z?g?n mad h?nd un x?r?g ? rudb?r grift was s?l pad xw?r t?zi?n dt t buhr ? xwad?y?h mad oyn t?z?g?n sp?xt ud ?ahr azi? st?d ud was h t?z?g?n ?baxn?d ud was marag?h.

During the rulership of Shapur, the son of Hormizd, the Arabs came; they took Xorig R?db?r; for many years with contempt (they) rushed until Shapur came to rulership; he destroyed the Arabs and took the land and destroyed many Arab rulers and pulled out many number of shoulders.

Vocabulary

Affixes

There are a number of affixes in Middle Persian that did not survive into Modern Persian:[22][23][24]

Middle Persian English Other Indo-European Example(s)
A- Privative prefix, un-, non-, not- Greek a- (e.g. atom) a-sp?s 'ungrateful', a-bim 'fearless', a-r 'inevitable', a-d?d 'unjust'
An- Prevocalic privative prefix, un-, non- English -un, German ant- an-?r?n 'non-Iranian', an-ast 'non-existent'
-ik (-ig in Late Middle Persian) Having to do with, having the nature of, made of, caused by, similar to English -ic, Latin -icus, Greek -ikos, Slavic -isku P?rs?k 'Persian', ?s?rik 'Assyrian', Pahlavik 'Parthian', Hr?m?y?k/Hr?m?k 'Byzantine, Roman', T?z?k 'Arab'

Location suffixes

Middle Persian Other Indo-European Example(s)
-gerd Mithradatgerd "Mithridates City", Susangerd (City of Susan), Darabgerd "Darius City", Bahramjerd "Bahram City", Dastgerd, Virugerd, Borujerd
-v?l Ardabil "Holy City", Kabul and Zabol
-?p?t (later -?b?d) Ashk?b?d > Ashgabat "Land of Arsaces"
-st?n English stead 'town', Russian stan 'settlement', common root with Germanic stand Tapurstan, Sakastan

Comparison of Middle Persian and Modern Persian vocabulary

There are a number of phonological differences between Middle Persian and New Persian. The long vowels of Middle Persian did not survive in many present-day dialects. Also, initial consonant clusters were very common in Middle Persian (e.g. ? sp?s "thanks"). However, New Persian does not allow initial consonant clusters, whereas final consonant clusters are common (e.g. asb "horse").

Early Middle Persian English Early New Persian Notes Other Indo-European
Dr?d ? Hello (lit. 'health') D?r?d (?)
Pad-dr?t ? Goodbye B? d?r?d ( ?), later bedr?d ()
Sp?s ? Thanks Sip?s (?) Sp?s in kurdish PIE *spe?-
Pad To, at, in, on B? ()
Az From Az ()
?agr, r1 Lion r () From Old Persian *?agra-. Preserved as Tajiki ?er and Kurdish () r
r 1 Milk r () From Old Persian **xra-. Tajiki ?ir and Kurdish (r, ) from PIE *sw?yd-
As?m ? Iron ?han () ?sin (?) in Kurdish German Eisen
Arjat Silver seem () floodlike "silvar" (" ") Latin argentum (French argent), Armenian arsat, Old Irish airget, PIE h?er?n?t-, an n-stem
Ar? Silver coinage Arj () 'value/worth' Same as Arg (?) 'price' in Ossetian
?v?rak Evening Extinct in Modern Persian Survived as ?v?r () in Kurdish and Lurish
T?best?n (adjective for) summer ? T?best?n
H?m?n Summer Extinct H?m?n has survived in Balochi, and Central Kurdish.

Survived as H?v?n in Northern Kurdish.

St?rag , Star Star Set?re () St?r, St?rk in Northern Kurdish Latin stella, Old English steorra, Gothic stairno, Old Norse stjarna
Fradom First Extinct Preserved as pronin in Sangsari language First, primary, Latin primus, Greek ?, Sanskrit prathama
Frad?k Tomorrow Fard? (?) Fra- 'towards' Greek pro-, Lithuanian pra, etc.
Murd ? Died M?rd () Latin morta, English murd-er, Old Russian mirtvu, Lithuanian mirtis
R?z Day R?z () From rn 'light'. Kurdish r (), also preserved as r (?) in Balochi Armenian lois 'light', Latin lux 'light'
S?l Year S?l () Armenian s?rd 'sun', German Sonne, Russian
M?tar Mother M?dar (?) Latin m?ter, Old Church Slavonic mater, Lithuanian motina
Pidar Father P?dar () Latin pater (Italian padre), Old High German fater
Br?d,Br?dar Brother Bar?dar () Old Ch. Slavonic brat(r)u, Lithuanian brolis, Latin fr?ter, Old Irish brathair, O. H. German bruoder
Xw?h(ar) ? Sister X?har () Armenian khoyr
Duxtar Daughter D?xtar (?) Gothic dauhtar, O. H. German tohter, Old Prussian duckti, Armenian dowstr, Lithuanian dukte
?h?y ? Yes ?r? ()
N? No Na ()

1 Since many long vowels of Middle Persian did not survive, a number of homophones were created in New Persian. For example, ?ir and ?er, meaning "milk" and "lion", respectively, are now both pronounced ?ir. In this case, the correct pronunciation has been preserved in Kurdish and Tajiki.[25]

Middle Persian loanwords in other languages

There is a number of Persian loanwords in English, many of which can be traced to Middle Persian. The lexicon of Classical Arabic also contains many borrowings from Middle Persian. In such borrowings Iranian consonants that sound foreign to Arabic, g, ?, p, and ?, have been replaced by q/k, j, ?, f/b, and s/z. The exact Arabic renderings of the suffixes -ik/-ig and -ak/-ag is often used to deduce the different periods of borrowing.[2] The following is a parallel word list of such terms:[26][27][28]

Middle Persian English Other Languages Possible Arabic Borrowing English
Srat[26] Street Latin strata 'street', Welsh srat 'plain'; from PIE root stere- 'to spread, extend, stretch out' (Avestan star-, Latin sternere, Old Church Slavonic stira) Sir?t (?) Path
Burg[26] Tower Germanic burg 'castle' or 'fort' Burj () Tower
T?k[29]:89 Arch, vault, window Borrowed into Anatolian Turkish and Standard Azerbaijani in taq?a 'a little window, a niche' T?q () Arch
Nav-xud?[2]:93 Master of a ship, captain From PIE root *nau-; cognates with Latin navigia N?xu () Captain
Nargis[2]:89 Narcissus Narjis (?) Narcissus
G[2]:87 Hearer, listener, ear Of the same root is Aramaic gak 'prognosticator, informer' (From Middle Persian gak with -ak as a suffix of nomen agentis) J?s?s () Spy
A-sar[28]; A- (negation prefix) + sar (end, beginning) Infinite, endless A- prefix in Greek; Sanskrit siras, Hittite harsar 'head' Azal () Infinite
A-pad[28]; a- (prefix of negation) + pad (end) Infinity Abad () Infinity, forever
D?n[26] Religion From Avestan daena D?n () Religion
B?st?n[27] (b? 'aroma, scent' + -stan place-name element) Garden Bust?n () Garden
?ir?g[26][2]:90[27] Lamp Sir?j (?) Lamp
T?g[27] Crown, tiara T?j () Crown
Parg?r[27] Compass Firj?r () Compass (drawing tool)
Rav?g[28] Current Raw?j (?) Popularity
Rav?k[28] (older form of rav?g; from the root rav (v. raftan) 'to go') Current Riw?q (?) Place of passage, corridor
Gund[27] Army, troop Jund () Army
?alw?r[27] Trousers Sirw?l () Trousers
R?st?k Village, district, province Ruzd?q () Village
Zar-par?n Saffron Za?far?n () Saffron
S?dag[2]:91 Simple Sa?ij (?) Simple
Banaf?ag[2]:91 Violet Banafsaj () Violet
Pahrist[2]:99 List, register, index Fihris (?) List, index
Ta?t[29]:156 Basin, washtub Ta?t () Basin, washtub
D?yak[29]:142 Nurse, midwife Daya (?) Midwife
Xandak[2]:101 Ditch, trench Xandaq (?) Ditch, trench

Comparison of Middle Persian and Modern Persian names

Middle Persian New Persian Old Persian English
An?hid N?hid An?hit? Anahita
Artaxr Arda?ir Artax?atra Artaxerxes
Mihr Mehr Mithra Mithra
Rokhs?na Roks?ne Rokh-?wana Roxana
P?pak B?bak
?leksandar, Sukandar Eskandar Alexander the Great
P?r?z P?ruz P?r
Mihrd?t Mehrd?d Mithradata Mithridates
Bor?n Bor?n Bor?n
Husraw, Xusraw Khosrow Husravah Chosroes
Zaratu(x)?t Zartt Zartu?t Zoroaster
?hrmazd Hormizd Ahura Mazda Ahura Mazda, astr. Jupiter

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pahlavi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mushegh Asatrian. (2006). Iranian Elements in Arabic: The State of Research. Iran & the Caucasus, 10(1), 87-106.
  3. ^ [MacKenzie, D. N. 1986. A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, p. 65. OUP]
  4. ^ Versteegh, K. (2001). Linguistic Contacts between Arabic and Other Languages. Arabica, 48(4), 470-508.
  5. ^ Henning, Walter Bruno (1958), Mitteliranisch, Handbuch der Orientalistik I, IV, I, Leiden: Brill.
  6. ^ Gershevitch, Ilya (1983), "Bactrian Literature", in Yarshatar, Ehsan (ed.), The Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanian Periods, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3(2), Cambridge University Press, pp. 1250-1260, ISBN 0-521-24693-8.
  7. ^ a b Boyce, Mary (1983), "Parthian Writings and Literature", in Yarshatar, Ehsan (ed.), The Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanian Periods, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3(2), Cambridge University Press, pp. 1151-1165, ISBN 0-521-24693-8.
  8. ^ a b c Boyce, Mary (1968), Middle Persian Literature, Handbuch der Orientalistik 1, IV, 2, Leiden: Brill, pp. 31-66.
  9. ^ Cereti, Carlo (2009), "Pahlavi Literature", Encyclopedia Iranica, (online edition).
  10. ^ Dabir-Moghaddam, Mohammad. 2018 Typological Approaches and Dialects. In: The Oxford Handbook of Persian Linguistics. Ed. by Anousha Sedighi and Pouneh Shabani-Jadidi. OUP. P.80.
  11. ^ [https://revije.ff.uni-lj.si/ala/article/download/73/60/ Karimi, Yadgar. 2012. The Evolution of Ergativity in the Iranian Languages. Acta Linguistica Asiatica, 2(1), 2012.ISSN: 2232-3317]
  12. ^ Noda, Keigou. 1983 Ergativity in Middle Persian. Gengo Kenkyu 84,105~125
  13. ^ Dabir-Moghaddam, Mohammad. 2018 Typological Approaches and Dialects. In: The Oxford Handbook of Persian Linguistics. Ed. by Anousha Sedighi and Pouneh Shabani-Jadidi. OUP. P.80.
  14. ^ [Martin Joachim Kümmel. 2018. Areal developments in the history of Iranic: West vs. East. University of Jena. Talk given at Workshop 7, Discovering (micro-)areal patterns in Eurasia. P.27]
  15. ^ a b "Linguist List - Description of Pehlevi". Detroit: Eastern Michigan University. 2007.
  16. ^ See also Omniglot.com's page on Middle Persian scripts
  17. ^ Spooner, Brian; Hanaway, William L. (2012). Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 1-934536-56-3., p. 14.
  18. ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 141. In Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum (ed. Rüdiger Schmitt).
  19. ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 138. In Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum (ed. Rüdiger Schmitt).
  20. ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 143. In Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum (ed. Rüdiger Schmitt).
  21. ^ R. Mehri's Parsik/Pahlavi Web page (archived copy) at the Internet Archive
  22. ^ Joneidi, F. (1966). Pahlavi Script and Language (Arsacid and Sassanid) ? ? ? ? (p. 54). Balkh ( ).
  23. ^ David Neil MacKenzie (1971). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.
  24. ^ Joneidi, F. (1972). The Story of Iran. First Book: Beginning of Time to Dormancy of Mount Damavand ( ? ? ? ).
  25. ^ Strazny, P. (2005). Encyclopedia of linguistics (p. 325). New York: Fitzroy Dearborn.
  26. ^ a b c d e Mackenzie, D. N. (2014). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-61396-8.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "ARABIC LANGUAGE ii. Iranian loanwords in Arabic". Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 2015.
  28. ^ a b c d e Joneidi, F. (1965). Dictionary of Pahlavi Ideograms ( ) (p. 8). Balkh ( ).
  29. ^ a b c Tietze, A., & Lazard, G. (1967). Persian Loanwords in Anatolian Turkish. Oriens, 20, 125-168.

Sources


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