Mid Back Rounded Vowel
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Mid Back Rounded Vowel
Mid back rounded vowel
o?
IPA Number307 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal)o​̞
Unicode (hex)U+006F U+031E
Braille? (braille pattern dots-135)? (braille pattern dots-6)? (braille pattern dots-126)
Audio sample

The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [?], it is normally written ⟨o⟩. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨o?⟩ or ⟨⟩, the former being more common. A non-IPA letter ⟨?⟩ is also found.

Just because a language has only one non-close non-open back vowel, it still may not be a true-mid vowel. There is a language in Sulawesi, Indonesia, with a close-mid [o], Tukang Besi. Another language in Indonesia, in the Maluku Islands, has an open-mid [?], Taba. In both languages, there is no contrast with another mid (true-mid or close-mid) vowel.

Kensiu, in Malaysia and Thailand, is highly unusual in that it contrasts true-mid vowels with close-mid and open-mid vowels without any difference in other parameters, such as backness or roundedness.

Features

  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] bok [bk] 'goat' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. The height varies between mid [] and close-mid .[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Hejazi[2] ??‎/l?n [lo?:n] 'color' See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Breton[3] [example needed] Possible realization of unstressed /?/; can be open-mid or close-mid instead.[3]
Chinese Taiwanese Mandarin[4] ? / w? 'I' See Standard Chinese phonology
Shanghainese[5] ?/kò [kö?¹] 'tall' Near-back. Realization of /?/ in open syllables and /?/ in closed syllables.[5]
Czech[6][7] oko ['o?ko?] 'eye' In Bohemian Czech, the backness varies between back and near-back, whereas the height varies between mid [o?] and close-mid .[6] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[8][9] måle ['m:l?] 'measure' Near-back;[8][9] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Amsterdam[10] och [?] 'alas' Near-back;[10] corresponds to open-mid in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[11] mot [mt] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩.
English Cultivated South African[12] thought [:t] 'thought' Close-mid for other speakers. See South African English phonology
Maori[13] Closer in other New Zealand accents.[13]
Scouse[14] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩.
Some Cardiff speakers[15] Other speakers use a more open, advanced and unrounded vowel .[15]
General American[16] Cambodia 'Cambodia' Near-back; often diphthongal: [ö].[16] Some regional North American varieties use a vowel that is closer to cardinal . See English phonology
Yorkshire[17] [k?am'bo?:dj?] Corresponds to // in other British dialects. See English phonology
Faroese[18] toldi ['tlt] 'endured' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. See Faroese phonology
Finnish[19][20] kello ['ke?llo?] 'clock' See Finnish phonology
French Parisian[21] pont [p] 'bridge' Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩. See French phonology
German Southern accents[22] voll [fl] 'full' Common realization of /?/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Open-mid in Northern Standard German.[23] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[24] hoch [ho?:?] 'high' Close-mid in other accents.[25] See Standard German phonology
Greek Modern Standard[26][27] ??? / pos [po?s?] 'how' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[28] ?‎/shalom/lom [?ä'lo?m] 'peace' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script. See Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Ibibio[29] do [dó?] 'there'
Icelandic[30] loft ['lft] 'air' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [o?].[31] See Icelandic phonology
Inuit West Greenlandic[32] [example needed] Allophone of /u/ before and especially between uvulars.[32] See Inuit phonology
Italian Standard[33] forense [fo?'r?nse] 'forensic' Common realization of the unstressed /o/.[33] See Italian phonology
Northern accents[34] bosco ['bo?sko?] 'forest' Local realization of /?/.[34] See Italian phonology
Japanese[35] ?/ko [ko?] 'child' See Japanese phonology
Korean[36] / bori [po?'?i] 'barley' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[37] mok [mk] 'mug' Typically transcribed IPA with ⟨?⟩.[37]
Norwegian Urban East[38][39] lov [lo?:?] 'law' Also described as close-mid .[40] See Norwegian phonology
Romanian[41] acolo [ä'ko?lo?] 'there' See Romanian phonology
Russian[42] ??/sukhoy/sukhoj 'dry' Some speakers realize it as open-mid .[42] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[43][44] ?? / kd/kõd [kô?:d?] 'code' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Shipibo[45] koni ['kö?ni?] 'eel' Near-back.[45]
Slovak Standard[46][47] ohúri? ['u?:ri?c?] 'to stun' See Slovak phonology
Slovene[48] oglas [o?'?lá?s?] 'advertisement' Unstressed vowel,[48] as well as an allophone of /o/ before /?/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[49] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[50] todo ['t?o?ð?o?] 'all' See Spanish phonology
Tera[51] zo [zo?:] 'rope'
Turkish[52][53] kol [k?o] 'arm' See Turkish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[54] do [d?o?] 'corn tassel'

Notes

  1. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The rounded mid-high back vowel /?/".
  2. ^ Abdoh (2010:84)
  3. ^ a b Ternes (1992), p. 433.
  4. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), p. 110.
  5. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  6. ^ a b Dankovi?ová (1999), p. 72.
  7. ^ ?imá?ková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), pp. 228-230.
  8. ^ a b Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  10. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  11. ^ Peters (2010), p. 241.
  12. ^ Lass (2002), p. 116.
  13. ^ a b Warren & Bauer (2004), p. 617.
  14. ^ Watson (2007), p. 357.
  15. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  16. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 487.
  17. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 180.
  18. ^ Peterson (2000), cited in Árnason (2011:76)
  19. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  20. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  21. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 226.
  22. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  23. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 64.
  24. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  25. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  26. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  27. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  28. ^ Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  29. ^ Urua (2004), p. 106.
  30. ^ Brodersen (2011).
  31. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 57-60.
  32. ^ a b Fortescue (1990), p. 317.
  33. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), pp. 137-138.
  34. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 137.
  35. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  36. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  37. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 119.
  38. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 17.
  39. ^ Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 4.
  40. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16-17.
  41. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  42. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), p. 56.
  43. ^ Kordi? (2006), p. 4.
  44. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  45. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 282.
  46. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 94-95.
  47. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  48. ^ a b Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. "On the vowel system in present-day Slovene" (PDF).
  49. ^ ?u?tar?i?, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 138.
  50. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  51. ^ Tench (2007), p. 230.
  52. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  53. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  54. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 109.

References

External links


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