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Web browser by Microsoft first released in 2015
Microsoft Edge on Windows 10, using the dark theme.
Microsoft initially announced that Edge would support the legacy Trident (MSHTML) layout engine for backwards compatibility, but later said that, due to "strong feedback," Edge would use a new engine, while Internet Explorer would continue to provide the legacy engine.
Favorites, reading list, browsing history and downloads are viewed at the Hub, a sidebar providing functionality similar to Internet Explorer's Downloads manager and Favorites Center.
The browser includes an integrated Adobe Flash Player (with an internal whitelist allowing Flash applets on Facebook websites to load automatically, bypassing all other security controls requiring user activation) and a PDF reader. It also supports asm.js.
Internet Explorer 11 remains available alongside Edge on Windows 10 for compatibility; it remains identical to the Windows 8.1 version and does not use the Edge engine as was previously announced.
Edge integrates with Microsoft's online platforms to provide voice control, search functionality and dynamic information related to searches within the address bar. Users can make annotations to web pages that can be stored to and shared with OneDrive, and can save HTML and MHTML pages to their computers. It also integrates with the "Reading List" function and provides a "Reading Mode" that strips unnecessary formatting from pages to improve their legibility.
Preliminary support for browser extensions was added in March 2016, with build 14291, three extensions were initially supported. Microsoft indicated that the delay in allowing extensions and the small number was due to security concerns.
Microsoft Edge logo, used from 2015-2019.
EdgeHTML was the proprietarylayout engine originally developed for Edge. It was a fork of Trident which removed all legacy code of older versions of Internet Explorer, with the majority of its source code rewritten to support web standards and interoperability with other modern browsers. EdgeHTML was written in C++.
The rendering engine was first released as an experimental option in Internet Explorer 11 as part of the Windows 10 Preview 9926 build.
EdgeHTML was meant to be fully compatible with the WebKit layout engine used by Safari, Chrome and other browsers. Microsoft stated their original acceptance criteria: "Any Edge-WebKit differences are bugs that we're interested in fixing."
Edge originally lacked support for open media standards such as WebM and Opus, but these were later added in Edge 14.14291. The EdgeHTML version of Microsoft Edge remains installed for compatibility reasons, but Windows will hide it (version 44.19041.1.0).
Microsoft Edge legacy's release cadence was tied to the Windows 10 release cycle and used the Windows Insider Program to preview new versions of the browser. These pre-release builds were known as "Edge Preview." Every major release of Windows included an updated version of Edge and its render engine.
On April 8, 2019, Microsoft announced the introduction of four preview channels: Canary, Dev, Beta, and Stable and launched the Canary and Dev channel that same day with the first preview builds off the new Edge. Microsoft collectively calls the Canary, Dev, and Beta channels the "Microsoft Edge Insider Channels." As a result, Edge updates were decoupled from new versions of Windows. Major versions for Edge Stable is now scheduled for release every 6 weeks, closely following Chromium version releases.
In December 2014, writing for ZDNet, technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was developing a new web browser codenamed "Spartan" for Windows 10. She said that "Spartan" would be treated as a new product separate from Internet Explorer, with Internet Explorer 11 retained alongside it for compatibility.
In early January 2015, The Verge obtained further details surrounding "Spartan" from sources close to Microsoft, including reports that it would replace Internet Explorer on both the desktop and mobile versions of Windows 10. Microsoft officially unveiled "Spartan" during a Windows 10-focused keynote on January 21, 2015. It was described as a separate product from Internet Explorer, its final name was not announced.
"Spartan" was first made publicly available as the default browser of Windows 10 Technical Preview build 10049, released on March 30, 2015. The new engine used by "Spartan" was available in Windows 10 builds as part of Internet Explorer 11, Microsoft later announced that Internet Explorer would be deprecated on Windows 10 and would not use the "Spartan" engine.
On April 29, 2015, during the Build Conference keynote, it was announced that "Spartan" would officially be known as Microsoft Edge. The browser's logo and branding were designed to maintain continuity with the branding of Internet Explorer. The Project "Spartan" branding was used in versions released after Build 2015. On June 25, 2015, Microsoft released version 19.10149 for Windows 10 Mobile which included the new brand. On June 28, 2015, version 20.10158 followed for the desktop versions, also including the updated branding. On July 15, 2015, Microsoft released version 20.10240 as the final release to Insiders. The same version was rolled out to consumers on July 29, 2015.
On August 12, 2015, Microsoft started the preview program for the next version of Microsoft Edge. They released version 20.10512 to Mobile users. 6 days later followed by version 20.10525 for desktop users. The preview received multiple updates. On November 5, 2015, Microsoft released version 25.10586 as the final release for Edge's second public release for desktop users. On November 12, the update was rolled out to both desktop users and Xbox One users as part of the New Xbox Experience Update. On November 18, 2015, the update was to Windows 10 Mobile. Finally, on November 19, 2015, the update was also made available as part of the Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview 4.
In November 2017, Microsoft released ports of Edge for Android and iOS. The apps feature integration and synchronization with the desktop version on Windows 10 PCs. Due to platform restrictions and other factors, these ports do not use the same layout engine as the desktop version and instead use OS-native Webkit-based engines.
In April 2018, Edge added tab audio muting. In June 2018, support for the Web Authentication specifications were added to Windows Insider builds, with support for Windows Hello and external security tokens.
Microsoft plans to provide security patches for legacy Microsoft Edge until March 9, 2021.
On December 6, 2018, Microsoft announced its intent to base Edge on the Chromium source code, using the same rendering engine as Google Chrome but with enhancements developed by Microsoft. It was also announced that there will be versions of Edge available for Windows 7, Windows 8 and macOS, plus that all versions will be updated on a more frequent basis. According to Microsoft executive Joe Belfiore, the decision for the change came after CEO Satya Nadella told the team in 2017 that the product needed to be better and pushed for replacing its in-house rendering engine with an open source one.
A developer preview of Microsoft Edge version 74 on Windows
On April 8, 2019, the first of the new Edge for Windows were released to the public.
A public preview of Microsoft Edge on macOS
On May 20, 2019, the first preview builds of Edge for macOS were released to the public, marking the first time in 13 years that a Microsoft browser was available on the Mac platform. The last time a Microsoft browser was available on the Mac platform was Microsoft Internet Explorer for Mac, which was withdrawn in January 2006.
On June 18, 2019 IAmA post on Reddit, an Edge developer stated that it was theoretically possible for a Linux version to be developed in the future, but no work had actually started on that possibility.
On June 19, 2019, Microsoft made Edge available on both Windows 7 and Windows 8 for testing.
On August 20, 2019, Microsoft made its first beta build of Edge available for Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10 and macOS.
August 2019 also saw the removal of support for the EPUB file format. At Microsoft Ignite, Microsoft released an updated version of the Edge logo.
The new Edge was released on January 15, 2020.
On September 22, 2020, Microsoft announced that a beta version of Edge for Linux would be available in preview form in October 2020. This comes after the company announced in November 2019 that a Linux version would be developed and confirmed in May 2020 that the Linux version was in development.  The first preview build for Linux was released on October 20, 2020.
Support for the new Edge on Windows 7 will end in July 2021.
Future updates will roll out gradually to protect users from accidental buggy updates
Improvements to Microsoft Defender SmartScreen
Added the ability to exempt certain cookies from automatically clearing when the browser closes
Added Automatic Profile Switching
The user can now drag and drop to add an item to a collection without opening the collection
Users can now add multiple items to a collection at once
Users can add all tabs in an Edge window into a new collection without adding them individually
Extensions from both the Microsoft and Chrome Stores will synchronise with Microsoft Edge on all the user's devices.
Improved message on the Downloads management page for insecure downloads that have been blocked
Immersive Reader improvements:
Added support for Adverbs in the Parts of Speech experience in Immersive Reader
Added the ability to select any content on a webpage and open it in Immersive Reader. This enables users to use the Immersive Reader and all the Learning Tools, such as Line Focus and Read Aloud, across all websites
Link doctor provides host correction and a search query to users when they mistype a URL
Allowed users to save their decision to launch an external protocol for a specific site
Users can set Microsoft Edge as their default browser directly from Microsoft Edge Settings, instead of having to search through the operating system settings
Several DevTools updates, including new remote debugging support, UI improvements and more
MCAS (Microsoft Cloud Access Security) warn scenario is now available
Reduced download delay for Internet Explorer mode site list to 0 seconds (down from 60 seconds) in the absence of a cached site list
Also added group policy support for cases when Internet Explorer mode home page navigations needs to be delayed until the site list is downloaded.
Allowed users to sign into the browser when Microsoft Edge is "run as administrator" on Windows 10. This will help customers running Microsoft Edge on Windows server or in remote-desktop and sandbox scenarios
Added full mouse support when in full screen mode. You can now use your mouse to access tabs, the address bar and other items without having to exit full screen mode
Added a custom nickname option to saved debit or credit cards, making it easier to distinguish and differentiate cards when making online purchases. Nicknaming cards lets you choose the correct card when using autofill to select a payment method
TLS/1.0 and TLS/1.1 are disabled by default
To help discover impacted sites, you can set the edge://flags/#display-legacy-tls-warnings flag to cause Microsoft Edge to display a non-blocking "Not Secure" notice when loading pages that require legacy TLS protocols. The SSLVersionMin policy permits re-enabling of TLS/1.0 and TLS/1.1. This policy will remain available until at least Microsoft Edge version 88
Added a note capability allowing you to add a note or comment to an item in a collection
Added background color of notes in collections. Color coding can help organize information and increase productivity
Improved performance when exporting collections to Excel
Storage Access API support, which allows access to first-party storage in a third-party context when a user provides a direct intent to allow storage that would otherwise be blocked by the browser's current configuration
Native File System API support, which allows sites can be given permission to edit files or folders via the Native File System API
Added Read Aloud for PDF
When saving an edit made to a PDF it can be sent back to the original file instead of a copy
Added an option to translate in Immersive Reader.
DevTools now supports customizing keyboard shortcuts to match any editor/IDE, which includes VS Code
On-premises synchronization of Favorites and Settings
Group policy support for trusting site + app combos to launch without a confirmation prompt
PDF Highlighter tool
Storage Access API
Send to OneNote is available for Edge Collections
Surface Duo emulation
VS Code keyboard shortcuts
Latest preview version of a future release: 87.0.664.18
Approx. every six weeks
Current Beta channel
Latest preview version of a future release: 88.0.680.1
Approx. every Week
Current Dev channel
Latest preview version of a future release: 88.0.685.0
Approx. every Day
Current Canary channel
Later benchmarks conducted with the version included in 10122 showed significant performance improvement compared to both IE11 and Edge back in 10049. According to Microsoft's benchmark result, this iteration of Edge performed better than both Chrome and Firefox in Google's Octane 2.0 and Apple's Jetstream benchmark.
In July 2015, Edge scored 377 out of 555 points on the HTML5test. Chrome 44 and Firefox 42 scored 479 and 434 respectively, while Internet Explorer 11 scored 312.
In August 2015, Microsoft released Windows 10 Build 10532 to insiders, which included Edge 21.10532.0. This beta version scored 445 out of 555 points on the HTML5test.
In July 2016, with the release of Windows 10 Build 14390 to insiders, the HTML5test score of the browser's development version was 460 out of 555 points. Chrome 51 scored 497, Firefox 47 scored 456 and Safari 9.1 scored 370.
In June 2016, Microsoft published benchmark results to prove superior power efficiency of Edge in comparison to all other major web browsers. Opera questioned the accuracy and provided their own test results where Opera came out on top. Independent testing by PC World confirmed Microsoft's results. However, tests conducted by Linus Sebastian contradicted Microsoft's results, instead showing that Chrome has the best battery performance.
In an August 2015 review of Windows 10 by Dan Grabham of TechRadar, Microsoft Edge was praised for its performance, despite not being in a feature-complete state at launch. Andrew Cunningham of Ars Technica praised the browser for being "tremendously promising" and "a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was" but criticized it for its lack of functionality on launch. Thom Holwerda of OSNews criticized Edge in August 2015 for its hidden URL bar, lack of user friendliness, poor design and a tab system that is "so utterly broken it should never have shipped in a final release". He described the browser's implemented features as "some sort of cosmic joke", saying that "infuriating doesn't even begin to describe it."
Data from August 2015, a few weeks after release, showed that user uptake of Edge was low, with only 2% of overall computer users using the new browser. Among Windows 10 users usage peaked at 20% and then dropped to 14% through August 2015.
In October 2015, a security researcher published a report outlining a bug in Edge's "InPrivate" mode, causing data related to visited sites to still be cached in the user's profile directory, theoretically making it possible for others to determine sites visited. The bug gained mainstream attention in early February 2016, and was fixed with a cumulative update on February 9, 2016.
Microsoft's switch to Blink as Edge's engine has faced mixed reception. The move increases consistency of web platform compatibility between major browsers. For this reason, the move has attracted criticism, as it reduces diversity in the overall web browser market and increases the influence of Google (developer of the Blink layout engine) on the overall browser market by Microsoft ceding its independently developed browser engine.
According to Douglas J Leith, a computer science professor from the Trinity College of Dublin, Ireland, Microsoft Edge is the least private browser. In response, a spokesperson from Microsoft Edge explained that it uses user diagnostic data to improve the product.
In June 2020, users criticized newly released Windows 7, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10 updates that installed Edge and imported some user data from Chrome and Firefox prior to obtaining user permission. Microsoft responded stating that if a user rejects giving Edge data import permission, then Edge will delete the imported data. However, if the browser crashes before the user has a chance to reject the import, then the already imported data will not be cleared. The Verge called these "spyware tactics" and called Edge's "first run experience" a "dark pattern".
According to StatCounter, in August 2019 Edge overtook the market share of Internet Explorer (IE) on PC, Edge in fourth place and IE in fifth. While IE's share dropped, no single version of Edge is more popular than Internet Explorer 11. The market share for Edge remains low, with IE following in this trend. Mobile versions of Edge exist for Android and iOS, however they have little to no market share. On Microsoft consoles, Edge replaced IE as the dominant browser a few months after its release in 2015. Market share varies by region. On some days of the week, Edge takes second place with a 10.02% share in the US on PC, and Firefox and Edge have very similar share globally, switch places for second and third rank depending on the day.
For example in March 2020, Edge ranked the second with market share of 7.59%, overtaking Firefox, which had 7.19% of market share.
^Max Slater-Robins (September 2, 2015). "Barely anybody is using Microsoft's new browser". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved 2015. shows that Edge peaked at approximately 20% usage among Windows 10 users at the end of July, before dropping down to 14% by the end of August