Miao People
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Miao People
Miao
Hmongb / Hmub / Xongb / ab Hmaob
m?o / mu? / ?o / am?ao
Longhorn Miao China.jpg
Headdress of the Long-horn Miao--one of the small branches of Miao living in the 12 villages near Zhijin County, Guizhou
Total population
11-12 million
Regions with significant populations
 China9,426,007 (2010)
 Vietnam1,068,189 (2009)
 Laos595,028 (2015)
 United States247,595 (2010)[1]
 Thailand151,080 (2002)
 France13,000
 Australia2,190[2]
Languages
Hmongic languages, Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Tai-Kadai languages (Lao and Thai), French
Religion
Miao folk religion. Minorities: Taoism, Atheism, Irreligion, Christianity, Buddhism
Miao people
Chinese

The Miao are a minority ethnic group living in southern China, and are recognized by the government of China as one of the 56 official ethnic groups. Miao is a Chinese term, while the component groups of people, which include (with some variant spellings) Hmong, Hmu, Xong (Qo-Xiong), and A-Hmao, may have their own self-designations.

The different peoples in the "Miao" group may not necessarily be either linguistically or culturally related, but the majority are speakers of languages in the Miao-Yao language family, which includes the Hmong, Hmub, Xong and A-Hmao dialects and the majority do share cultural similarities. Many Miao groups cannot communicate with each other in their native tongues and have different histories and cultures. Many groups designated as Miao do not even agree that they belong to the ethnic group, though some Miao groups, such as the Hmong do agree [this claim is unfounded or needs substantial evidence] with the collective grouping as a single ethnic group - Miao.

The Miao live primarily in southern China's mountains, in the provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan. Some sub-groups of the Miao, most notably the Hmong people, have migrated out of China into Southeast Asia (Burma (Myanmar), northern Vietnam, Laos and Thailand). Following the communist takeover of Laos in 1975, a large group of Hmong refugees resettled in several Western nations, mainly in the United States, France, and Australia.

Nomenclature: Miao or Hmong

Miao musicians from the Langde Miao Ethnic Village, Guizhou.
Miao girls also from Lang De, Guizhou, awaiting their turn to perform.
Young Miao woman in Yangshuo County.

The term "Miao" gained official status in 1949 as a minzu (ethnic group) encompassing a group of linguistically-related ethnic minorities in Southwest China. This was part of a larger effort to identify and classify minority groups to clarify their role in the national government, including establishing autonomous administrative divisions and allocating the seats for representatives in provincial and national government.[3]

Historically, the term "Miao" had been applied inconsistently to a variety of non-Han peoples. Early Chinese-based names use various transcriptions: Miao, Miao-tse, Miao-tsze, Meau, Meo, mo, Miao-tseu etc. In Southeast Asian contexts, words derived from the Chinese "Miao" took on a sense which was perceived as derogatory by the subgroups living in that region. The term re-appeared in the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), by which time it had taken on the connotation of "barbarian." Being a variation of Nanman, it was used to refer to the indigenous people in southern China who had not been assimilated into Han culture. During this time, references to Unfamiliar (? Sheng) and Familiar (? Shu) Miao appear, referring to the level of assimilation and political cooperation of the two groups, making them easier to classify. Not until the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) do more finely grained distinctions appear in writing. Even then, discerning which ethnic groups are included in various classifications can be complex. There has been a historical tendency by the Hmong, who resisted assimilation and political cooperation, to group all Miao peoples together [this claim is unfounded or needs substantial evidence] under the term Hmong because of the potential derogatory use of the term Miao. In modern China, however, the term continues to be used regarding the Miao people there.[4]

Though the Miao themselves use various self-designations, the Chinese traditionally classify them according to the most characteristic color of the women's clothes. The list below contains some of these self-designations, the color designations, and the main regions inhabited by the four major groups of Miao in China:

Demographics

Miao women during market day in Laomeng village, Yuanyang County, Yunnan
Detail from Stielers Hand-Atlas, 1891, showing a "Miao-tse" enclave between Guiyang and Guilin. The enclave corresponds to modern Congjiang and Rongjiang counties.

According to the 2000 census, the number of Miao in China was estimated to be about 9.6 million. Outside of China, members of the Miao sub-group or nations of the Hmong live in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma due to outward migrations starting in the 18th century. As a result of recent migrations in the aftermath of the Indochina and Vietnam Wars from 1949-75, many Hmong people now live in the United States, French Guiana, France and Australia. Altogether, there are approximately 10 million speakers in the Miao language family. This language family, which consists of 6 languages and around 35 dialects (some of which are mutually intelligible) belongs to the Hmong/Miao branch of the Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao) language family.

A large population of the Hmong have emigrated to the northern mountainous reaches of Southeast Asia including Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma. However, many continue to live in far Southwest China mostly in the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi, and to a very limited extent in Guizhou.

Note: The Miao areas of Sichuan province became part of the newly created Chongqing Municipality in 1997.

Most Miao currently live in China. Miao population growth in China:

  • 1953: 2,510,000
  • 1964: 2,780,000
  • 1982: 5,030,000
  • 1990: 7,390,000

3,600,000 Miao, about half of the entire Chinese Miao population, were in Guizhou in 1990. The Guizhou Miao and those in the following six provinces make up over 98% of all Chinese Miao:

In the above provinces, there are 6 Miao autonomous prefectures (shared officially with one other ethnic minority):

There are in addition 23 Miao autonomous counties:

Most Miao reside in hills or on mountains, such as

Several thousands of Miao left their homeland to move to larger cities like Guangzhou and Beijing. There are 789,000 Hmong spread throughout northern Vietnam, Laos, Burma, and on other continents. 174,000 live in Thailand, where they are one of the six main hill tribes.

History

Xijiang, a Miao-majority township in Guizhou
The migration of the Hmong according to legend.[5]

Legend of Chiyou

According to Tang dynasty myth, miao people originated from Chi You. However, the oldest text known as The Tai Kung Six Secret Teachings that include Huang Di and Chi You (in short description) does not mention about who are the descendants of these two. No classic in Zhou dynasty mentions Chi You as the ancestor of Miao people. Hence, there are a big time gap between Tang and Zhou dynasty; approximately 1,500 years apart. There are no actual evidence that Chi You is Miao. During the communist cultural revolution, some historical texts and sites were destroyed, which left little evidence proving that Chi You was Miao. Nor can the modern Chinese authorities back their proof that Miao people are descendants of Chi You. However, according to the Tang dynasty myth, the Miao who descended from the Jiuli tribe led by Chiyou (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ch?yóu) were defeated at the Battle of Zhuolu (; Zhu?lù, a defunct prefecture on the border of present provinces of Hebei and Liaoning) by the military coalition of Huang Di (; Huángdì) and Yan Di, leaders of the Huaxia (; Huáxià) tribe as the two tribes struggled for supremacy of the Yellow River valley.

Archaeological discoveries

Rice terrace farming in Longji, Guangxi.

According to André-Georges Haudricourt and David Strecker's claims based on limited secondary data, the Miao were among the first people to settle in present-day China.[6] They claim that the Han borrowed a lot of words from the Miao in regard to rice farming. This indicated that the Miao were among the first rice farmers in China. In addition, some have connected the Miao to the Daxi Culture (5,300 - 6,000 years ago) in the middle Yangtze River region.[7] The Daxi Culture has been credited with being amongst the first cultivators of rice in the Far East by Western scholars. However, in 2006 rice cultivation was found to have existed in the Shandong province even earlier than the Daxi Culture.[8] Though the Yuezhuang culture has cultivated rice, it is more of collected wild rice and not actual cultivated and domesticated rice like that of the Daxi.

A western study mention that the Miao (especially the Miao-Hunan) have some DNA from the Northeast people of China, but has origins in southern china. Recent DNA samples of Miao males contradict this theory. The White Hmong have 25% C, 8% D, & 6% N(Tat)[9] yet they have the least contact with the Han population.

A Western Han painting on silk near Changsha in Hunan province.

Chu

In 2002, the Chu language has been identified as perhaps having influence from Tai-Kam and Miao-Yao languages by researchers at University of Massachusetts Amherst.[10]

Qin and Han dynasties

The term Miao was first used by the Han Chinese in pre-Qin times (in other words, before 221 BC) for designating non-Han Chinese groups in the south. It was often used in combination: "nanmiao", "miaomin", "youmiao" and "Three Miaos" (; S?nmiáo)

Ming and Qing dynasties

During the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368–1911) 'miao' and 'man' were both used, the second possibly to designate the Yao (?; Yáo) people. The Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties could neither fully assimilate nor control the indigenous people.

During the Miao Rebellions, when Miao tribes rebelled, Ming troops, including Han Chinese, Hui people, crushed the rebels, killing thousands of them.[11][12] Mass castrations of Miao boys also took place.[13]

A Qing-era painting depicting a government campaign against the Miao in Hunan, 1795.

During the Qing Dynasty the Miao fought three wars against the empire.[14] The issue was so serious that the Yongzheng emperor sent one of his most officials, Ortai, to be the Viceroy of the provinces with significant Miao populations in 1726, and through 1731, he spent his time putting down rebellions.[15] In 1735 in the southeastern province of Guizhou, the Miao rose up against the government's forced assimilation. Eight counties involving 1,224 villages fought until 1738 when the revolt ended. According to Xiangtan University Professor Wu half the Miao population were affected by the war.

The second war (1795-1806) involved the provinces of Guizhou and Hunan. Shi Sanbao and Shi Liudeng led this second revolt. Again, it ended in failure, but it took 11 years to quell the uprising.[16]

The greatest of the three wars occurred from 1854 to 1873. Zhang Xiu-mei led this revolt in Guizhou until his capture and death in Changsha, Hunan. This revolt affected over one million people and all the neighbouring provinces. By the time the war ended Professor Wu said only 30 percent of the Miao were left in their home regions. This defeat led to the Hmong people migrating out of China.

During Qing times, more military garrisons were established in southwest China. Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and the children were brought up as Miao.[17][18] In spite of rebellion against the Han, Hmong leaders made allies with Han merchants.[19]

The imperial government had to rely on political means to bring in Hmong people into the government: they created multiple competing positions of substantial prestige for Miao people to participate and assimilate into the Qing government system. During the Ming and Qing times, the official position of Kiatong was created in Indochina. The Miao would employ the use of the Kiatong government structure until the 1900s when they entered into French colonial politics in Indochina.

20th century

During the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Miao played an important role in its birth when they helped Mao Zedong to escape the Kuomintang in the Long March with supplies and guides through their territory.

In Vietnam, a powerful Hmong named Vuong Chinh Duc, dubbed the king of the Hmong, aided Ho Chi Minh's nationalist move against the French, and thus secured the Hmong's position in Vietnam.[20] During the Vietnam War, Miao fought on both sides, the Hmong in Laos primarily for the US, across the border in Vietnam for the North-Vietnam coalition, the Chinese-Miao for the Communists. However, after the war the Vietnamese were very aggressive towards the Hmong who suffered many years of reprisals and genocide. Most Hmong in Thailand also supported a brief Communist uprising during the war.

Miao clans with Han origins

Some of the origins of the Hmong and Miao clan names are a result of the marriage of Hmong women to Han Chinese men,[21][22] with distinct Han Chinese-descended clans and lineages practicing Han Chinese burial customs.[23] These clans were called "Han Chinese Hmong" ("Hmong Sua") in Sichuan, and were instructed in military tactics by fugitive Han Chinese rebels.[24] Such Chinese "surname groups" are comparable to the patrilineal Hmong clans and also practice exogamy.[25][26][27][28][29]

Han Chinese male soldiers who fought against the Miao rebellions during the Qing and Ming dynasties were known to have married with non-Han women such as the Miao because Han women were less desirable.[30][31][32] The Wang clan, founded among the Hmong in Gongxian county of Sichuan's Yibin district, is one such clan and can trace its origins to several such marriages around the time of the Ming dynasty suppression of the Ah rebels.[33] Nicholas Tapp wrote that, according to The Story of the Ha Kings in the village, one such Han ancestor was Wang Wu.[34] It is also noted that the Wang typically sided with the Chinese, being what Tapp calls "cooked" as opposed to the "raw" peoples who rebelled against the Chinese.[35][33]

Hmong women who married Han Chinese men founded a new Xem clan among Northern Thailand's Hmong. Fifty years later in Chiangmai two of their Hmong boy descendants were Catholics.[36] A Hmong woman and Han Chinese man married and founded northern Thailand's Lau2, or Lauj, clan, [36], with another Han Chinese man of the family name Deng founding another Hmong clan. Some scholars believe this lends further credence to the idea that some or all of the present day Hmong clans were formed in this way.[37]

Jiangxi Han Chinese are claimed by some as the forefathers of the southeast Guizhou Miao, and Miao children were born to the many Miao women married Han Chinese soldiers in Taijiang in Guizhou before the second half of the 19th century.[38]

Some imperially commissioned Han Chinese chieftaincies assimilated with the Miao. Those became the ancestors of a part of the Miao population in Guizhou.[39]

The Hmong Tian clan in Sizhou began in the seventh century as a migrant Han Chinese clan.[40]

The origin of the Tunbao people traces back to the Ming dynasty when the Hongwu Emperor sent 300,000 Han Chinese male soldiers in 1381 to conquer Yunnan, with some of the men marrying Yao and Miao women.[41][42]

The presence of women presiding over weddings was a feature noted in "Southeast Asian" marriages, such as in 1667 when a Miao woman in Yunnan married a Chinese official.[43] Some Sinicization occurred, in Yunnan a Miao chief's daughter married a scholar in the 1600s who wrote that she could read, write, and listen in Chinese and read Chinese classics.[44]

Distribution

By province

The 2000 Chinese census recorded 8,940,116 Miao in mainland China.

Provincial distribution of the Miao in mainland China
Province-level division % of mainland China's
Miao population
% of provincial total
Guizhou Province 48.10% 12.199%
Hunan Province 21.49% 3.037%
Yunnan Province 11.67% 2.463%
Chongqing Municipality 5.62% 1.647%
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 5.18% 1.056%
Hubei Province 2.40% 0.360%
Sichuan Province 1.65% 0.179%
Guangdong Province 1.35% 0.142%
Hainan Province 0.69% 0.810%
Others 1.85% N/A

By county

County-level distribution of the Miao in mainland China

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.25% of mainland China's Miao population.)

Province-level division Prefecture-level division County-level division Miao population % of population % of mainland China's
Miao population
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Kaili City () 274,238 49.5% 3.07%
Chongqing Municipality Pengshui Miao and Tujia A. C. (?) 273,488 50.2% 3.06%
Hunan Huaihua City Mayang Miao A. C. (?) 263,437 76.7% 2.95%
Guizhou Tongren City Songtao Miao A. C. (?) 228,718 47% 2.56%
Hunan Huaihua City Yuanling County () 217,613 37.4% 2.43%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Huayuan County () 192,138 66.7% 2.15%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Fenghuang County () 185,111 52.9% 2.07%
Hunan Shaoyang City Suining County () 184,784 51.8% 2.07%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Liuzhou City Rongshui Miao A. C. (?) 168,591 41.9% 1.89%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Huangping County () 161,211 61.3% 1.8%
Guizhou Zunyi City Wuchuan Gelao and Miao A. C. (?) 157,350 48.9% 1.76%
Hunan Shaoyang City Chengbu Miao A. C. (?) 136,943 46.9% 1.53%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Taijiang County () 135,827 81.2% 1.52%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Congjiang County () 129,626 44.6% 1.45%
Guizhou Liupanshui City Shuicheng County () (incl. Zhongshan District) 126,319 17.9% 1.41%
Hunan Huaihua City Jingzhou Miao and Dong A. C. () 114,641 46.8% 1.28%
Guizhou Anshun City Ziyun Miao and Buyei A. C. (?) 114,444 42.3% 1.28%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Jianhe County () 112,950 62.6% 1.26%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Jishou City () 112,856 37.4% 1.26%
Guizhou Tongren City Sinan County () 112,464 22.5% 1.26%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Leishan County () 110,413 93.0% 1.24%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Luxi County () 107,301 39.3% 1.2%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Tianzhu County () 106,387 40.3% 1.19%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Danzhai County () 104,934 85.7% 1.17%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Rongjiang County () 96,503 27.5% 1.08%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Huishui County () 91,215 26.6% 1.02%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Guangnan County () 88,444 0.99%
Chongqing Municipality Youyang Tujia and Miao A. C. (?) 85,182 0.95%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Bose City Longlin Various Nationalities A. C. (?) 84,617 0.95%
Guizhou Bijie City Zhijin County () 81,029 0.91%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi A. P. Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai A. C. () 80,820 0.9%
Guizhou Anshun City Xixiu District () 79,906 0.89%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Jinping County () 78,441 0.88%
Guizhou Zunyi City Daozhen Gelao and Miao A. C. (?) 76,658 0.86%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Liping County () 75,718 0.85%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Maguan County () 73,833 0.83%
Guizhou Bijie City Nayong County () 72,845 0.81%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Duyun City () 71,011 0.79%
Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P. Laifeng County () 70,679 0.79%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Majiang County () 68,847 0.77%
Chongqing Municipality Xiushan Tujia and Miao A. C. (?) 66,895 0.75%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Shibing County () 66,890 0.75%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Qiubei County () 66,826 0.75%
Guizhou Guiyang City Huaxi District () 62,827 0.7%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Longshan County () 61,709 0.69%
Guizhou Bijie City Qianxi County () 60,409 0.68%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi A. P. Pingbian Miao A. C. (?) 60,312 0.67%
Guizhou Bijie City Weining Yi, Hui, and Miao A. C. () 60,157 0.67%
Chongqing Municipality Qianjiang District () 59,705 0.67%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Baojing County () 57,468 0.64%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Wenshan County () 57,303 0.64%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Guzhang County () 54,554 0.61%
Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P. Lichuan City () 53,590 0.6%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Qinglong County () 53,205 0.6%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Liuzhou City Sanjiang Dong A. C. (?) 53,076 0.59%
Guizhou Bijie City Dafang County () 52,547 0.59%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Yanshan County () 51,624 0.58%
Guizhou Liupanshui City Liuzhi Special District (?) 50,833 0.57%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Changshun County () 48,902 0.55%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Fuquan City () 48,731 0.55%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi A. P. Mengzi County () 48,132 0.54%
Guizhou Tongren City Bijiang District () 47,080 0.53%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Malipo County (?) 45,655 0.51%
Yunnan Zhaotong City Yiliang County () 44,736 0.5%
Guizhou Anshun City Pingba County () 44,107 0.49%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Sandu Shui A. C. (?) 43,464 0.49%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Guiding County () 42,450 0.47%
Guizhou Tongren City Yinjiang Tujia and Miao A. C. (?) 42,431 0.47%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Longli County () 40,096 0.45%
Guizhou Guiyang City Qingzhen City () 39,845 0.45%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Wangmo County () 39,491 0.44%
Guizhou Bijie City Qixingguan District (?) 38,508 0.43%
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P. Yongshun County () 37,676 0.42%
Guizhou Bijie City Hezhang County () 37,128 0.42%
Yunnan Zhaotong City Weixin County () 36,293 0.41%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Sansui County () 35,745 0.4%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Luodian County () 35,463 0.4%
Guizhou Anshun City Zhenning Buyei and Miao A. C. (?) 34,379 0.38%
Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P. Xuan'en County () 34,354 0.38%
Hunan Huaihua City Huitong County () 33,977 0.38%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Anlong County () 32,926 0.37%
Guizhou Bijie City Jinsha County () 31,884 0.36%
Sichuan Luzhou City Xuyong County () 30,362 0.34%
Guizhou Anshun City Puding County () 30,254 0.34%
Sichuan Yibin City Xingwen County () 30,020 0.34%
Guizhou Anshun City Guanling Buyei and Miao A. C. (?) 29,746 0.33%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Bose City Xilin County () 28,967 0.32%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Guilin City Ziyuan County () 27,827 0.31%
Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P. Xianfeng County () 27,668 0.31%
Guizhou Guiyang City Nanming District () 27,460 0.31%
Yunnan Zhaotong City Zhenxiong County () 26,963 0.3%
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P. Funing County () 26,396 0.3%
Guangdong Dongguan City Dongguan District () 26,241 0.29%
Guizhou Tongren City Jiangkou County () 25,588 0.29%
Guizhou Liupanshui City Pan County () 25,428 0.28%
Guangxi Zhuang A. R. Guilin City Longsheng Various Nationalities A. C. (?) 24,841 0.28%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Xingren County () 24,130 0.27%
Hunan Huaihua City Zhijiang Dong A. C. (?) 23,698 0.27%
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi A. P. Kaiyuan City () 23,504 0.26%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Zhenfeng County () 23,054 0.26%
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P. Pingtang County () 22,980 0.26%
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P. Zhenyuan County () 22,883 0.26%
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P. Pu'an County () 22,683 0.25%
Guizhou Guiyang City Wudang District () 22,468 0.25%
Other areas of mainland China 1,246,040 13.94%

Gender roles

Young women from a Miao tribe performing a traditional group dance in Guizhou
Miao girls from Guizhou wearing traditional silver jewelry headdresses

Women's status

Compared to the Confucian principles traditionally exercised over women in some regions of China, the Miao culture is generally less strict in categorization of women's roles in society. Miao women exercise relatively more independence, mobility and social freedom.[45] They are known to be strong willed and politically minded. They actively contribute to their communities in social welfare, education, arts and culture, and agricultural farming.

Miao women demonstrate great skill and artistry when making traditional clothing and handicrafts. They excel at embroidering, weaving, paper-cutting, batik, and intricate jewelry casting.
From vests, coats, hats, collars and cuffs, to full skirts, and baby carriers, the patterns on their clothes are extremely complicated and colorful with clean lines. Girls of around seven will learn embroidering from mothers and sisters, and by the time they are teenagers, they are quite deft. Additionally, Miao silver jewelry is distinctive for its design, style and craftsmanship. Miao silver jewelry is completely handmade, carved with fine decorative patterns. It's not easy to make and there is not one final masterpiece exactly the same as another. The Miao embroidery and silver jewelry are highly valued, delicate and beautiful.

Silver jewelry is a highly valuable craftwork of the Miao people. Apart from being a cultural tradition, it also symbolises the wealth of Miao women.[46] As a Miao saying goes, "decorated with no silver or embroidery, a girl is not a girl", Miao women are occasionally defined by the amount of silver jewelry she wears or owns.[46] It is especially important to wear heavy and intricate silver headdresses and jewelry during significant occasions and festivals, notably during weddings, funerals and springtime celebration.[46] Silver jewelry is an essential element of Miao marriages, particularly to the bride.[46] Miao families would begin saving silver jewellery for the girls at an early age, wishing their daughters could marry well with the large amount of silver jewelry representing the wealth of the family.[46] Although a growing Miao population is moving from rural Miao regions to cities, the new generation respects the families' silver heritage and is willing to pass on the practice as a cultural tradition more than a showcase of family wealth.[46]

Workforce and income

Although Miao women are not strictly-governed, their social status is often seen as lower than that of men, as in most patriarchal societies. Be it in the subsistence economy or otherwise, men are the main economic force and provide the stable source of income for the family. Women are primarily involved in social welfare, domestic responsibilities, and additionally earn supplementary income.[45]

As tourism became a major economic activity to this ethnic group, Miao women gained more opportunities to join the labor force and earn an income. Women mostly take up jobs that require modern day customer service skills; for example, working as tour guides, selling craftwork and souvenirs, teaching tourists how to make flower wreaths, and even renting ethnic costumes.[45] These jobs require soft skills and hospitality and more visibility in public, but provide a low income.[45] On the contrary, Miao men take up jobs that require more physical strengths and less visibility in public, such as engineering roads, building hotels, boats and pavilions. These jobs generally provide a more stable and profitable source of income.[45]

The above example of unequal division of labor demonstrates, in spite of socioeconomic changes in China, men are still considered the financial backbone of the family.[45]

Marriage and family

While the Miao people have had their own unique culture, the Confucian ideology exerted significant influences on this ethnic group. It is expected that men are the dominant figures and breadwinners of the family, while women occupy more domestic roles(like cooking and cleaning).[45] There are strict social standards on women to be "virtuous wives and good mothers", and to abide by "three obediences and four virtues", which include cultural moral specifications of women's behavior.[45]

A Miao woman has some cultural freedom in marrying a man of her choice.[45] However, like many other cultures in Asia, there are strict cultural practices on marriage, one being clan exogamy. It is a taboo to marry someone within the same family clan name, even when the couple are not blood related or from the same community.[45]

In contrast to the common practice of the right of succession belonging to the firstborn son, the Miao's inheritance descends to the youngest son.[45] The older sons leave the family and build their own residences, usually in the same province and close to the family.[45] The youngest son is responsible for living with and caring for the aging parents, even after marriage.[45] He receives a larger share of the family's inheritence and his mother's silver jewellery collection, which is used as bridal wealth or dowry.[45]

Cuisine

Miao Fish ( miáo y?)

Miao fish is a dish made by steaming fish with a mixture of fresh herbs, green peppers, ginger slices and garlic.[47]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Elizabeth M. Hoeffel, Sonya Rastogi, Myoung Ouk Kim, Hasan Shaid.(2010) The Asian Population: 2010. 2010 Census Briefs.
  2. ^ Coughlan, James E. (30 March 2010). "The countries of birth and ethnicities of Australia's Hmong and Lao communities: an analysis of recent Australian census data". Journal of Lao Studies: 55-85. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Schein, Louisa. "The Miao in contemporary China." In The Hmong in transition. Edited by Hendricks, G. L., Downing, B. T., & Deinard, A. S. Staten Island: Center for migration studies (1986): 73-85.
  4. ^ Tapp, Nicholas. "Cultural Accommodations in Southwest China: the 'Han Miao' and Problems in the Ethnography of the Hmong." Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 61, 2002: 77-104.
  5. ^ Yang, Kou (2010). "Commentary: Challenges and Complexity in the Re-Construction of Hmong History". www.ingentaconnect.com. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Haudricourt, Andre; Strecker (1991). "Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao) Loans in Chinese". T'oung Pao. 77 (4-5): 335-341. doi:10.1163/156853291X00073.
  7. ^ Wen, Bo; Li, Hui; Gao, Song; Mao, Xianyun; Gao, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Feng; He, Yungang; Dong, Yongli; Zhang, Youjun; Huang, Wenju; Jin, Jianzhong; Xiao, Chunjie; Lu, Daru; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Su, Bing; Deka, Ranjan; Jin, Li (2005). "Genetic Structure of (H)mong-Mien Speaking Populations in East Asia as Revealed by mtDNA Lineages". Oxford Journal of Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (3): 725-734. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi055. PMID 15548747.
  8. ^ Crawford, G. W.; X. Chen; J. Wang (2006). "Houli Culture Rice from the Yuezhuang Site, Jinan". Kaogu [Archaeology] (in Chinese). 3: 247-251.
  9. ^ "a topology table showing the hierarchy for Table 1". doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282.s003. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Chu Language Rhymes at University of Massachusetts Amherst
  11. ^ Chih-yu Shih; Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 133. ISBN 0415283728. Retrieved .
  12. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (1988). The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. Cambridge University Presslocation=. p. 380. ISBN 0521243327. Retrieved .
  13. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0791426874. Retrieved .
  14. ^ Xiong, Yuepheng L. "Chinese Odyssey: Summer Program offers Students rare opportunity to learn Hmong history in China", HmongNet.org
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  18. ^ Dan Jin; Xueliang Ma; Mark Bender (2006). Butterfly mother: Miao (Hmong) creation epics from Guizhou, China. Hackett Publishing. p. xvii. ISBN 0872208494. Retrieved .
  19. ^ Lee, Mai Na M. (2005). The dream of the Hmong kingdom: resistance, collaboration, and legitimacy under French colonialism (1893-1955). University of Wisconsin--Madison. p. 149. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Nevison, Leslie. "In Search of a Hmong King"
  21. ^ Tao Tao Liu; David Faure (1 March 1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 88-. ISBN 978-962-209-402-4.
  22. ^ Nicholas Tapp (2010). The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 100-. ISBN 978-3-643-10258-4.
  23. ^ Stephan Feuchtwang (2004). Making Place: State Projects, Globalisation and Local Responses in China. Psychology Press. pp. 141-. ISBN 978-1-84472-010-1.
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  25. ^ Narendra Singh Bisht; T. S. Bankoti (1 March 2004). Encyclopaedia of the South East Asian Ethnography. 1. Global Vision Publishing House. pp. 243-. ISBN 978-81-87746-96-6.
  26. ^ Narendra S. Bisht; T. S. Bankoti (2004). Encyclopaedia of the South-east Asian Ethnography: A-L. Global Vision. p. 243. ISBN 978-81-87746-97-3.
  27. ^ David Levinson (1993). Encyclopedia of world cultures. G.K. Hall. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8168-8840-5.
  28. ^ Timothy J. O'Leary (1991). Encyclopedia of world cultures: North America. Hall. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8168-8840-5.
  29. ^ Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember (1999). Cultures of the world: selections from the ten-volume encyclopedia of world cultures. Macmillan Library Reference. p. 252. ISBN 9780028653679.
  30. ^ Louisa Schein (2000). Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics. Duke University Press. pp. 61-. ISBN 0-8223-2444-X.
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  33. ^ a b Tao Tao Liu; David Faure (1 March 1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 86-. ISBN 978-962-209-402-4.
  34. ^ Nicholas Tapp (2001). The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary. BRILL. pp. 327-. ISBN 0-391-04187-8.
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  36. ^ a b Nicholas Tapp (1989). Sovereignty and Rebellion: The White Hmong of Northern Thailand. Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-19-588912-3.
  37. ^ Asian Folklore Studies. Nanzan University Institute of Anthropology. 2002. p. 93.
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  41. ^ "Tunbao people spring preformance [sic]". English--People's Daily Online. February 27, 2005.
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  43. ^ Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 205-. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1.
  44. ^ Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 20-. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Feng, Xianghong (18 June 2013). "Women's Work, Men's Work: Gender and Tourism among the Miao in Rural China". Anthropology of Work Review. XXXIV: 4-10. doi:10.1111/awr.12002.
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  47. ^ ":,?10?". 3g.163.com (in Chinese). Retrieved .

Sources

Further reading

External links


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