Mebibyte
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Mebibyte

The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.[1] The binary prefix mebi means 220; therefore one mebibyte is equal to 1048576bytes, i.e., 1024 kibibytes. The unit symbol for the mebibyte is MiB.

The unit was established by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1998.[2] It was designed to replace the megabyte when used in the binary sense to mean 220 bytes, which conflicts with the definition of the prefix mega in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 106. The binary prefixes have been accepted by all major standards organizations and are part of the International System of Quantities.[3] Many Linux distributions use the unit, but it is not widely acknowledged within the industry or media.[4][5][6][7]

Multiples of bytes
Decimal
Value Metric
1000 kB kilobyte
10002 MB megabyte
10003 GB gigabyte
10004 TB terabyte
10005 PB petabyte
10006 EB exabyte
10007 ZB zettabyte
10008 YB yottabyte
Binary
Value IEC JEDEC
1024 KiB kibibyte KB kilobyte
10242 MiB mebibyte MB megabyte
10243 GiB gibibyte GB gigabyte
10244 TiB tebibyte
10245 PiB pebibyte
10246 EiB exbibyte
10247 ZiB zebibyte
10248 YiB yobibyte

Definition

1 MiB = 220bytes = 1048576bytes = 1024 kibibytes
1024 MiB = 1 gibibyte (GiB)

The prefix mebi is a binary prefix and multiplier derived from the SI prefix mega and the word binary. Its value is 10242, having the same power of 1024 as the power of 1000 of its decimal counterpart, the prefix mega (10002).

Despite its official status, the unit mebibyte is not commonly used even when reporting byte counts calculated in binary multiples, but is often represented as a megabyte. The discrepancy may cause confusion, since operating systems using the binary method report lower numerical values for storage size than advertised by manufacturers, such as disk drive manufacturers, who strictly use decimal units.

History and usage

The binary prefixes, including mebi, were defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in December 1998. All major standards bodies have endorsed the use of them for binary multiples.

Prior to this official definition, the unit megabyte was originally used in computer science to mean one million bytes (for example for 35 MB hard drive would be capable of storing 35 million bytes). Later the same term 'megabyte' was used to mean 1048576 bytes in the context of computer memory, although it continued to mean exactly one million (1000000) bytes in the context of computer storage.[8] The error associated with this ambiguity is relatively small for the megabyte.

In 1995, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's Interdivisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols decided to attempt to resolve this ambiguity by proposing new prefixes for powers of 1024.[9][10] Accepted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the IEC published the standard in January 1999.[11][12][13][14]

Some operating systems still compute file size in mebibytes, but report the number as MB (megabytes). For example, all versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system show a file of 220 bytes as "1.00 MB" or "1,024 KB" in its file properties dialog and show a file of 106 (1000000) bytes as 976 KB.

All versions of Apple's operating systems had the same behavior until 2009 with Mac OS X version 10.6, which instead uses megabytes for all file and disk sizes, so it reports a 106 byte file as 1 MB.[15][16]

The Ubuntu developer Canonical implemented an updated units policy in 2010 and as of Ubuntu 10.10 all versions use IEC binary prefixes for base-2 quantities and SI prefixes for base-10 quantities.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ International Electrotechnical Commission (January 2010). "IEC 60050 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - Details for IEV number 112-01-27". Retrieved .
  2. ^ International Electrotechnical Commission (January 1999), IEC 60027-2 Amendment 2: Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology - Part 2: Telecommunications and electronics.[1]
  3. ^ "IEC 80000-13:2008". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 2013.
  4. ^ Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Scott Mueller, Pg. 596, ISBN 0-7897-2974-1
  5. ^ The silicon web: physics for the Internet age, Michael G. Raymer, Pg. 40, ISBN 978-1-4398-0311-0
  6. ^ Knuth: Recent News. Cs-faculty.stanford.edu. Retrieved on 2011-01-07.
  7. ^ Atwood, Jeff. (2007-09-10) Gigabyte: Decimal vs. Binary. Coding Horror. Retrieved on 2011-01-07.
  8. ^ NIST "Prefixes for binary multiples" https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/binary.html
  9. ^ IUCr 1995 Report - IUPAC Interdivisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols (IDCNS) http://ww1.iucr.org/iucr-top/cexec/rep95/idcns.htm
  10. ^ "Binary Prefix" University of Aukland Department of Computer Science https://wiki.cs.auckland.ac.nz/stageonewiki/index.php/Binary_prefix
  11. ^ NIST "Prefixes for binary multiples" https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/binary.html
  12. ^ Amendment 2 to IEC International Standard IEC 60027-2: Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology - Part 2: Telecommunications and electronics.
  13. ^ HDD Turns 50 Years Today - The Chronicles
  14. ^ Backman, R. B. (2004). The Description, Evolution, and Applications of Binary Prefixes.
  15. ^ "How Mac OS X reports drive capacity". Apple Inc. 2009-08-27. Retrieved .
  16. ^ David Pogue (2011), Mac OS X Lion: The Missing Manual Missing Manual, Oreilly Series, O'Reilly Media, pp. 473-474, ISBN 978-1-4493-9749-4
  17. ^ "Ubuntu UnitsPolicy". Ubuntu. 2010. Retrieved .

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