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Al-malim (injustices, grievances) were an ancient pre-Islamic institution that was adopted by the Abbasids in the eighth century CE. The main purpose of the mazalim courts was to give ordinary people redress.[1]Mazalim, or the sultan's court, was distinguished from the shur?a, police courts.[2]


  1. ^ Law and Empire: Ideas, Practices, Actors Page 140 90042495162013 "the mazalim tribunals were an ancient institution that was adopted by the ?abbasids in the eighth century.14 its main purpose was to enable ordinary subjects to complain about the administrative elite of the empire. the mazalim ..."
  2. ^ Knut S. Vikør Between God and the Sultan: A History of Islamic Law 2005-0195223985 Page 191 "group them into two main types recognized by the adab literature: mazalim, or the sultan's court, and shurta, police courts.7 Mazalim: the sultan 's court The first of these is the private court of the sultan (that is, whoever has the political power in .."

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