Margraviate of Moravia
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Margraviate of Moravia
Margraviate of Moravia
Markrabství moravské  (Czech)
Markgrafschaft Mähren  (German)
1182-1918
The Margraviate of Moravia and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown within the Holy Roman Empire (1618)
The Margraviate of Moravia and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown within the Holy Roman Empire (1618)
The Margraviate in 1893
The Margraviate in 1893
StatusCrown land of the Bohemian Crown
(1348-1918)
Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire (1198-1806)
Crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy (1526-1804), of the Austrian Empire (1804-67), and of the Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918)
CapitalOlomouc (1182-1641)
Brno (1641-1918)
Common languagesMoravian dialects of Czech, Polish and German
Religion
Roman Catholic (official)
Hussite, later evolved into Bohemian Reformed (Utraquist, Brethren)
Lutheran
Anabaptist
Jewish
GovernmentMargraviate
Margrave 
o 1182-1191 (first)
Conrad II of Bohemia
o 1916-1918 (last)
Charles I of Austria
LegislatureProvincial Diet
History 
o Established
1182
o Disestablished
1918
Area
191822,222 km2 (8,580 sq mi)
Population
o 1918
2,662,000
Today part of

The Margraviate of Moravia (Czech: Markrabství moravské; German: Markgrafschaft Mähren) was one of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown within the Holy Roman Empire existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. It was variously a de facto independent state, and also subject to the Duchy, later the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic.

Geography

The Margraviate lay east of Bohemia proper, with an area about half that region's size. In the north, the Sudeten Mountains, which extend to the Moravian Gate, formed the border with the Polish Duchy of Silesia, incorporated as a Bohemian crown land upon the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin. In the east and southeast, the western Carpathian Mountains separated it from present-day Slovakia. In the south, the winding Thaya River marked the border with the Duchy of Austria.

Moravians, usually considered a Czech people that speak Moravian dialects, made up the main part of the population. According to a 1910 Cisleithanian census, 27.6% identified themselves as German Moravians.[1] These ethnic Germans would later be expelled after the Second World War. Other ethnic minority groups included Poles, Roma and Slovaks.

History

After the early medieval Great Moravian realm had been finally defeated by the Árpád princes of Hungary in 907, what is now Slovakia was incorporated as "Upper Hungary" (Fels?-Magyarország), while adjacent Moravia passed under the authority of the Duchy of Bohemia. King Otto I of Germany officially granted it to Duke Boleslaus I in turn for his support against the Hungarian forces in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld. Temporarily ruled by King Boles?aw I Chrobry of Poland from 999 until 1019, Moravia was re-conquered by Duke Old?ich of Bohemia and ultimately became a land of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas held by the P?emyslid dynasty.[1]

Sitting of the Moravian Diet, 17th century

In 1182, the Margraviate was created at the behest of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa by merger of the three P?emyslid appanage principalities of Brno, Olomouc and Znojmo, and given to Conrad II, the son of Prince Conrad of Znojmo. As heir apparent, the future King Ottokar II of Bohemia was appointed Moravian margave by his father Wenceslaus I in 1247. Along with Bohemia, Moravia was ruled by the House of Luxembourg from the extinction of the P?emyslid dynasty until 1437. Jobst, nephew of Emperor Charles IV inherited the Margraviate in 1375, ruled autonomously and was even elected King of the Romans in 1410. Shaken by the Hussite Wars, the Moravian nobles remained loyal supporters of the Luxembourg emperor Sigismund.[1]

In 1469, Moravia was occupied by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, who had allied with the Catholic nobility against the rule of George of Pod?brady and had himself elected rival king of Bohemia at Olomouc. The rivalry with King Vladislaus II was settled in the 1479 Peace of Olomouc, whereby Matthias renounced the royal title but retained the rule over the Moravian lands.[2]

With the other lands of the Bohemian Crown, the Margraviate was incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy upon the death of King Louis II in the 1526 Battle of Mohács. Moravia was ruled as a crown land within the Austrian Empire from 1804 and within Cisleithanian Austria from 1867.[3]

During the foundation of Czechoslovakia after World War I, the Margraviate was transformed into "Moravia Land", later "Moravia-Silesia Land" in 1918. This autonomy was eliminated in 1949 by the communist government and has not been re-established since.[1]

Government

The former Moravian Diet building. It now houses the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic.

The margrave held ultimate authority in Moravia, throughout the history of the margraviate. This meant that as its margraves became more foreign, so too did governance of the margraviate.

Moravia possessed a legislature, known as the Moravian Diet. The assembly has its origins in 1288, with the Colloquium generale, or curia generalis.[4] This was a meeting of the upper nobility, knights, the Bishop of Olomouc, abbots and ambassadors from royal cities. These meetings gradually evolved into the diet.

The power of this diet waxed and waned throughout history. By the end of the margraviate, the diet was almost powerless. The diet consisted of three estates of the realm: the estate of upper nobility, the estate of the lower nobility, and the estate of prelates and burghers.[5] With the February Patent of 1861, the diet was reformed into a more egalitarian body. It still retained the same structure, but the members changed. It consisted of assembly seats for landowners, city-dwellers, and rural farmers. This was retained until the diet was abolished after the fall of the Dual Monarchy.[5]

Moravian eagle

The unadopted coat of arms as a heraldic artwork made by Hugo Gerard Ströhl

The coat of arms of Moravia is charged with a crowned silver-red chequered eagle with golden claws and tongue. It first appeared in the seal of Margrave P?emysl (1209-1239), a younger son of King Ottokar I of Bohemia. After 1462, the Moravian eagle was gold-red chequered,[2] but was never accepted by the Moravian assembly.

Administration

Until 1848

In the mid 14th century Emperor Charles IV, also King of Bohemia and Margrave of Moravia, established administrative divisions called kraje. These subdivisions were named for their capitals, some of which were:

After 1848

Moravian and Austrian Silesian districts, 1897

After the 1848 revolutions, the kraje were replaced by political districts (politický okres), which were largely retained by the Czechoslovak administration after 1918:

Demographics

The region experienced rapid population growth when it was part of Austria-Hungary. From 1890 to 1900 alone there was an increase of 7.1%. The population development from 1851 to 1900 was as follows:

Year 1851 1880 1890 1900
Population 1,799,838 2,153,407 2,276,870 2,437,706

Ethnicity

Judicial districts (Gerichtsbezirke) in Moravia

In terms of ethnicity, the population was predominantly divided between Czechs and Germans. The German minority mostly lived on the borders with Lower Austria and Silesia, and in various language islands (around Brünn, Olmütz, Iglau and Zwittau), as well as in some larger cities. The ethnic distribution according to the census was as follows:

Ethnicity 1880 1900
Czechs 1,507,327 70.0% 1,727,270 70.9%
Germans 628,907 29.2% 675,492 27.7%
Others 17,173 0.8% 34,944 1.4%
Total 2,153,407 2,437,706

Population by district (1910)

Judicial district Czech name Political district (Politischer Bezirk) Population Germans % Czechs % Others % Foreigners %
Auspitz Hustope? Auspitz 24,506 10,319 42.1% 14,128 57.7% 1 0.0% 58 0.2%
Austerlitz Slavkov Wischau 33,604 808 2.4% 32,679 97.2% 6 0.0% 111 0.3%
Blansko Blansko Boskowitz 34,816 186 0.5% 34,584 99.3% 1 0.0% 45 0.1%
Bojkowitz Bojkovice Ungarisch Brod 13,816 11 0.1% 13,673 99.0% 7 0.1% 125 0.9%
Boskowitz Boskovice Boskowitz 30,762 981 3.2% 29,724 96.6% 6 0.0% 51 0.2%
Brünn Brno Brünn 125,737 81,617 64.9% 41,943 33.4% 214 0.2% 1,963 1.6%
Brünn Umgebung Brno okolí Brünn (Landbezirk) 125828 14,702 11.7% 110,457 87.8% 80 0.1% 589 0.5%
Butschowitz Bu?ovice Wischau 19,922 144 0.7% 19,734 99.1% 2 0.0% 42 0.2%
Byst?itz Byst?ice Neustadtl in Mähren 21,762 39 0.2% 21,700 99.7% 0 0.0% 23 0.1%
Byst?itz am Hostein Byst?ice pod Hostýnem Holleschau 21,944 144 0.7% 21,687 98.8% 8 0.0% 105 0.5%
Datschitz Da?ice Datschitz 13,075 176 1.3% 12,893 98.6% 0 0.0% 6 0.0%
Eibenschitz Ivan?ice Brünn (Landbezirk) 36,665 2,087 5.7% 34,461 94.0% 7 0.0% 110 0.3%
Frain Vranov Znaim (Landbezirk) 9,123 7,920 86.8% 1,157 12.7% 8 0.1% 38 0.4%
Frankstadt Fren?tát Mistek 19,087 85 0.4% 18,864 98.8% 53 0.3% 85 0.4%
Freiberg P?íbor Neutitschein 25,710 6,877 26.7% 18,524 72.0% 89 0.3% 220 0.9%
Fulnek Fulnek Neutitschein 14,771 13,960 94.5% 630 4.3% 58 0.4% 123 0.8%
Gaya Kyjov Gaya 39,836 884 2.2% 38,728 97.2% 7 0.0% 217 0.5%
Gewitsch Jeví?ko Mährisch Trübau 21,898 3,024 13.8% 18,849 86.1% 0 0.0% 25 0.1%
Göding Hodonín Göding 35,510 5,369 15.1% 28,813 81.1% 63 0.2% 1,265 3.6%
Großbittesch Velká Byte? Großmeseritsch 12,946 23 0.2% 12,918 99.8% 0 0.0% 5 0.0%
Großmeseritsch Velké Mezi?í?í Großmeseritsch 28,253 189 0.7% 28,045 99.3% 0 0.0% 19 0.1%
Hof Dvorec Bärn 12,293 12,203 99.3% 20 0.2% 0 0.0% 70 0.6%
Hohenstadt Záb?eh Hohenstadt 31,071 9,954 32.0% 21,042 67.7% 1 0.0% 74 0.2%
Holleschau Hole?ov Holleschau 32,225 440 1.4% 31,657 98.2% 0 0.0% 128 0.4%
Hrottowitz Hrotovice Mährisch Kromau 15,704 80 0.5% 15,598 99.3% 6 0.0% 20 0.1%
Iglau Jihlava Iglau (Landbezirk), Iglau (Stadt) 53,513 27,886 52.1% 25,380 47.4% 14 0.0% 233 0.4%
Jamnitz Jemnice Mährisch Budwitz 13,709 3,406 24.8% 10,272 74.9% 10 0.1% 21 0.2%
Joslowitz Jaroslavice Znaim (Landbezirk) 24,043 23,694 98.5% 280 1.2% 4 0.0% 65 0.3%
Klobouk Klobouky Auspitz 14,282 50 0.4% 14,194 99.4% 1 0.0% 37 0.3%
Kojetein Kojetín Prerau 31,010 225 0.7% 30,348 97.9% 33 0.1% 404 1.3%
Konitz Konice Littau 23,179 5,329 23.0% 17,842 77.0% 0 0.0% 8 0.0%
Kremsier Kromí? Kremsier (Land), Kremsier (Stadt) 42,496 893 2.1% 41,388 97.4% 49 0.1% 166 0.4%
Kunstadt Kun?tát Boskowitz 25,335 73 0.3% 25,248 99.7% 2 0.0% 12 0.0%
Leipnik Lipník Mährisch Weißkirchen 23,182 3,512 15.1% 19,503 84.1% 22 0.1% 145 0.6%
Littau Litovel Littau 26,121 1,125 4.3% 24,967 95.6% 7 0.0% 22 0.1%
Lundenburg B?eclav Göding 31,699 5,370 16.9% 25,860 81.6% 5 0.0% 464 1.5%
Mährisch Altstadt Staré M?sto Mährisch Schönberg 15,511 15,429 99.5% 38 0.2% 0 0.0% 44 0.3%
Mährisch Budwitz Moravské Bud?jovice Mährisch Budwitz 25,839 169 0.7% 25,639 99.2% 0 0.0% 31 0.1%
Mährisch Kromau Moravský Krumlov Mährisch Kromau 26,911 11,595 43.1% 15,259 56.7% 1 0.0% 56 0.2%
Mährisch Neustadt Un?ov Sternberg 24,567 20,136 82.0% 4,373 17.8% 1 0.0% 57 0.2%
Mährisch Ostrau Moravská Ostrava Mährisch Ostrau 111,186 43,246 38.9% 52,254 47.0% 12,906 11.6% 2,780 2.5%
Mährisch Schönberg ?umperk Mährisch Schönberg 50,348 38,179 75.8% 11,814 23.5% 59 0.1% 296 0.6%
Mährisch Trübau Moravská T?ebová Mährisch Trübau 29,996 27,926 93.1% 1,943 6.5% 7 0.0% 120 0.4%
Mährisch Weißkirchen Hranice Mährisch Weißkirchen 35,465 8,701 24.5% 26,345 74.3% 141 0.4% 278 0.8%
Mistek Místek Mistek 36,917 3,457 9.4% 32,990 89.4% 200 0.5% 270 0.7%
Müglitz Mohelnice Hohenstadt 23,360 13,993 59.9% 9,209 39.4% 74 0.3% 84 0.4%
Namiest an der Oslawa Nám nad Oslavou Trebitsch 15,711 67 0.4% 15,636 99.5% 0 0.0% 8 0.1%
Napajedl Napajedla Ungarisch Hradisch 29,861 38 0.1% 29,696 99.4% 7 0.0% 120 0.4%
Neustadtl in Mähren Nové M?sto na Morav? Neustadtl in Mähren 22,297 31 0.1% 22,246 99.8% 1 0.0% 19 0.1%
Neutitschein Nový Ji?ín Neutitschein 44,764 23,976 53.6% 20,400 45.6% 71 0.2% 317 0.7%
Nikolsburg Mikulov Nikolsburg 33,030 31,619 95.7% 597 1.8% 683 2.1% 131 0.4%
Olmütz Olomouc Olmütz (Land), Olmütz (Stadt) 103,280 30,987 30.0% 70,645 68.4% 934 0.9% 714 0.7%
Plumenau Plumlov Proßnitz 23,738 84 0.4% 23,640 99.6% 0 0.0% 14 0.1%
Pohrlitz Poho?elice Nikolsburg 16,021 15,292 95.4% 654 4.1% 2 0.0% 73 0.5%
Prerau P?erov Prerau 47,174 1,635 3.5% 45,250 95.9% 59 0.1% 230 0.5%
Proßnitz Prost?jov Proßnitz 57,735 2,407 4.2% 54,839 95.0% 181 0.3% 308 0.5%
Römerstadt Rýma?ov Römerstadt 28,497 28,355 99.5% 4 0.0% 25 0.1% 113 0.4%
Ro?nau am Radhorst Ro?nov pod Radho?t?m Wallachisch Meseritsch 20,178 29 0.1% 20,118 99.7% 0 0.0% 31 0.2%
Saar ár Neustadtl in Mähren 14,383 30 0.2% 14,330 99.6% 1 0.0% 22 0.2%
Schildberg ?ilperk Hohenstadt 16,388 9,150 55.8% 7,194 43.9% 2 0.0% 42 0.3%
Seelowitz ?idlochovice Auspitz 30,980 2,476 8.0% 28,454 91.8% 5 0.0% 45 0.1%
Stadt Liebau M?sto Libavá Bärn 17,347 17,285 99.6% 28 0.2% 0 0.0% 34 0.2%
Steinitz ?dánice Gaya 14,814 205 1.4% 14,567 98.3% 0 0.0% 42 0.3%
Sternberg ?ternberk Sternberg 36,123 28,018 77.6% 7,982 22.1% 5 0.0% 118 0.3%
Straßnitz Strá?nice Göding 26,425 427 1.6% 25,744 97.4% 2 0.0% 252 1.0%
Teltsch Tel? Datschitz 26,137 95 0.4% 25,982 99.4% 0 0.0% 60 0.2%
Tischnowitz Ti?nov Tischnowitz 35,406 264 0.7% 35,044 99.0% 18 0.1% 80 0.2%
Trebitsch T?ebí? Trebitsch 40,832 837 2.0% 39,919 97.8% 6 0.0% 70 0.2%
Triesch T?e Iglau (Landbezirk) 14,249 160 1.1% 14,057 98.7% 2 0.0% 30 0.2%
Ungarisch Brod Uherský Brod Ungarisch Brod 36,954 706 1.9% 35,929 97.2% 11 0.0% 308 0.8%
Ungarisch Hradisch Uherské Hradi?t? Ungarisch Hradisch (Land), Ungarisch Hradisch (Stadt) 41,354 100 0.2% 41,129 99.5% 1 0.0% 124 0.3%
Ungarisch Ostra Uherský Ostroh Ungarisch Hradisch 46,528 469 1.0% 45,846 98.5% 7 0.0% 206 0.4%
Wallachisch Klobouk Vala?ské Klobouky Ungarisch Brod 26,419 101 0.4% 25,784 97.6% 41 0.2% 493 1.9%
Wallachisch Meseritsch Vala?ské Mezi?í?í Wallachisch Meseritsch 24,657 319 1.3% 24,224 98.2% 15 0.1% 99 0.4%
Wiesenberg Viesenberk Mährisch Schönberg 14,525 14,465 99.6% 7 0.0% 4 0.0% 49 0.3%
Wischau Vy?kov Wischau 43,545 3,486 8.0% 39,976 91.8% 6 0.0% 77 0.2%
Wisowitz Vizovice Holleschau 23,469 2 0.0% 23,223 99.0% 90 0.4% 154 0.7%
Wsetin Vsetín Wsetin 42,976 214 0.5% 42,250 98.3% 22 0.1% 490 1.1%
Zdounek Zdounky Kremsier (Landbezirk) 22,368 92 0.4% 22,241 99.4% 4 0.0% 31 0.1%
Zlabings Slavonice Datschitz 10,090 9,322 92.4% 734 7.3% 0 0.0% 34 0.3%
Znaim Znojmo Znaim (Land), Znaim 61,866 42,253 68.3% 18,339 29.6% 52 0.1% 1,222 2.0%
Zwittau Svitavy Mährisch Trübau 28,197 27,339 97.0% 767 2.7% 0 0.0% 91 0.3%

Rulers of Moravia

Dukes of Moravia

P?emyslid dynasty

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Bretislaus I Bretislav trun.jpg 1002/5 1019/29-1033 10 January 1055 Moravia Judith of Schweinfurt
1020
four children
Son of Ulrich of Bohemia. First separation of Moravia from Bohemia. His father usurped his place for a year.
Ulrich I Oldrzych.jpg 975 1033-1034 9 November 1034 Moravia Unknown
no children

Bo?ena
c.1002
(morganatic)
one child
After his death, his son was replaced in Moravia.
Bretislaus I Bretislav trun.jpg 1002/5 1034-1055 10 January 1055 Moravia Judith of Schweinfurt
1020
four children
Recovered his throne. After his death his sons shared the inheritance.
Conrad I Konrad I.jpg c.1035 1055-1056 6 September 1092 Brno Wirpirk of Tengling
1054
two children
Received Brno after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihn?v ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.
Vratislaus I Vratislav II 140x190.jpg c.1035 1055-1056 14 January 1092 Olomouc Maria
before 1057
no children

Adelaide of Hungary I
1057
four children

?wi?tos?awa of Poland
1062
five children
Received Olomouc after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihn?v ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.
Otto I the Fair Herzog Leopold II. Babenberg.jpg 1045 1055-1056 9 June 1087 Znojmo Euphemia of Hungary
before 1073
two children
Received Znojmo after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihn?v ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.
Spytihn?v I Spytihnev2vesvatovitskeapo.jpg 1031 1056-1061 28 January 1061 Moravia Ida of Wettin
c.1054
one child
United Bohemian and Moravian lands.
Conrad I Konrad I.jpg c.1035 1061-1092 6 September 1092 Brno and Znojmo Wirpirk of Tengling
1054
two children
Received Brno and Znojmo. In 1092 divided the land between his two sons.
Otto I the Fair Herzog Leopold II. Babenberg.jpg 1045 1061-1087 9 June 1087 Olomouc Euphemia of Hungary
before 1073
two children
Received Olomouc after the partition of 1061.
Boleslaus 1062 1087-1091 11 August 1091 Olomouc Unmarried Received Olomouc after the partition of 1061.
Svatopluk I the Lion ?wi?tope?k O?omuniecki.jpg 1075 1091-1109 21 September 1109 Olomouc Unknown
one child
Leopold I ? 1092-1112 15 March 1112 Znojmo Ida of Austria
one child
Son of Conrad I. Received Znojmo after the partition of 1092. Left no descendants, and his lands was reunited with Brno
Ulrich II H13vacl.jpg c.1035 1092-1112 5 January 1113 Brno Adelaide
two children
Son of Conrad I. Received Brno after the partition of 1092. In 1112 reunited Brno and Znojmo.
1112-1113 Brno and Znojmo Sophia of Berg
1113
three children
Sobeslaus I Sobies?aw I.jpg c.1075 1113-1123 14 February 1140 Brno and Znojmo Adelaide of Hungary II
1123
five children
Son of Vratislaus I.
Conrad II Konrad II.jpg c.1075 1123-1161 14 February 1140 Znojmo Maria of Serbia
1132
four children
Son of Vratislaus I.
Otto II the Black 1085 1109-1123 18 February 1126 Olomouc Unknown
one child
Ruled in Olomouc, since 1091 with his brother Svatopluk. Acquired Brno in 1123.
1123-1126 Olomouc and Brno
Wenceslaus Henry Dom svateho Vaclava - Premyslovci.jpg 1107 1126-1130 1 March 1130 Olomouc Unmarried
Vratislaus II c.1111 1126-1146 1146 Brno A Russian princess
1132
three children
Leopold II 1102 1130-1137 1143 Olomouc Unmarried Son of Bo?ivoj II, Duke of Bohemia.
Vladislaus ? 1137-1140 1165 Olomouc Unmarried Son of Sobeslaus I.
Otto III 1122 1140-1160 12 May 1160 Olomouc Durancia
five children
Son of Otto II.
Spytihn?v II ? 1146?-1182 1199 Brno Umarried In 1182 abdicated for Conrad III.
Frederick I Dux Fridrich.jpg 1142 1160-1173 25 March 1189 Olomouc Elizabeth of Hungary
1157
six children
Son of Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia.
Ulrich III 1134 1173-1177 18 October 1177 Olomouc Cecilia of Thuringia
no children

Sophia of Meissen
no children
Son of Sob?slav I, Duke of Bohemia.
Wenceslaus 1137 1177-1178 after 1192 Olomouc Unmarried Son of Sobeslaus I. Abdicated for Conrad III.
Conrad III Otto PecetKonradaIIOty.jpg c.1136 1161-1178 9 September 1191 Znojmo Hellicha of Wittelsbach
before 1176
no children
Son of Conrad II. United Znojmo and Olomouc. Brno joined in 1182, when he also became the first Margrave of Moravia.
1178-1182 Znojmo and Olomouc
1182-1191 Moravia

Margraves of Moravia

P?emyslid dynasty

united with Bohemia 1189-1197

directly held by King Rudolph I of Germany 1278-1283

Various dynasties

Luxembourgs

Various dynasties

Jagiellons

Habsburgs

Under the united rule of the Bohemian kings from 1611 (see List of rulers of Bohemia).

References

  1. ^ a b c d Pánek, Jaroslav; T?ma, Old?ich (2009). A History of the Czech Lands. Prague: Charles University Press. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2.
  2. ^ a b Prinz, Friedrich (1993). Deutsche Geschichte in Osten Europas: Böhmen und Mähren. Berlin: Wolf Jobst Siedler Verlag GmbH. p. 381. ISBN 3-88680-200-0. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ Urban, Otto (1998). "V.". Czech Society 1848-1918. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43155-7. Retrieved 2013.
  4. ^ Válka, Josef (1995). D?jiny Moravy: Morava reformace, renesance a baroka (in Czech). Brno: Muzejní a vlastiv?dná spole?nost v Brn?. ISBN 9788085048629. Retrieved 2013.
  5. ^ a b David, Ji?í (2009). "Moravian estatism and provincial councils in the second half of the 17th century". Folia Historica Bohemica. 1. 24: 111-165. ISSN 0231-7494.

External links

Coordinates: 50°N 17°E / 50°N 17°E / 50; 17


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