Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the major port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats mountain range about 352 km (219 mi) west of Bangalore, the state capital. Mangalore is the state's only city to have all four modes of transport--air, road, rail and sea. The population of the urban agglomeration was 619,664 according to the 2011[update] national census of India.
Mangalore is also the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, and is a commercial, industrial, educational, healthcare and startup hub. This city's International Airport is the second-largest airport in Karnataka. Mangalore City Corporation is responsible for the civic administration, which manages the 60 wards of the city. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, rivers and hard laterite soil. India's first 3D planetarium with 8K resolution display is situated in this city. Mangalore is also included in the Smart Cities Mission list and is among the 100 smart cities to be developed in India. The city has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate and is under the influence of the southwest monsoon.
1652 Sanson Map of India
Mangalore was named after the deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi Temple or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the VajrayanaBuddhist sect. According to local legend, a princess named Parimala or Premaladevi from Malabar renounced her kingdom and became a disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi. She arrived in the area with Matsyendranath but had to settle near Bolar in Mangalore because she fell ill on the way. When she died, the Mangaladevi temple at Bolar was consecrated in her honour by the local people. The city got its name from the temple.
One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The city and the coastal region were part of the Pandyan Kingdom. According to K.V. Ramesh, President of the Place Names Society of India, Mangaluru was first used in 1345 CE during the Vijayanagar rule. Many shilashasanas (stones) of the Vijayanagar period refer the city as Mangalapura. Before that, during the Alupa dynasty period, it was referred to as Mangalapura (Mangala means 'auspicious'). in Kannada language, the city is known as Mangaluru, a reference to Mangaladevi (the suffix uru means town or city). During British rule from 1799, the anglicised version Mangalore became the official appellation. According to historian George M. Moraes, however, the word Mangalore is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru.:2 The city's name appears on maps from as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India.
Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the region's primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning junction because it is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers. In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodiyal, while in Malayalam, Mangalore is called Mangalapuram and the Beary name for the city is Maikala. Mangalore was officially renamed to "Mangaluru" by the Karnataka government on 1 November 2014.
Early and medieval history
Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers. During the first century CE, the Roman historian Pliny the Elder made references to a place called "Nitrias" as an undesirable place for disembarkation because of the pirates who frequented its vicinity, while Greek second-century historian Ptolemy referred to a place called "Nitra". These remarks were probably referring to the Netravati River that flows through Mangalore. In his sixth-century work Christian Topography, Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, mentions Malabar as the chief seat of the pepper trade and Mangarouth (port of Mangalore) as one of the five pepper markets that exported pepper.
Mangalore is considered the heart of a distinct multi-linguistic cultural region, the homeland of the Tulu-speaking people. In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, which was ruled by the Buddhist emperor Ashoka of Magadha. From the third to the sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty, whose capital was based in Banavasi in North Canara, ruled over the entire Canara region as independent rulers. From the middle of the seventh century to the end of the 14th century, the South Canara region was ruled by its native Alupa rulers,:17 who ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Kalyani and Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra. During the 1130s and 1140s, during the reign of the Alupa king Kavi Alupendra (1110-1160), the city was home to the Tunisian Jewish merchant Abraham Ben Yiju. The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who visited Mangalore in 1342, referred to it as Manjarur and stated the town was situated on a large estuary called the Estuary of the wolf, which was the greatest estuary in the country of Malabar.:30 By 1345, the Vijayanagara rulers brought the region under their control.:17
During the Vijayanagara period (1345-1550), South Canara was divided into Mangalore and Barkur rajyas (provinces), and two governors were appointed to look after each of them from Mangalore and Barkur. Often a single governor ruled over both Mangalore and Barkur rajyas, and when the authority passed to the Keladi rulers (1550-1763), they had a governor at Barkur only.:19 In 1448, Abdur Razzaq, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore en route to the Vijayanagara court.:31 The Italian traveller Ludovico di Varthema, who visited India in 1506, said he saw nearly sixty ships laden with rice ready to sail from the port of Mangalore.:20
In 1498, European influence in Mangalore began when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at the nearby St Mary's Islands. The Portuguese acquired many commercial interests in Canara in the 16th century.Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529), the ruler of the Vijaynagara empire maintained a friendly relationship with the Portuguese, whose trade slowly grew and they strove to destroy the coastal Arab and Moplah trade. In 1524, Vasco da Gama ordered the blockading of rivers after he heard the Muslim merchants of Calicut had agents at Mangalore and Basrur. In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio took possession of Mangalore. The coastal trade passed into Portuguese hands.:20 In 1550, the Vijayanagara ruler Sadashiva Raya entrusted to Sadashiv Nayaka of Keladi with administering the coastal region of Canara. By 1554, he established political authority over South Canara.
After the disintegration of the Vijaynagara Empire in 1565, the rulers of Keladi attained greater power in dealing with the coastal Canara region.:27 They continued the Vijayanagara administrative system and the provinces of Mangalore and Barkur continued to exist. The governor of Mangalore also acted as the governor of the Keladi army in his province.:30 The Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle visited here in 1623-1624. In 1695, Arabs burnt the town in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.
In 1763, Hyder Ali, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, conquered Mangalore, which was brought under his administration until 1767. Mangalore was ruled by the British East India Company from 1767 to 1783, but Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan subsequently took it from their control in 1783 and renamed it "Jalalabad". The Second Anglo-Mysore War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Mangalore by Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. After the defeat of Tipu at the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the city remained under British control, headquartering South Canara district under the Madras Presidency.
Local capital was mainly invested in land and money lending, leading to the regional development of banking because the British colonial government did not support industrialisation there. After European missionaries arrived in the early 19th century, educational institutions and modern industries modelled on European ones were developed in the region. The opening of the Lutheran Swiss Basel Mission in 1834 was an important step towards industrialisation. Missionaries set up printing presses, textile mills and factories that made Mangalore tiles. When Canara (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was split into North Canara and South Canara in 1859, Mangalore became the headquarters of South Canara,:5 which remained under Madras Presidency while in 1862, North Canara was transferred to the Bombay Presidency.:6
Later modern and contemporary history
On 23 May 1866, a municipal council for Mangalore with responsibility for civic amenities and urban planning was mandated by the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865).:178 The Italian Jesuits who arrived in the city in 1878, played an important role in the city's education, economy, health and social welfare. Mangalore was linked to the Southern Railway in 1907 and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country. Mangalore was a major source of educated workers to Bombay, Bangalore and the Middle East by the early 20th century.
The States Reorganisation Act (1956) led to Mangalore being incorporated into the newly created Mysore State, which was later renamed Karnataka.:415 Mangalore is the seventh-largest port of India, giving the state access to the Arabian Sea coastline. Between 1970 and 1980, Mangalore experienced significant growth with the opening of New Mangalore Port in 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited in 1976. The late 20th and early 21st centuries saw Mangalore develop as a commercial and petrochemical hub.
Mangalore is located on the western coast of India at 12°52?N74°53?E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state. It has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. The city is the administrative headquarters of Dakshina Kannada district and is the state's largest coastal urban centre.
A schematic map showing the tourist places in Mangalore city
Mangalore is bounded by the Arabian Sea to its west and by the Western Ghats to its east. As a municipal entity, the city spans 170 km2 (65.64 sq mi). The Netravati and Gurupura rivers encircle the city; the Gurupura flows around the north and the Netravati flows around the south of the city. The rivers form an estuary in the south-western region of the city, from where they flow into the Arabian Sea. Coconut, palm and ashoka trees comprise the primary vegetation of the city.
The city's topography consists of a plain that stretches up to 30 km (18.64 mi) from the coast and undulating, hilly terrain towards the east near the Western Ghats. The local geology is characterised by hard laterite in hilly tracts and sandy soil along the seashore. The Geological Survey of India has identified Mangalore as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the city in the Seismic III Zone.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate and is under the direct influence of the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon. It receives about 95 per cent of its total annual rainfall between May to October but remains extremely dry from December to March. Humidity is approximately 75 per cent on average and peaks during June, July and August. The maximum average humidity is 93 per cent in July and average minimum humidity is 56 per cent in January. Mangalore experiences moderate to gusty winds during day time and gentle winds at night. The driest and least humid months are from December to February. During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 34 °C (93 °F) and drop to about 19 °C (66 °F) at night. The lowest temperature recorded at Panambur is 15.6 °C (60 °F) on 8 January 1992 and at Bajpe it is 15.9 °C (61 °F) on 19 November 1974. According to the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the temperature in Mangalore has never reached 40 °C (104 °F). The summer gives way to the monsoon season, when the city experiences the highest precipitation of all urban centres in India due to the influence of the Western Ghats. The rains subside in September but there is occasional rainfall in October. The highest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 330.8 mm (13 in) on 22 June 2003. In 1994, Mangalore recorded its highest annual rainfall at 5,018.52 mm (198 in).
Climate data for Mangalore, India (Panambur) 1981-2010, extremes 1968-2012
Industrial, commercial, agricultural processing and port-related activities comprise this city's economy. The New Mangalore Port is India's seventh-largest container port. It handles 75 per cent of India's coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts. During 2000-01, Mangalore generated a revenue of (US$4.70 million) for the state. The Mangalore Customs Commissionerate collected a revenue of (US$62.67 million) during 2012-13 and (US$391.30 million) during December 2018[update]. During 2012-13, MRPL and MCF contributed (US$7.02 million) and (US$5.23 million) respectively, to the state's revenue. Dakshina Kannada district has the highest percentage of workers employed in industry and the second-highest industry-to-district GDP ratio in Karnataka. Imports through Mangalore harbour include crude oil, edible oil, liquefied petroleum gas and timber.
Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder, Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor. The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003-04. New Mangalore Port handled over 100,000 Twenty-foot equivalent units of containers during the years 2017-18. Fishing is a traditional occupation and the products are sold in the surrounding regions. Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee and cashew nut industries although the tile industry has declined because concrete is preferred in modern construction. The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore is one of India's oldest red-roof-tile manufacturing factories. The city's suburb Ullal produces hosiery and coir yarns while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many of the city's residents.
According to the 2011 Indian census, the population of Mangalore city was 484,785, and the metropolitan area had a population of 619,664. The male literacy rate was 96.49 per cent and the female literacy rate was 91.63 per cent. About 8.5 per cent of the population was under the age of six years. The death rate and Infant mortality rate were at 3.7 per cent and 1.2 per cent respectively. About 7726 people resided in slums in Mangalore city, which was 1.55 per cent of the total population. The Human Development Index (HDI) of Mangalore city was 0.83 in 2015[update].
Mangalore is a multi-lingual city where several prominent regional languages such as Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, Malayalam and Beary are spoken. The city is known as Kudla in Tulu, Kodial in Konkani, Maik?la in Beary, Mangaluru in Kannada and Mangalapuram in Malayalam. Among the residents of the city, Kudla is the most commonly used name for it. There are also smaller communities of Tuluva Jains,Gujaratis,Tamils and Marathis.
Mangalore has a city area of 170 km2 (65.64 sq mi). Municipal limits begin at Surathkal in the north, Netravati River bridge in the south, the western coast and Vamanjoor in the east. Mangalore City Corporation (MCC), which came into existence in 1980, is the municipal corporation in charge of the city's civic and infrastructural assets.
The MCC council consists of 60 elected representatives, called corporators; one from each of the city's 60 wards. A corporator from the ruling majority party is selected as a Mayor. MCC's headquarters are at Lalbagh.Mangalore Urban Development Authority (MUDA) manages the planning, urban growth and expansion of the city. The District Commissioner is the chairperson of MUDA. The 44 projects listed as part of the Smart Cities Mission programme are managed by Mangalore Smart City Limited (MSCL).
The city is served by various hospitals such as Father Muller Charitable Institutions (FMCI), KMC Hospital, AJ Hospital and Wenlock Hospital. As of 2020,[update] over 2500 doctors, nurses, paramedics and other healthcare providers are working in FMCI. Wenlock Hospital has around 1000 beds and caters to the healthcare needs of the neighbouring districts. Mangalore is a hub for medical tourism and receives patients from foreign countries. During 2017-19, around 240 foreign nationals have availed treatment in three hospitals across the city. Of these, approximately 50 per cent of the patients arrived in 2018 and 2019. KMC, AJ and Yenepoya Hospitals have received the highest number of foreign patients, including those from the USA. At Yenepoya Hospital, 68 foreign nationals have availed treatment during 2017-19. The largest inflow of foreign patients into Mangalore is from the Gulf countries.
Potable water is supplied to the city from a vented dam that was constructed across the Netravati River at Thumbe, 14 km (9 mi) from Mangalore. The Karnataka Urban Development and Coastal Environment Management Project (KUDCEMP) aims to improve safe water supply systems, and reduce leakage and losses in the city's distribution system. The distribution and rehabilitation of the drinking water in Mangalore are handled by the French company Suez Environnement. The city's official refuse disposal site is in Vamanjoor. The city generates an average of 175 tonnes per day of waste, which is handled by the MCC's health department.
Mangalore International Airport (IATA: IXE, ICAO: VOML) is located near Bajpe-Kenjar about 13 km (8 mi) north-east of Mangalore city centre. It operates regular scheduled flights to major cities in India and the Middle East. It is the second-largest and second-busiest airport in Karnataka. New terminals and runways at the airport accommodate both cargo and passenger requirements. State-government-run buses connect the city with the airport.
Mangalore's city bus service is dominated by private operators, which operate routes that extend beyond the city's boundary. Bus services from Mangalore are operated by the Dakshina Kannada Bus Operators' Association (DKBOA) and Canara Bus Operators Association (CBOA).Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) also runs bus services in the city. Two distinct sets of routes for the buses exist; city routes are covered by city buses while intercity routes are covered by service and express buses. KSRTC also operates long-distance bus services that connect Mangalore with other parts of the state. KSRTC JnNurm green city buses operate within the city limits.
Mangalore Harbour has shipping, storage and logistical services while New Mangalore Port handles dry, bulk and fluid cargoes, and is equipped to handle petroleum oil lubricants, crude products and LPG containers. The Indian Coast Guard has a station at New Mangalore Port. This artificial harbour is India's seventh largest container port and the only major port in Karnataka.Electronic visa (e-visa) facilities are available for travellers arriving in India at New Mangalore Port.
Paddanas, ballad-like epics passed on verbally through generations, are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats. The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in folk songs such as Kolkai (sung during Kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks are used as props), Unjal Pat (traditional lullaby), Moilanji Pat and Oppune Pat (sung at weddings). The Evkaristik Purshanv (Konkani: Eucharistic procession) is an annual Catholic religious procession that is held on the first Sunday of each year.
The Mangalore Catholic community's unique festivals include Monti Fest (Mother Mary's feast), which celebrates the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests. The Jain Milan, a committee that consists of Jain families, organises the annual Jain food festival, while Mosaru Kudike (curd pots feast), which is part of Krishna Janmashtami festival is celebrated by the whole community. Special night prayers called Taraveeh (rest and relaxation) are offered in mosques during the month of Ramadan.
Aati, a festival worshiping Kalenja, a patron spirit of the city, is during the Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. Festivals such as Karavali Utsav (coastal festival) and Kudlotsava (Tulu: festival of Mangalore) are celebrated with national and state-level performances in dance, drama and music.Bhuta Kola (spirit worship) is usually performed by the Tuluva community at night.Nagaradhane (snake worship) is performed in praise of Naga Devatha (the serpent king), who is said to be the protector of all snakes.Kori Katta, an ancient ritual associated with the Hindu temples in rural areas, a religious and spiritual cockfight, is held at the temples when permission is given by police.
Neer dosa, a variant of dosa and pundi (rice ball), are native to Mangalore
The state-run, nationally broadcast television channel Doordarshan provides national and local television coverage.
Cable television also provides channels from independently owned private networks. Canara TV and V4 Digital infotech network, local Multi System Operators, transmits daily video news channels, live events and cultural programmes to the city through local channels. Multiple local television channels broadcast programmes and news in Tulu, Konkani, Beary and Kannada; these incluide Namma TV, V4 News and Spandana. Tulu channels are Namma Kudla and Posa Kural. All India Radio (AIR) has a studio at Kadri and broadcasts to Mangalore on 100.3 MHz. Mangalore's private FM stations include Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM, Big 92.7 FM and Red 93.5 FM.Radio SARANG 107.8 is a community radio station that is run by St. Aloysius College.
Mangalore is home to the Tulu film industry, which releases one film per month on average. Popular Tulu films include Kadala Mage (Son of the Sea) and Suddha (The Cleansing Rites). Tulu dramas, which are mostly played in the Town Hall at Hampankatta, are very popular. Mangalore hosted the Tulu film festivals in 2006 and 2015.
Football is popular in the city and is usually played in the maidans (grounds); the Nehru Maidan is the most popular venue for domestic tournaments. Dakshina Kannada District Football Association (DKDFA) annually organises the Independence Day Cup, which is played on Independence Day at district football grounds adjacent to Nehru Maidan. Schools and colleges from across Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu districts participate and the matches are conducted under seven categories for children and young adults in education.Chess is a popular indoor pastime in the city. Mangalore is the headquarters of South Kanara District Chess Association (SKDCA), which has hosted two All India Open Chess tournaments. Other sports such as tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf are played in clubs and gymkhanas in Mangalore. Pilikula Nisargadhama, an integrated theme park, has an 18-hole golf course at Vamanjoor.U S Mallya Indoor Stadium offers sporting facilities for badminton and basketball players.
Shrihari, S. (2007). Environmental Concerns for a Typical Fast Developing Indian City: Mangalore. Faculty of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
^ abPrasad, Om P. (1989). Decay and Revival of Urban Centres in Medieval South India: (c. A.D. 600-1200). Volume 4 of Series in Indian history, art, and culture. Commonwealth Publishers. p. 163. ISBN9788171690060.
^Das, Santosh Kumar (2006). The Economic History of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 301. ISBN9788130704234.
^ abcdeShatkin, Gavin (14 August 2013). "Chapter 10 : Planning Mangalore: Garbage Collection in a Small Indian City". Contesting the Indian City: Global Visions and the Politics of the Local. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN978-1-118-29584-7.
^ abRao, P. S. N. (January 2006). Urban governance and management: Indian initiatives. Indian Institute of Public Administration in association with Kanishka Publishers, Distributors. p. 402. ISBN978-81-7391-801-8.
^ abFernandes, Ronald Anil; J. A., Naina; Hegde, Bhakti V.; Raveendran, Aabha; Padmanabha K. V., Sibanthi; Mayya, Sushma P. (15 August 2007). "Sixty and still enterprising ..."Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 2008.