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Macrocosm and Microcosm
Robert Fludd's illustration of man as the microcosm within the universal macrocosm. Fludd states that "Man is a whole world of its own, called microcosm for it displays a miniature pattern of all the parts of the universe. Thus the head is related to the Empyreal, the chest to the ethereal heaven and the belly to the elementary substance."
Macrocosm and Microcosm from Tobias Schutz 'Harmonia macrocosmi cum microcosmi' (1654)
By looking down, I see up. Part of a pair of illustrations in Tycho Brahe's Astronomiæ instauratæ Mechanica depicting his understanding of the connection between macrocosm and microcosm.
The philosophy was conceptualized by Pythagoras, who saw the cosmos and the body as a harmonious unity.
The idea was re-articulated about a century later by Plato, and again during the Renaissance, by Leonardo da Vinci, who noted common features between the natural world and the human body such as the circulation of liquids and basic branching mechanisms.
In modern sociology, the concept of microcosm has been predominantly used to describe a small group of individuals whose behavior is typical of a larger social body encompassing it. A microcosm can be seen as a special kind of epitome. Conversely, a macrocosm is a social body made of smaller compounds. In physics, scale invariance describes the same phenomenon.
The macrocosm-microcosm principal is also a key element to systems theory. An example is how the DNA of a living creature is contained in every cell, and which in turn can be used to determine the genetic make-up of the whole creature. The concept has also been used specifically in cybernetics. Reji M. Issac of BPC College Piravom claims that through cybernetics it is possible to "generate a key point of microcosm symbol which can reach up to macrocosm world and can explain about its control" and so realise Herbert Brun's definition of cybernetics as "a science to cure all temporary truth about eternal triteness".