MRI
Get MRI essential facts below. View Videos or join the MRI discussion. Add MRI to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging
Para-sagittal MRI of the head, with aliasing artifacts (nose and forehead appear at the back of the head)
Synonymsnuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT)
ICD-9-CM88.91
MeSHD008279
MedlinePlus003335

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, magnetic field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve X-rays or the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT and PET scans. MRI is a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications, such as NMR spectroscopy.

While the hazards of ionizing radiation are now well controlled in most medical contexts, an MRI may still be seen as a better choice than a CT scan. MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis and staging and follow-up of disease without exposing the body to radiation. An MRI may yield different information compared with CT. Risks and discomfort may be associated with MRI scans. Compared with CT scans, MRI scans typically take longer and are louder, and they usually need the subject to enter a narrow, confining tube. In addition, people with some medical implants or other non-removable metal inside the body may be unable to undergo an MRI examination safely.

MRI was originally called NMRI (nuclear magnetic resonance imaging), but "nuclear" was dropped to avoid negative associations.[1] Certain atomic nuclei are able to absorb radio frequency energy when placed in an external magnetic field; the resultant evolving spin polarization can induce a RF signal in a radio frequency coil and thereby be detected.[2] In clinical and research MRI, hydrogen atoms are most often used to generate a macroscopic polarization that is detected by antennas close to the subject being examined.[2] Hydrogen atoms are naturally abundant in humans and other biological organisms, particularly in water and fat. For this reason, most MRI scans essentially map the location of water and fat in the body. Pulses of radio waves excite the nuclear spin energy transition, and magnetic field gradients localize the polarization in space. By varying the parameters of the pulse sequence, different contrasts may be generated between tissues based on the relaxation properties of the hydrogen atoms therein.

Since its development in the 1970s and 1980s, MRI has proven to be a versatile imaging technique. While MRI is most prominently used in diagnostic medicine and biomedical research, it also may be used to form images of non-living objects. MRI scans are capable of producing a variety of chemical and physical data, in addition to detailed spatial images. The sustained increase in demand for MRI within health systems has led to concerns about cost effectiveness and overdiagnosis.[3][4]

Mechanism

Construction and physics

Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner

In most medical applications, hydrogen nuclei, which consist solely of a proton, that are in tissues create a signal that is processed to form an image of the body in terms of the density of those nuclei in a specific region. Given that the protons are affected by fields from other atoms to which they are bonded, it is possible to separate responses from hydrogen in specific compounds. To perform a study, the person is positioned within an MRI scanner that forms a strong magnetic field around the area to be imaged. First, energy from an oscillating magnetic field is temporarily applied to the patient at the appropriate resonance frequency. Scanning with X and Y gradient coils cause a selected region of the patient to experience the exact magnetic field required for the energy to be absorbed. The excited atoms emit a radio frequency (RF) signal, which is measured by a receiving coil. The RF signal may be processed to deduce position information by looking at the changes in RF level and phase caused by varying the local magnetic field using gradient coils. As these coils are rapidly switched during the excitation and response to perform a moving line scan, they create the characteristic repetitive noise of an MRI scan as the windings move slightly due to magnetostriction. The contrast between different tissues is determined by the rate at which excited atoms return to the equilibrium state. Exogenous contrast agents may be given to the person to make the image clearer.[5]

The major components of an MRI scanner are the main magnet, which polarizes the sample, the shim coils for correcting shifts in the homogeneity of the main magnetic field, the gradient system which is used to localize the region to be scanned and the RF system, which excites the sample and detects the resulting NMR signal. The whole system is controlled by one or more computers.

a mobile MRI unit visiting Glebefields Health Centre, Tipton, England

MRI requires a magnetic field that is both strong and uniform to a few parts per million across the scan volume. The field strength of the magnet is measured in teslas - and while the majority of systems operate at 1.5 T, commercial systems are available between 0.2 and 7 T. Most clinical magnets are superconducting magnets, which require liquid helium to keep them very cold. Lower field strengths can be achieved with permanent magnets, which are often used in "open" MRI scanners for claustrophobic patients.[6] Lower field strengths are also used in a portable MRI scanner approved by the FDA in 2020.[7] Recently, MRI has been demonstrated also at ultra-low fields, i.e., in the microtesla-to-millitesla range, where sufficient signal quality is made possible by prepolarization (on the order of 10-100 mT) and by measuring the Larmor precession fields at about 100 microtesla with highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs).[8][9][10]

T1 and T2

Effects of TR and TE on MR signal
Examples of T1 weighted, T2 weighted and PD weighted MRI scans

Each tissue returns to its equilibrium state after excitation by the independent relaxation processes of T1 (spin-lattice; that is, magnetization in the same direction as the static magnetic field) and T2 (spin-spin; transverse to the static magnetic field). To create a T1-weighted image, magnetization is allowed to recover before measuring the MR signal by changing the repetition time (TR). This image weighting is useful for assessing the cerebral cortex, identifying fatty tissue, characterizing focal liver lesions, and in general, obtaining morphological information, as well as for post-contrast imaging. To create a T2-weighted image, magnetization is allowed to decay before measuring the MR signal by changing the echo time (TE). This image weighting is useful for detecting edema and inflammation, revealing white matter lesions, and assessing zonal anatomy in the prostate and uterus.

The standard display of MRI images is to represent fluid characteristics in black and white images, where different tissues turn out as follows:

Signal T1-weighted T2-weighted
High
Inter- mediate Gray matter darker than white matter[13] White matter darker than grey matter[13]
Low

Diagnostics

Usage by organ or system

Patient being positioned for MR study of the head and abdomen

MRI has a wide range of applications in medical diagnosis and more than 25,000 scanners are estimated to be in use worldwide.[14] MRI affects diagnosis and treatment in many specialties although the effect on improved health outcomes is disputed in certain cases.[15][16]

MRI is the investigation of choice in the preoperative staging of rectal and prostate cancer and has a role in the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of other tumors,[17] as well as for determining areas of tissue for sampling in biobanking.[18][19]

Neuroimaging

MRI diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts

MRI is the investigative tool of choice for neurological cancers over CT, as it offers better visualization of the posterior cranial fossa, containing the brainstem and the cerebellum. The contrast provided between grey and white matter makes MRI the best choice for many conditions of the central nervous system, including demyelinating diseases, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, infectious diseases, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy.[20][21][22] Since many images are taken milliseconds apart, it shows how the brain responds to different stimuli, enabling researchers to study both the functional and structural brain abnormalities in psychological disorders.[23] MRI also is used in guided stereotactic surgery and radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial tumors, arteriovenous malformations, and other surgically treatable conditions using a device known as the N-localizer.[24][25][26]

Cardiovascular

MR angiogram in congenital heart disease

Cardiac MRI is complementary to other imaging techniques, such as echocardiography, cardiac CT, and nuclear medicine. It can be used to assess the structure and the function of the heart.[27] Its applications include assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, iron overload, vascular diseases, and congenital heart disease.[28]

Musculoskeletal

Applications in the musculoskeletal system include spinal imaging, assessment of joint disease, and soft tissue tumors.[29] Also, MRI techniques can be used for diagnostic imaging of systemic muscle diseases.[30]

Liver and gastrointestinal

Hepatobiliary MR is used to detect and characterize lesions of the liver, pancreas, and bile ducts. Focal or diffuse disorders of the liver may be evaluated using diffusion-weighted, opposed-phase imaging and dynamic contrast enhancement sequences. Extracellular contrast agents are used widely in liver MRI, and newer hepatobiliary contrast agents also provide the opportunity to perform functional biliary imaging. Anatomical imaging of the bile ducts is achieved by using a heavily T2-weighted sequence in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Functional imaging of the pancreas is performed following administration of secretin. MR enterography provides non-invasive assessment of inflammatory bowel disease and small bowel tumors. MR-colonography may play a role in the detection of large polyps in patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer.[31][32][33][34]

Angiography

Magnetic resonance angiography

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) generates pictures of the arteries to evaluate them for stenosis (abnormal narrowing) or aneurysms (vessel wall dilatations, at risk of rupture). MRA is often used to evaluate the arteries of the neck and brain, the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the legs (called a "run-off"). A variety of techniques can be used to generate the pictures, such as administration of a paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium) or using a technique known as "flow-related enhancement" (e.g., 2D and 3D time-of-flight sequences), where most of the signal on an image is due to blood that recently moved into that plane (see also FLASH MRI).[35]

Techniques involving phase accumulation (known as phase contrast angiography) can also be used to generate flow velocity maps easily and accurately. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) is a similar procedure that is used to image veins. In this method, the tissue is now excited inferiorly, while the signal is gathered in the plane immediately superior to the excitation plane--thus imaging the venous blood that recently moved from the excited plane.[36]

Contrast agents

MRI for imaging anatomical structures or blood flow do not require contrast agents since the varying properties of the tissues or blood provide natural contrasts. However, for more specific types of imaging, exogenous contrast agents may be given intravenously, orally, or intra-articularly.[5] The most commonly used intravenous contrast agents are based on chelates of gadolinium.[37] In general, these agents have proved safer than the iodinated contrast agents used in X-ray radiography or CT. Anaphylactoid reactions are rare, occurring in approx. 0.03-0.1%.[38] Of particular interest is the lower incidence of nephrotoxicity, compared with iodinated agents, when given at usual doses--this has made contrast-enhanced MRI scanning an option for patients with renal impairment, who would otherwise not be able to undergo contrast-enhanced CT.[39]

In December 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States announced in a drug safety communication that new warnings were to be included on all gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). The FDA also called for increased patient education and requiring gadolinium contrast vendors to conduct additional animal and clinical studies to assess the safety of these agents.[40] Although gadolinium agents have proved useful for patients with kidney impairment, in patients with severe kidney failure requiring dialysis there is a risk of a rare but serious illness, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, which may be linked to the use of certain gadolinium-containing agents. The most frequently linked is gadodiamide, but other agents have been linked too.[41] Although a causal link has not been definitively established, current guidelines in the United States are that dialysis patients should only receive gadolinium agents where essential and that dialysis should be performed as soon as possible after the scan to remove the agent from the body promptly.[42][43]

In Europe, where more gadolinium-containing agents are available, a classification of agents according to potential risks has been released.[44][45] In 2008, a new contrast agent named gadoxetate, brand name Eovist (US) or Primovist (EU), was approved for diagnostic use: This has the theoretical benefit of a dual excretion path.[46]

Sequences

An MRI sequence is a particular setting of radiofrequency pulses and gradients, resulting in a particular image appearance.[47] The T1 and T2 weighting can also be described as MRI sequences.

Overview table


This table does not include uncommon and experimental sequences.

Group Sequence Abbr. Physics Main clinical distinctions Example
Spin echo T1 weighted T1 Measuring spin-lattice relaxation by using a short repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE).

Standard foundation and comparison for other sequences

T1-weighted-MRI.png
T2 weighted T2 Measuring spin-spin relaxation by using long TR and TE times

Standard foundation and comparison for other sequences

Normal axial T2-weighted MR image of the brain.jpg
Proton density weighted PD Long TR (to reduce T1) and short TE (to minimize T2).[50] Joint disease and injury.[51] Proton density MRI of a grade 2 medial meniscal tear.jpg
Gradient echo (GRE) Steady-state free precession SSFP Maintenance of a steady, residual transverse magnetisation over successive cycles.[53] Creation of cardiac MRI videos (pictured).[53] Four chamber cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.gif
Effective T2
or "T2-star"
T2* Postexcitation refocused GRE with small flip angle.[54] Low signal from hemosiderin deposits (pictured) and hemorrhages.[54] Effective T2-weighted MRI of hemosiderin deposits after subarachnoid hemorrhage.png
Inversion recovery Short tau inversion recovery STIR Fat suppression by setting an inversion time where the signal of fat is zero.[55] High signal in edema, such as in more severe stress fracture.[56]Shin splints pictured: Shinsplint-mri (crop).jpg
Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery FLAIR Fluid suppression by setting an inversion time that nulls fluids High signal in lacunar infarction, multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques, subarachnoid haemorrhage and meningitis (pictured).[57] FLAIR MRI of meningitis.jpg
Double inversion recovery DIR Simultaneous suppression of cerebrospinal fluid and white matter by two inversion times.[58] High signal of multiple sclerosis plaques (pictured).[58] Axial DIR MRI of a brain with multiple sclerosis lesions.jpg
Diffusion weighted (DWI) Conventional DWI Measure of Brownian motion of water molecules.[59] High signal within minutes of cerebral infarction (pictured).[60] Cerebral infarction after 4 hours on DWI MRI.jpg
Apparent diffusion coefficient ADC Reduced T2 weighting by taking multiple conventional DWI images with different DWI weighting, and the change corresponds to diffusion.[61] Low signal minutes after cerebral infarction (pictured).[62] Cerebral infarction after 4 hours on ADC MRI.jpg
Diffusion tensor DTI Mainly tractography (pictured) by an overall greater Brownian motion of water molecules in the directions of nerve fibers.[63] White Matter Connections Obtained with MRI Tractography.png
Perfusion weighted (PWI) Dynamic susceptibility contrast DSC Gadolinium contrast is injected, and rapid repeated imaging (generally gradient-echo echo-planar T2 weighted) quantifies susceptibility-induced signal loss.[65] In cerebral infarction, the infarcted core and the penumbra have decreased perfusion (pictured).[66] Tmax by MRI perfusion in cerebral artery occlusion.jpg
Dynamic contrast enhanced DCE Measuring shortening of the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) induced by a gadolinium contrast bolus.[67]
Arterial spin labelling ASL Magnetic labeling of arterial blood below the imaging slab, which subsequently enters the region of interest.[68] It does not need gadolinium contrast.[69]
Functional MRI (fMRI) Blood-oxygen-level dependent imaging BOLD Changes in oxygen saturation-dependent magnetism of hemoglobin reflects tissue activity.[70] Localizing highly active brain areas before surgery, also used in research of cognition.[71] 1206 FMRI.jpg
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and venography Time-of-flight TOF Blood entering the imaged area is not yet magnetically saturated, giving it a much higher signal when using short echo time and flow compensation. Detection of aneurysm, stenosis, or dissection[72] Mra-mip.jpg
Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging PC-MRA Two gradients with equal magnitude, but opposite direction, are used to encode a phase shift, which is proportional to the velocity of spins.[73] Detection of aneurysm, stenosis, or dissection (pictured).[72] Vastly undersampled Isotropic Projection Reconstruction (VIPR) Phase Contrast (PC) sequence MRI of arterial dissections.jpg
(VIPR)
Susceptibility-weighted SWI Sensitive for blood and calcium, by a fully flow compensated, long echo, gradient recalled echo (GRE) pulse sequence to exploit magnetic susceptibility differences between tissues Detecting small amounts of hemorrhage (diffuse axonal injury pictured) or calcium.[74] Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in diffuse axonal injury.jpg

Other specialized configurations

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used to measure the levels of different metabolites in body tissues, which can be achieved through a variety of single voxel or imaging-based techniques.[75] The MR signal produces a spectrum of resonances that corresponds to different molecular arrangements of the isotope being "excited". This signature is used to diagnose certain metabolic disorders, especially those affecting the brain,[76] and to provide information on tumor metabolism.[77]

Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) combines both spectroscopic and imaging methods to produce spatially localized spectra from within the sample or patient. The spatial resolution is much lower (limited by the available SNR), but the spectra in each voxel contains information about many metabolites. Because the available signal is used to encode spatial and spectral information, MRSI requires high SNR achievable only at higher field strengths (3 T and above).[78] The high procurement and maintenance costs of MRI with extremely high field strengths[79] inhibit their popularity. However, recent compressed sensing-based software algorithms (e.g., SAMV[80]) have been proposed to achieve super-resolution without requiring such high field strengths.

Real-time MRI

Real-time MRI of a human heart at a resolution of 50 ms

Real-time MRI refers to the continuous imaging of moving objects (such as the heart) in real time. One of the many different strategies developed since the early 2000s is based on radial FLASH MRI, and iterative reconstruction. This gives a temporal resolution of 20-30 ms for images with an in-plane resolution of 1.5-2.0 mm.[81] Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging has a better image contrast between the blood pool and myocardium than the FLASH MRI, yet it will produce severe banding artifact when the B0 inhomogeneity is strong. Real-time MRI is likely to add important information on diseases of the heart and the joints, and in many cases may make MRI examinations easier and more comfortable for patients, especially for the patients who cannot hold their breathings or who have arrhythmia.[82]

Interventional MRI

The lack of harmful effects on the patient and the operator make MRI well-suited for interventional radiology, where the images produced by an MRI scanner guide minimally invasive procedures. Such procedures use no ferromagnetic instruments.[83]

A specialized growing subset of interventional MRI is intraoperative MRI, in which an MRI is used in surgery. Some specialized MRI systems allow imaging concurrent with the surgical procedure. More typically, the surgical procedure is temporarily interrupted so that MRI can assess the success of the procedure or guide subsequent surgical work.[84]

Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound

In guided therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams are focused on a tissue, that are controlled using MR thermal imaging. Due to the high energy at the focus, the temperature rises to above 65 °C (150 °F) which completely destroys the tissue. This technology can achieve precise ablation of diseased tissue. MR imaging provides a three-dimensional view of the target tissue, allowing for the precise focusing of ultrasound energy. The MR imaging provides quantitative, real-time, thermal images of the treated area. This allows the physician to ensure that the temperature generated during each cycle of ultrasound energy is sufficient to cause thermal ablation within the desired tissue and if not, to adapt the parameters to ensure effective treatment.[85]

Multinuclear imaging

Hydrogen has the most frequently imaged nucleus in MRI because it is present in biological tissues in great abundance, and because its high gyromagnetic ratio gives a strong signal. However, any nucleus with a net nuclear spin could potentially be imaged with MRI. Such nuclei include helium-3, lithium-7, carbon-13, fluorine-19, oxygen-17, sodium-23, phosphorus-31 and xenon-129. 23Na and 31P are naturally abundant in the body, so they can be imaged directly. Gaseous isotopes such as 3He or 129Xe must be hyperpolarized and then inhaled as their nuclear density is too low to yield a useful signal under normal conditions. 17O and 19F can be administered in sufficient quantities in liquid form (e.g. 17O-water) that hyperpolarization is not a necessity.[86] Using helium or xenon has the advantage of reduced background noise, and therefore increased contrast for the image itself, because these elements are not normally present in biological tissues.[87]

Moreover, the nucleus of any atom that has a net nuclear spin and that is bonded to a hydrogen atom could potentially be imaged via heteronuclear magnetization transfer MRI that would image the high-gyromagnetic-ratio hydrogen nucleus instead of the low-gyromagnetic-ratio nucleus that is bonded to the hydrogen atom.[88] In principle, hetereonuclear magnetization transfer MRI could be used to detect the presence or absence of specific chemical bonds.[89][90]

Multinuclear imaging is primarily a research technique at present. However, potential applications include functional imaging and imaging of organs poorly seen on 1H MRI (e.g., lungs and bones) or as alternative contrast agents. Inhaled hyperpolarized 3He can be used to image the distribution of air spaces within the lungs. Injectable solutions containing 13C or stabilized bubbles of hyperpolarized 129Xe have been studied as contrast agents for angiography and perfusion imaging. 31P can potentially provide information on bone density and structure, as well as functional imaging of the brain. Multinuclear imaging holds the potential to chart the distribution of lithium in the human brain, this element finding use as an important drug for those with conditions such as bipolar disorder.[91]

Molecular imaging by MRI

MRI has the advantages of having very high spatial resolution and is very adept at morphological imaging and functional imaging. MRI does have several disadvantages though. First, MRI has a sensitivity of around 10-3mol/L to 10-5 mol/L, which, compared to other types of imaging, can be very limiting. This problem stems from the fact that the population difference between the nuclear spin states is very small at room temperature. For example, at 1.5 teslas, a typical field strength for clinical MRI, the difference between high and low energy states is approximately 9 molecules per 2 million. Improvements to increase MR sensitivity include increasing magnetic field strength and hyperpolarization via optical pumping or dynamic nuclear polarization. There are also a variety of signal amplification schemes based on chemical exchange that increase sensitivity.[92]

To achieve molecular imaging of disease biomarkers using MRI, targeted MRI contrast agents with high specificity and high relaxivity (sensitivity) are required. To date, many studies have been devoted to developing targeted-MRI contrast agents to achieve molecular imaging by MRI. Commonly, peptides, antibodies, or small ligands, and small protein domains, such as HER-2 affibodies, have been applied to achieve targeting. To enhance the sensitivity of the contrast agents, these targeting moieties are usually linked to high payload MRI contrast agents or MRI contrast agents with high relaxivities.[93] A new class of gene targeting MR contrast agents (CA) has been introduced to show gene action of unique mRNA and gene transcription factor proteins.[94][95] This new CA can trace cells with unique mRNA, microRNA and virus; tissue response to inflammation in living brains.[96] The MR reports change in gene expression with positive correlation to TaqMan analysis, optical and electron microscopy.[97]

Safety

MRI is in general a safe technique, although injuries may occur as a result of failed safety procedures or human error.[98]Contraindications to MRI include most cochlear implants and cardiac pacemakers, shrapnel, and metallic foreign bodies in the eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging in pregnancy appears to be safe at least during the second and third trimesters if done without contrast agents.[99] Since MRI does not use any ionizing radiation, its use is generally favored in preference to CT when either modality could yield the same information.[100] Some patients experience claustrophobia and may require sedation [101]

MRI uses powerful magnets and can therefore cause magnetic materials to move at great speeds posing a projectile risk. Deaths have occurred.[102] However, as millions of MRIs are performed globally each year,[103] fatalities are extremely rare.[104]

Overuse

Medical societies issue guidelines for when physicians should use MRI on patients and recommend against overuse. MRI can detect health problems or confirm a diagnosis, but medical societies often recommend that MRI not be the first procedure for creating a plan to diagnose or manage a patient's complaint. A common case is to use MRI to seek a cause of low back pain; the American College of Physicians, for example, recommends against this procedure as unlikely to result in a positive outcome for the patient.[15][16]

Artifacts

Motion artifact (T1 coronal study of cervical vertebrae)[105]

An MRI artifact is a visual artifact, that is, an anomaly during visual representation. Many different artifacts can occur during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some affecting the diagnostic quality, while others may be confused with pathology. Artifacts can be classified as patient-related, signal processing-dependent and hardware (machine)-related.[105]

Non-medical use

MRI is used industrially mainly for routine analysis of chemicals. The nuclear magnetic resonance technique is also used, for example, to measure the ratio between water and fat in foods, monitoring of flow of corrosive fluids in pipes, or to study molecular structures such as catalysts.[106]

Being non-invasive and non-damaging, MRI can be used to study the anatomy of plants, their water transportation processes and water balance.[107] It is also applied to veterinary radiology for diagnostic purposes. Outside this, its use in zoology is limited due to the high cost; but it can be used on many species.[108] In palaeontology it is used to examine the structure of fossils by getting their three-dimensional geometry.[109]

History

In 1971 at Stony Brook University, Paul Lauterbur applied magnetic field gradients in all three dimensions and a back-projection technique to create NMR images. He published the first images of two tubes of water in 1973 in the journal Nature, followed by the picture of a living animal, a clam, and in 1974 by the image of the thoracic cavity of a mouse. Lauterbur called his imaging method zeugmatography, a term which was later replaced by (N)MR imaging.[110] In the late 1970s, physicists Peter Mansfield and Paul Lauterbur, developed MRI-related techniques, like the echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique.[111]

Advances in semiconductor technology were crucial to the development of practical MRI, which requires a large amount of computational power. This was made possible by the rapidly increasing number of transistors on a single integrated circuit chip.[112] Mansfield and Lauterbur were awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their "discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging".[113]

See also

References

  1. ^ McRobbie DW, Moore EA, Graves MJ, Prince MR (2007). MRI from Picture to Proton. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-139-45719-4.
  2. ^ a b Hoult, D.I.; Bahkar, B. (1998). "NMR Signal Reception: Virtual Photons and Coherent Spontaneous Emission". Concepts in Magnetic Resonance. 9 (5): 277-297. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0534(1997)9:5<277::AID-CMR1>3.0.CO;2-W.
  3. ^ Smith-Bindman R, Miglioretti DL, Johnson E, Lee C, Feigelson HS, Flynn M, et al. (June 2012). "Use of diagnostic imaging studies and associated radiation exposure for patients enrolled in large integrated health care systems, 1996-2010". JAMA. 307 (22): 2400-09. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.5960. PMC 3859870. PMID 22692172.
  4. ^ Health at a glance 2009 OECD indicators. Health at a Glance. 2009. doi:10.1787/health_glance-2009-en. ISBN 978-92-64-07555-9.
  5. ^ a b McRobbie DW (2007). MRI from picture to proton. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68384-5.
  6. ^ Sasaki M, Ehara S, Nakasato T, Tamakawa Y, Kuboya Y, Sugisawa M, Sato T (April 1990). "MR of the shoulder with a 0.2-T permanent-magnet unit". AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. 154 (4): 777-78. doi:10.2214/ajr.154.4.2107675. PMID 2107675.
  7. ^ "Guildford company gets FDA approval for bedside MRI". New Haven Register. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ McDermott R, Lee S, ten Haken B, Trabesinger AH, Pines A, Clarke J (May 2004). "Microtesla MRI with a superconducting quantum interference device". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (21): 7857-61. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.7857M. doi:10.1073/pnas.0402382101. PMC 419521. PMID 15141077.
  9. ^ Zotev VS, Matlashov AN, Volegov PL, Urbaitis AV, Espy MA, Kraus Jr RH (2007). "SQUID-based instrumentation for ultralow-field MRI". Superconductor Science and Technology. 20 (11): S367-73. arXiv:0705.0661. Bibcode:2007SuScT..20S.367Z. doi:10.1088/0953-2048/20/11/S13. S2CID 119160258.
  10. ^ Vesanen PT, Nieminen JO, Zevenhoven KC, Dabek J, Parkkonen LT, Zhdanov AV, Luomahaara J, Hassel J, Penttilä J, Simola J, Ahonen AI, Mäkelä JP, Ilmoniemi RJ (June 2013). "Hybrid ultra-low-field MRI and magnetoencephalography system based on a commercial whole-head neuromagnetometer". Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 69 (6): 1795-804. doi:10.1002/mrm.24413. PMID 22807201.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Magnetic Resonance Imaging". University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 2017-05-10. Retrieved .
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Johnson KA. "Basic proton MR imaging. Tissue Signal Characteristics".[unreliable medical source?]
  13. ^ a b Tushar Patil (2013-01-18). "MRI sequences". Retrieved .
  14. ^ "Magnetic Resonance, a critical peer-reviewed introduction". European Magnetic Resonance Forum. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ a b Consumer Reports; American College of Physicians. presented by ABIM Foundation. "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question" (PDF). Choosing Wisely. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  16. ^ a b Consumer Reports; American College of Physicians (April 2012). "Imaging tests for lower-back pain: Why you probably don't need them" (PDF). High Value Care. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  17. ^ Husband J (2008). Recommendations for Cross-Sectional Imaging in Cancer Management: Computed Tomography - CT Magnetic Resonance Imaging - MRI Positron Emission Tomography - PET-CT (PDF). Royal College of Radiologists. ISBN 978-1-905034-13-0.
  18. ^ Heavey, Susan; Costa, Helena; Pye, Hayley; Burt, Emma C.; Jenkinson, Sophia; Lewis, Georgina-Rose; Bosshard-Carter, Leticia; Watson, Fran; Jameson, Charles; Ratynska, Marzena; Ben-Salha, Imen (May 2019). "PEOPLE: PatiEnt prOstate samPLes for rEsearch, a tissue collection pathway utilizing magnetic resonance imaging data to target tumor and benign tissue in fresh radical prostatectomy specimens". The Prostate. 79 (7): 768-777. doi:10.1002/pros.23782. ISSN 1097-0045. PMC 6618051. PMID 30807665.
  19. ^ Heavey, Susan; Haider, Aiman; Sridhar, Ashwin; Pye, Hayley; Shaw, Greg; Freeman, Alex; Whitaker, Hayley (2019-10-10). "Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Biopsy Data to Guide Sampling Procedures for Prostate Cancer Biobanking". Journal of Visualized Experiments (152). doi:10.3791/60216. ISSN 1940-087X. PMID 31657791.
  20. ^ American Society of Neuroradiology (2013). "ACR-ASNR Practice Guideline for the Performance and Interpretation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Brain" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-07-12. Retrieved .
  21. ^ Rowayda AS (May 2012). "An improved MRI segmentation for atrophy assessment". International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI). 9 (3).
  22. ^ Rowayda AS (February 2013). "Regional atrophy analysis of MRI for early detection of alzheimer's disease". International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition. 6 (1): 49-53.
  23. ^ Nolen-Hoeksema S (2014). Abnormal Psychology (Sixth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education. p. 67.
  24. ^ Brown RA, Nelson JA (June 2016). "The Invention and Early History of the N-Localizer for Stereotactic Neurosurgery". Cureus. 8 (6): e642. doi:10.7759/cureus.642. PMC 4959822. PMID 27462476.
  25. ^ Leksell L, Leksell D, Schwebel J (January 1985). "Stereotaxis and nuclear magnetic resonance". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 48 (1): 14-18. doi:10.1136/jnnp.48.1.14. PMC 1028176. PMID 3882889.
  26. ^ Heilbrun MP, Sunderland PM, McDonald PR, Wells TH, Cosman E, Ganz E (1987). "Brown-Roberts-Wells stereotactic frame modifications to accomplish magnetic resonance imaging guidance in three planes". Applied Neurophysiology. 50 (1-6): 143-52. doi:10.1159/000100700. PMID 3329837.
  27. ^ Petersen, Steffen E.; Aung, Nay; Sanghvi, Mihir M.; Zemrak, Filip; Fung, Kenneth; Paiva, Jose Miguel; Francis, Jane M.; Khanji, Mohammed Y.; Lukaschuk, Elena; Lee, Aaron M.; Carapella, Valentina; Kim, Young Jin; Leeson, Paul; Piechnik, Stefan K.; Neubauer, Stefan (2017-02-03). "Reference ranges for cardiac structure and function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in Caucasians from the UK Biobank population cohort". Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 19 (1): 18. doi:10.1186/s12968-017-0327-9. ISSN 1532-429X. PMC 5304550. PMID 28178995.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  28. ^ Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography; Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance; American Society of Nuclear Cardiology; North American Society for Cardiac Imaging; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography Interventions; Society of Interventional Radiology (October 2006). "ACCF/ACR/SCCT/SCMR/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SIR 2006 appropriateness criteria for cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group". Journal of the American College of Radiology. 3 (10): 751-71. doi:10.1016/j.jacr.2006.08.008. PMID 17412166.
  29. ^ Helms C (2008). Musculoskeletal MRI. Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4160-5534-1.
  30. ^ Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (2007-06-07). "Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging". Skeletal Radiology. Springer Nature. 36 (12): 1109-1119. doi:10.1007/s00256-007-0323-5. ISSN 0364-2348. PMC 2042033. PMID 17554538.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  31. ^ Frydrychowicz A, Lubner MG, Brown JJ, Merkle EM, Nagle SK, Rofsky NM, Reeder SB (March 2012). "Hepatobiliary MR imaging with gadolinium-based contrast agents". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 35 (3): 492-511. doi:10.1002/jmri.22833. PMC 3281562. PMID 22334493.
  32. ^ Sandrasegaran K, Lin C, Akisik FM, Tann M (July 2010). "State-of-the-art pancreatic MRI". AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. 195 (1): 42-53. doi:10.2214/ajr.195.3_supplement.0s42. PMID 20566796.
  33. ^ Masselli G, Gualdi G (August 2012). "MR imaging of the small bowel". Radiology. 264 (2): 333-48. doi:10.1148/radiol.12111658. PMID 22821694.
  34. ^ Zijta FM, Bipat S, Stoker J (May 2010). "Magnetic resonance (MR) colonography in the detection of colorectal lesions: a systematic review of prospective studies". European Radiology. 20 (5): 1031-46. doi:10.1007/s00330-009-1663-4. PMC 2850516. PMID 19936754.
  35. ^ Wheaton, Andrew J.; Miyazaki, Mitsue (2012-07-17). "Non-contrast enhanced MR angiography: Physical principles". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Wiley. 36 (2): 286-304. doi:10.1002/jmri.23641. ISSN 1053-1807. PMID 22807222.
  36. ^ Haacke, E Mark; Brown, Robert F; Thompson, Michael; Venkatesan, Ramesh (1999). Magnetic resonance imaging: Physical principles and sequence design. New York: J. Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-35128-3.[page needed]
  37. ^ Rinck PA (2014). "Chapter 13: Contrast Agents". Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
  38. ^ Murphy KJ, Brunberg JA, Cohan RH (October 1996). "Adverse reactions to gadolinium contrast media: a review of 36 cases". AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. 167 (4): 847-49. doi:10.2214/ajr.167.4.8819369. PMID 8819369.
  39. ^ "ACR guideline". guideline.gov. 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-09-29. Retrieved .
  40. ^ "fda-drug-safety-communication-fda-warns-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-gbcas-are-retained-body; requires new class warnings". USA FDA. 2018-05-16.
  41. ^ Thomsen HS, Morcos SK, Dawson P (November 2006). "Is there a causal relation between the administration of gadolinium based contrast media and the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)?". Clinical Radiology. 61 (11): 905-06. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2006.09.003. PMID 17018301.
  42. ^ "FDA Drug Safety Communication: New warnings for using gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with kidney dysfunction". Information on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  43. ^ "FDA Public Health Advisory: Gadolinium-containing Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging". fda.gov. Archived from the original on 2006-09-28.
  44. ^ "Gadolinium-containing contrast agents: new advice to minimise the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis". Drug Safety Update. 3 (6): 3. January 2010.
  45. ^ "MRI Questions and Answers" (PDF). Concord, CA: International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Retrieved .
  46. ^ "Response to the FDA's May 23, 2007, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Update1 -- Radiology". Radiological Society of North America. 2007-09-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved .
  47. ^ Jones J, Gaillard F. "MRI sequences (overview)". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  48. ^ a b c d "Magnetic Resonance Imaging". University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 2017-05-10. Retrieved .
  49. ^ a b c d Johnson KA. "Basic proton MR imaging. Tissue Signal Characteristics". Harvard Medical School. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved .
  50. ^ Graham D, Cloke P, Vosper M (2011-05-31). Principles and Applications of Radiological Physics E-Book (6 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-7020-4614-8.}
  51. ^ du Plessis V, Jones J. "MRI sequences (overview)". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  52. ^ Lefevre N, Naouri JF, Herman S, Gerometta A, Klouche S, Bohu Y (2016). "A Current Review of the Meniscus Imaging: Proposition of a Useful Tool for Its Radiologic Analysis". Radiology Research and Practice. 2016: 8329296. doi:10.1155/2016/8329296. PMC 4766355. PMID 27057352.
  53. ^ a b Luijkx T, Weerakkody Y. "Steady-state free precession MRI". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  54. ^ a b Chavhan GB, Babyn PS, Thomas B, Shroff MM, Haacke EM (2009). "Principles, techniques, and applications of T2*-based MR imaging and its special applications". Radiographics. 29 (5): 1433-49. doi:10.1148/rg.295095034. PMC 2799958. PMID 19755604.
  55. ^ Sharma R, Taghi Niknejad M. "Short tau inversion recovery". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  56. ^ Berger F, de Jonge M, Smithuis R, Maas M. "Stress fractures". Radiology Assistant. Radiology Society of the Netherlands. Retrieved .
  57. ^ Hacking C, Taghi Niknejad M, et al. "Fluid attenuation inversion recoveryg". radiopaedia.org. Retrieved .
  58. ^ a b Di Muzio B, Abd Rabou A. "Double inversion recovery sequence". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  59. ^ Lee M, Bashir U. "Diffusion weighted imaging". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  60. ^ Weerakkody Y, Gaillard F. "Ischaemic stroke". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  61. ^ Hammer M. "MRI Physics: Diffusion-Weighted Imaging". XRayPhysics. Retrieved .
  62. ^ An H, Ford AL, Vo K, Powers WJ, Lee JM, Lin W (May 2011). "Signal evolution and infarction risk for apparent diffusion coefficient lesions in acute ischemic stroke are both time- and perfusion-dependent". Stroke. 42 (5): 1276-81. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.610501. PMC 3384724. PMID 21454821.
  63. ^ a b Smith D, Bashir U. "Diffusion tensor imaging". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  64. ^ Chua TC, Wen W, Slavin MJ, Sachdev PS (February 2008). "Diffusion tensor imaging in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a review". Current Opinion in Neurology. 21 (1): 83-92. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282f4594b. PMID 18180656.
  65. ^ Gaillard F. "Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  66. ^ Chen F, Ni YC (March 2012). "Magnetic resonance diffusion-perfusion mismatch in acute ischemic stroke: An update". World Journal of Radiology. 4 (3): 63-74. doi:10.4329/wjr.v4.i3.63. PMC 3314930. PMID 22468186.
  67. ^ Gaillard F. "Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  68. ^ "Arterial spin labeling". University of Michigan. Retrieved .
  69. ^ Gaillard F. "Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MR perfusion". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  70. ^ Chou I. "Milestone 19: (1990) Functional MRI". Nature. Retrieved 2013.
  71. ^ Luijkx T, Gaillard F. "Functional MRI". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  72. ^ a b "Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)". Johns Hopkins Hospital. Retrieved .
  73. ^ Keshavamurthy J, Ballinger R et al. "Phase contrast imaging". Radiopaedia. Retrieved .
  74. ^ Di Muzio B, Gaillard F. "Susceptibility weighted imaging". Retrieved .
  75. ^ Landheer, Karl; Schulte, Rolf F.; Treacy, Michael S.; Swanberg, Kelley M.; Juchem, Christoph (2019). "Theoretical description of modern 1H in Vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic pulse sequences". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 0 (4): 1008-1029. doi:10.1002/jmri.26846. ISSN 1522-2586. PMID 31273880.
  76. ^ Rosen Y, Lenkinski RE (July 2007). "Recent advances in magnetic resonance neurospectroscopy". Neurotherapeutics. 4 (3): 330-45. doi:10.1016/j.nurt.2007.04.009. PMID 17599700.
  77. ^ Golder W (June 2004). "Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in clinical oncology". Onkologie. 27 (3): 304-09. doi:10.1159/000077983. PMID 15249722. S2CID 20644834.
  78. ^ Chakeres DW, Abduljalil AM, Novak P, Novak V (2002). "Comparison of 1.5 and 8 tesla high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of lacunar infarcts". Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 26 (4): 628-32. doi:10.1097/00004728-200207000-00027. PMID 12218832. S2CID 32536398.
  79. ^ "MRI-scanner van 7 miljoen in gebruik" [MRI scanner of EUR7 million in use] (in Dutch). Medisch Contact. December 5, 2007.
  80. ^ Abeida H, Zhang Q, Li J, Merabtine N (2013). "Iterative Sparse Asymptotic Minimum Variance Based Approaches for Array Processing". IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. 61 (4): 933-44. arXiv:1802.03070. Bibcode:2013ITSP...61..933A. doi:10.1109/tsp.2012.2231676. S2CID 16276001.
  81. ^ Uecker M, Zhang S, Voit D, Karaus A, Merboldt KD, Frahm J (October 2010). "Real-time MRI at a resolution of 20 ms". NMR in Biomedicine. 23 (8): 986-94. doi:10.1002/nbm.1585. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0012-D4F9-7. PMID 20799371. S2CID 8268489.
  82. ^ Uyanik I, Lindner P, Tsiamyrtzis P, Shah D, Tsekos NV, Pavlidis IT (2013). Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7000 (2011). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7945. pp. 466-473. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38899-6_55. ISBN 978-3-642-38898-9. ISSN 0302-9743. S2CID 16840737.
  83. ^ Lewin, Jonathan S. (1 May 1999). "Interventional MR Imaging: Concepts, Systems, and Applications in Neuroradiology". American Journal of Neuroradiology. 20 (5): 735-748. PMC 7056143. PMID 10369339.
  84. ^ Sisk, J. E. (2013). The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health (3rd ed.). Farmington, MI: Gale. ISBN 9781414498881 – via Credo Reference.
  85. ^ Cline HE, Schenck JF, Hynynen K, Watkins RD, Souza SP, Jolesz FA (1992). "MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery". Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 16 (6): 956-65. doi:10.1097/00004728-199211000-00024. PMID 1430448.
  86. ^ Gore, J. C.; Yankeelov, T. E.; Peterson, Todd. E.; Avison, M. J. (2009-05-14). "Molecular Imaging Without Radiopharmaceuticals?". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Society of Nuclear Medicine. 50 (6): 999-1007. doi:10.2967/jnumed.108.059576. ISSN 0161-5505. PMC 2719757. PMID 19443583.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  87. ^ "Hyperpolarized Noble Gas MRI Laboratory: Hyperpolarized Xenon MR Imaging of the Brain". Harvard Medical School. Retrieved .
  88. ^ Hurd RE, John BK (1991). "Gradient-enhanced proton-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence spectroscopy". Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 91 (3): 648-53. Bibcode:1991JMagR..91..648H. doi:10.1016/0022-2364(91)90395-a.
  89. ^ Brown RA, Venters RA, Tang PP, Spicer LD (1995). "A Test for Scaler Coupling between Heteronuclei Using Gradient-Enhanced Proton-Detected HMQC Spectroscopy". Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Series A. 113 (1): 117-19. Bibcode:1995JMagR.113..117B. doi:10.1006/jmra.1995.1064.
  90. ^ Miller AF, Egan LA, Townsend CA (March 1997). "Measurement of the degree of coupled isotopic enrichment of different positions in an antibiotic peptide by NMR". Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 125 (1): 120-31. Bibcode:1997JMagR.125..120M. doi:10.1006/jmre.1997.1107. PMID 9245367. S2CID 14022996.
  91. ^ Necus, Joe; Sinha, Nishant; Smith, Fiona Elizabeth; Thelwall, Peter Edward; Flowers, Carly Jay; Taylor, Peter Neal; Blamire, Andrew Matthew; Cousins, David Andrew; Wang, Yujiang (2019). "White matter microstructural properties in bipolar disorder in relationship to the spatial distribution of lithium in the brain". Journal of Affective Disorders. 253: 224-231. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.075. ISSN 0165-0327. PMC 6609924. PMID 31054448.
  92. ^ Gallagher, F.A. (2010). "An introduction to functional and molecular imaging with MRI". Clinical Radiology. 65 (7): 557-566. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2010.04.006. ISSN 0009-9260. PMID 20541655.
  93. ^ Xue S, Qiao J, Pu F, Cameron M, Yang JJ (2013). "Design of a novel class of protein-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for the molecular imaging of cancer biomarkers". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology. 5 (2): 163-79. doi:10.1002/wnan.1205. PMC 4011496. PMID 23335551.
  94. ^ Liu CH, Kim YR, Ren JQ, Eichler F, Rosen BR, Liu PK (January 2007). "Imaging cerebral gene transcripts in live animals". The Journal of Neuroscience. 27 (3): 713-22. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4660-06.2007. PMC 2647966. PMID 17234603.
  95. ^ Liu CH, Ren J, Liu CM, Liu PK (January 2014). "Intracellular gene transcription factor protein-guided MRI by DNA aptamers in vivo". FASEB Journal. 28 (1): 464-73. doi:10.1096/fj.13-234229. PMC 3868842. PMID 24115049.
  96. ^ Liu CH, You Z, Liu CM, Kim YR, Whalen MJ, Rosen BR, Liu PK (March 2009). "Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reversal by gene knockdown of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities in live animal brains". The Journal of Neuroscience. 29 (11): 3508-17. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5332-08.2009. PMC 2726707. PMID 19295156.
  97. ^ Liu CH, Yang J, Ren JQ, Liu CM, You Z, Liu PK (February 2013). "MRI reveals differential effects of amphetamine exposure on neuroglia in vivo". FASEB Journal. 27 (2): 712-24. doi:10.1096/fj.12-220061. PMC 3545538. PMID 23150521.
  98. ^ Watson, Robert E. (2015). "Lessons Learned from MRI Safety Events". Current Radiology Reports. 3 (10). doi:10.1007/s40134-015-0122-z. S2CID 57880401.
  99. ^ Mervak, Benjamin M.; Altun, Ersan; McGinty, Katrina A.; Hyslop, W. Brian; Semelka, Richard C.; Burke, Lauren M. (2019). "MRI in pregnancy: Indications and practical considerations". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 49 (3): 621-31. doi:10.1002/jmri.26317. ISSN 1053-1807. PMID 30701610. S2CID 73412175.
  100. ^ "iRefer". Royal College of Radiologists. Retrieved 2013.
  101. ^ Murphy, Kieran J.; Brunberg, James A. (1997). "Adult claustrophobia, anxiety and sedation in MRI". Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Elsevier BV. 15 (1): 51-54. doi:10.1016/s0730-725x(96)00351-7. ISSN 0730-725X. PMID 9084025.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  102. ^ Agence France-Presse (30 January 2018). "Man dies after being sucked into MRI scanner at Indian hospital". The Guardian.
  103. ^ "Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Exams per 1,000 Population, 2014". OECD. 2016.
  104. ^ Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Harvey, Harlan B.; Shaqdan, Khalid W.; Abujudeh, Hani H. (2015-10-20). "Rates of safety incident reporting in MRI in a large academic medical center". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. John Wiley and Sons. 43 (4): 998-1007. doi:10.1002/jmri.25055. ISSN 1053-1807. PMID 26483127.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  105. ^ a b Erasmus LJ, Hurter D, Naude M, Kritzinger HG, Acho S (2004). "A short overview of MRI artefacts". South African Journal of Radiology. 8 (2): 13. doi:10.4102/sajr.v8i2.127.
  106. ^ Rinck PA (2017). "Chapter Nineteen Non-Medical Applications of NMR and MRI". Magnetic Resonance (11th ed.). Retrieved .
  107. ^ Van As, H. (2006-11-30). "Intact plant MRI for the study of cell water relations, membrane permeability, cell-to-cell and long distance water transport". Journal of Experimental Botany. Oxford University Press (OUP). 58 (4): 743-756. doi:10.1093/jxb/erl157. ISSN 0022-0957. PMID 17175554.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  108. ^ Ziegler, Alexander; Kunth, Martin; Mueller, Susanne; Bock, Christian; Pohmann, Rolf; Schröder, Leif; Faber, Cornelius; Giribet, Gonzalo (2011-10-13). "Application of magnetic resonance imaging in zoology". Zoomorphology. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 130 (4): 227-254. doi:10.1007/s00435-011-0138-8. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0013-B8B0-B. ISSN 0720-213X. S2CID 43555012.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  109. ^ Giovannetti, Giulio; Guerrini, Andrea; Salvadori, Piero A. (2016). "Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging for the study of fossils". Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Elsevier BV. 34 (6): 730-742. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2016.03.010. ISSN 0730-725X. PMID 26979538.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  110. ^ Rinck PA (2008). "A short history of magnetic resonance imaging". Spectroscopy Europe. 20 (1): 7.
  111. ^ Mansfield P, Grannell PK (1975). ""Diffraction" and microscopy in solids and liquids by NMR". Physical Review B. 12 (9): 3618-34. Bibcode:1975PhRvB..12.3618M. doi:10.1103/physrevb.12.3618.
  112. ^ Rosenblum, Bruce; Kuttner, Fred (2011). Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness. Oxford University Press. p. 127. ISBN 9780199792955.
  113. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 July 2007. Retrieved 2007.

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

MRI
 



 



 
Music Scenes