The Muséum de Toulouse (Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de la ville de Toulouse, MHNT) is a museum of natural history in Toulouse, France. It is in the Busca-Montplaisir, houses a collection of more than 2.5 million items, and has some 3,000 square metres (32,000 sq ft) of exhibition space. Its Index Herbariorum code is TLM.
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The museum was founded in 1796 by the naturalist Philippe-Isidore Picot de Lapeyrouse, with his collections being able to be housed (after the revolution) in the former Carmelite monastery in Toulouse. In 1808, the emperor Napoleon formally gifted all the Carmelite buildings and land to the city of Toulouse, and in 1865 the museum was opened to the public in its present location and under the directorship of Édouard Filhol. Toulouse museum was the first museum in the world to open a gallery of prehistory thanks to the collection of the malacologist Alfred de Candie de Saint-Simon (1731-1851) and the collaboration of Émile Cartailhac, Jean-Baptiste Noulet, and Eugène Trutat.
In 1887 (on the occasion of a world exposition in Toulouse) the botanical gardens of the University of Toulouse became part of the museum. In 2008, the museum reopened in its present form (as of May 2018) with the renovations and extensions of the museum, designed by the architectural firm of Jean-Paul Viguier, having been completed.
The permanent exhibition has five linked themes:
The main functions of living beings--feeding, respiration, locomotion, reproduction, protection and communication.
This section presents examples to illustrate the content of each different collection of the Museum de Toulouse.
The prehistoric collection includes mostly artefacts excavated in France. They also contain comparative material from other parts of Europe and other continents. Notable collectors include Édouard Harlé (1850-1922), Antoine Meillet (1866- 1936), Alexis Damour (1808-1902), Félix Regnault (1847-1908), Louis Péringuey (1855-1924), Émile Cartailhac (1845-1921), Daniel Bugnicourt, Edward John Dunn (1844-1937), Henri Breuil (1877-1961), and Louis Lartet (1840-1899), as well as the curators Jean-Baptiste Noulet (1802-1890), Eugène Trutat (1840 -1910), and Édouard Filhol (1814-1883).
Egg of wedge-tailed eagle
Egg of little egret
Egg of helmeted guineafowl
Egg of southern giant petrel
Nest of common house martin
Egg of passenger pigeon
The invertebrates room was named Saint-Simon in honor to the collection of the malacologist Alfred de Candie de Saint-Simon, presented during the museum opening exhibit in 1865 under the directorship of Édouard Filhol.
Henri Gaussen was a Toulouse-based phytogeographer and botanist. The botanic garden which honours his name is attached to the museum and is part of the Earth and Life Science Research and Training Paul Sabatier University. A second botanical area, The Museum Gardens, extends over 3 hectares. It is notable for "potagers du monde" (vegetable gardens of the world) and a "shade house" which recreates the conditions required by shade plants.