M%C4%81ori Party
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M%C4%81ori Party

M?ori Party

Te P?ti M?ori
PresidentChe Wilson
Co-leadersVacant
Co-Vice PresidentsBentham Ohia[1]
Kaapua Smith[2]
Founded7 July 2004 (2004-07-07)
Split from
IdeologyM?ori rights
Political positionCentre-left[3]
ColorsBlack, red and white
MPs in the House of Representatives
Website
maoriparty.org

The M?ori Party (M?ori: Te P?ti M?ori) is an indigenous rights-based centre-left[3] political party in New Zealand. Tariana Turia founded the party in 2004 after resigning from the governing centre-left Labour Party, in which she was a minister, over the foreshore and seabed ownership controversy. She and Pita Sharples, a high-profile academic, became the first co-leaders.

The party won four M?ori seats in the 2005 election and went into Opposition. After the 2008, 2011 and 2014 elections, where the party won five, three and two M?ori seats respectively, it supported a government led by the centre-right National Party,[3] with the co-leaders being ministers outside cabinet. Sharples resigned as male co-leader in 2013 and was replaced by Te Ururoa Flavell, who became a minister after the 2014 election. Turia retired in 2014 and was replaced by Marama Fox as female co-leader. The M?ori Party failed to win any seats in the 2017 election and left Parliament.[4]

Principles and policies

The M?ori Party was formed in response to the 2004 foreshore and seabed controversy, a debate about whether M?ori have legitimate claim to ownership of part or all of New Zealand's foreshore and seabed. Tariana Turia resigned as a member of parliament for the Labour Party to form a party that would give M?ori an independent voice from the two major parties. The party believed that:

  • M?ori owned the foreshore and seabed before British colonisation;
  • The Treaty of Waitangi made no specific mention of foreshore or seabed;
  • No-one has subsequently purchased or otherwise acquired the foreshore or the seabed; and
  • M?ori should therefore still own the seabed and the foreshore today.[5][6]

The kaupapa of the M?ori Party includes four primary principles:[7]

  • Wh?nau (includes policies regarding affordable housing,[8] strengthening employment-support for M?ori beneficiaries[9] and Te Reo M?ori)[10]
  • Te Tiriti o Waitangi (includes holding the Crown accountable to their obligations under Te Tiriti O Waitangi and policies on Immigration)[11]
  • Rangatiratanga (includes policies on climate change in the Pacific and scholarships for M?ori and Pasifika education to advance M?ori and Pasifika as a collective)[12]
  • K?wanatanga (includes policies on growing iwi economic resources[13] and to protect freshwater as a t?onga)[14]

These principles enable the M?ori Party to be held accountable for the maintenance and furthering of M?ori concepts in the decision-making process. These concepts are not reflected in the traditional Westminster political system and M?ori customary law is excluded from our general legal system.[15] The M?ori Party aims to advance the status of M?ori people by advocating policies that restore M?ori cultural foundations to New Zealand's political system by providing an independent M?ori voice.

M?ori are the native people of New Zealand. Increasingly since the beginning of colonisation, the group has been marginalised and is now a minority within New Zealand alongside Pacific Islanders.[16] In providing an independent M?ori voice, the M?ori Party's focus on affordable housing,[17] M?ori recruitment into tertiary institutes[18] and a living wage for all workers[19] is based on the premise that M?ori are among the low-socio economic communities in New Zealand who are the most disadvantaged when it comes to national inequality.[20]

Several key party policies have included:

  • The upholding of indigenous values[21]
  • Compulsory "heritage studies" in schools[22]
  • M?ori ownership of the foreshore and the seabed[]

History

Formation

The M?ori Party's origins can be traced back to the 2004 foreshore and seabed controversy, a debate about whether M?ori have legitimate claim to ownership of part or all of New Zealand's foreshore and seabed, that arose during the Fifth Labour Government. A court judgement stated that some M?ori appeared to have the right to seek formal ownership of a specific portion of seabed in the Marlborough Sounds. This prospect alarmed many sectors of New Zealand society however, and the Labour Party foreshadowed legislation in favour of state ownership instead. This angered many M?ori, including many of Labour's M?ori MPs. Two MPs representing M?ori electorates, Tariana Turia and Nanaia Mahuta, announced an intent to vote against the legislation.[23]

Turia, a junior minister, after being informed that voting against the government would appear "incompatible" with holding ministerial rank, announced on 30 April 2004 her intention to resign from the Labour Party. Her resignation took effect on 17 May, and she left parliament until she won a by-election in her Te Tai Hauauru seat two months later. After leaving the Labour Party, Turia, later joined by Sharples, began organizing a new political party. They and their supporters agreed that the new organisation would simply use the name of "the M?ori Party". They chose a logo of black and red - traditional M?ori colours - incorporating a koru design, also traditional. The leaders of the M?ori Party indicated that they wished to unite "all M?ori" into a single political movement.[23] The party was formally established on 7 July 2004.[24]

2005 election

In the 2005 election, the M?ori Party won four out of seven M?ori seats and 2.12% of the party vote. The latter entitled the party to only three list seats, so the fourth electorate seat became an overhang seat. In the election night count, the party vote share was under 2% and the M?ori Party would have got two overhang seats; when the overhang was reduced to one, National lost a list seat that they appeared to have won on election night. Tariana Turia held Te Tai Hauauru; Pita Sharples won the Tamaki Makaurau electorate; Hone Harawira, son of Titewhai Harawira, won Te Tai Tokerau; and Te Ururoa Flavell won Waiariki.[25]

In the post-election period the M?ori Party convened a series of hui to decide whether to support Labour or National, though some party leaders indicated they preferred to deal with Labour. That day, however, Turia and Prime Minister Helen Clark met privately and ruled out a formal coalition. Coupled with the support of the New Zealand First, Greens and Progressives, M?ori Party support would have given Clark just enough support to govern without the support of other parties. However, in the end, no deal was done and the M?ori Party stayed in Opposition, citing that they were not prepared to compromise their positions.[26]

Gerry Brownlee, Deputy Leader of the National Party, claimed after the election that Labour and National each could rely on "57 seats" out of the 62 required in the 2005 election to govern. This implied that National had received support from United Future (3), Act (2) and the M?ori Party (4) in addition to National's own 49 seats.[27] Brash himself later supported this statement and claimed he had witnesses to it.[28] This came after the National Party tried to woo the M?ori Party in attempts to both see if a coalition arrangement was feasible and to counter any attempts which may have been made by Helen Clark.[29] Tariana Turia denied this claim.

On 24 January 2006 the M?ori Party's four MPs were jointly welcomed to R?tana p? with the leader of the National Party, Don Brash, together with his delegation of eight MPs. They had been intended to be welcomed on half an hour apart but agreed to be welcomed and sit together. Turia disputed claims that this was pre-arranged, saying: "We're here for a birthday. We're not here for politics."[30] However critics said this would have reminded onlookers of how the M?ori Party and National were said to be in coalition or confidence and supply talks. This may also have served to reinforce the Labour Party's election campaign statement that a 'vote for the M?ori Party is a vote for National'. One Ratana kaumatua (elder) said this was deliberate and deserved after the talks.[31]

2008 election

In the 2008 general election the M?ori Party retained all four of the seats it won in 2005, and won an additional seat, when Rahui Katene won Te Tai Tonga from Labour. Two seats were overhang seats. The party's share of the party vote rose slightly to 2.39%.[32] The Labour Party won the party vote by a large majority in every M?ori electorate, meaning that the typical M?ori voter had split their vote, voting for a M?ori Party candidate with their electorate vote and the Labour Party with their party vote.[33]

The National Party won the most seats overall and formed a minority government with the support of the M?ori Party, ACT New Zealand and United Future. Sharples was given the Minister of M?ori Affairs portfolio and became an Associate Minister of Corrections and Associate Minister of Education. Turia became Minister for the Community and Voluntary Sector, Associate Minister of Health and Associate Minister for Social Development and Employment.[34] Hone Harawira was critical of the alliance with the National Party and was suspended from the M?ori Party in February 2011. He left the party and formed the radical left-wing Mana Party in April 2011.[35]

2011 election

In the 2011 general election the M?ori Party was reduced from five seats to three, as the party vote split between it and Harawira's Mana Party. The M?ori Party won three electorate seats. With 1.43% of the party vote, the party was entitled to two seats, resulting in an overhang of one seat. The three MPs were Pita Sharples in T?maki Makaurau, Tariana Turia in Te Tai Hau?uru and Te Ururoa Flavell in Wai?riki. Rahui Katene lost the Te Tai Tonga seat to Labour's Rino Tirikatene, and Hone Harawira won the Te Tai Tokerau seat for the Mana Party. The National Party again formed a minority government with the support of the M?ori Party, ACT New Zealand and United Future. Pita Sharples again became Minister of M?ori Affairs, and Sharples and Turia were ministers outside cabinet. With the retirement of Pita Sharples in 2014, Te Ururoa Flavell became the male co-leader of the party. Tariana Turia also retired in 2014.[36]

2014 election

Final results from the 2014 general election gave the M?ori Party two seats in Parliament. Te Ururoa Flavell won the Wai?riki electorate seat, and the party was entitled to one further list seat (to be occupied by the next person on the party list, Marama Fox) as they received 1.32% of the party vote.[37]

2017 election

Prior to the 2017 general election, the M?ori Party formed an electoral pact with the Mana Movement leader and former M?ori Party MP Hone Harawira. The M?ori Party agreed not to contest Te Tai Tokerau as part of a deal to regain the M?ori electorates from the Labour Party.[38] During the 2017 election on 23 September, the Maori Party failed to take any seats, with Labour capturing all seven of the M?ori electorates.[4][39] Party co-leader Te Ururoa Flavell expressed sadness at the loss of seats and announced he would be resigning from politics.[40] Fellow co-leader Marama Fox expressed bitterness at the party's defeat, remarking that New Zealand had chosen to return to the "age of colonization" and attacked the two major parties, National and Labour, for their alleged paternalism towards M?ori.[41] Fox commented that M?ori have "gone back like a beaten wife to the abuser" in regards to Labour's sweep of the M?ori seats.[42] The Labour Party's dealing with M?ori affairs have been controversial in New Zealand's political history, including the 2004 foreshore and seabed controversy.

Electoral results

Parliament

Election # of candidates nominated (electorate/list) # of seats won # of party votes % of popular vote Government/Opposition
2005
42 / 51
48,263
2.12%
Opposition
2008
7 / 19
55,980
2.39%
Supported Fifth National Government
2011
11 / 17
31,982
1.43%
2014
24 / 24
31,850
1.32%
2017
17 / 17
30,580
1.2%
N/A

Leadership

In December 2012, Tariana Turia announced she would resign as party co-leader before the 2014 election. Te Ururoa Flavell announced his interest in a leadership role, but as the M?ori Party constitution requires male and female co-leaders, he could not take Turia's place.[43] Shortly after this, in July 2013, Sharples resigned as co-leader, saying he would quit politics altogether come the next general election in 2014. He went on to say that "Our supporters deserve a unified party" which indicated that the leadership tension influenced his decision to resign as party co-leader.[44] Flavell replaced him as the party's male co-leader. In the 2014 General Election, Marama Fox became the party's first List MP, and - as the party's only female Member of Parliament - under the party rules automatically became female co-leader.

Female Co-Leader Assumed Office Left Office Seat
1 Dame Tariana Turia 7 July 2004 September 2014 Te Tai Hau?uru
2 Marama Fox September 2014 August 2018 List
3 TBD
Male Co-Leader Assumed Office Left Office Seat
1 Sir Pita Sharples 7 July 2004 13 July 2013 T?maki Makaurau
2 Te Ururoa Flavell 13 July 2013 July 2018 Waiariki
3 TBD

The party also has a president:

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.maoritelevision.com/news/regional/bentham-ohia-new-maori-party-co-vice-president
  2. ^ "M?ori Party elects new executive team, sets sights on future".
  3. ^ a b c Marsh, Ian; Miller, Raymond (2012). Democratic Decline and Democratic Renewal: Political Change in Britain, Australia and New Zealand. Cambridge University Press. p. 284. ISBN 9781139537018.
  4. ^ a b "2017 General Election - Official Result". New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ Hickford, Mark. "Law of the foreshore and seabed - M?ori rights". e Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ Hickford, Mark. "Law of the foreshore and seabed - Challenge and controversy". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ "M?ori Party Kaupapa". M?ori Party. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ "M?ori Party Housing Policy 2017". Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ "M?ori Party Employment Policy 2017". Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "M?ori Party Te Reo M?ori Policy 2017". Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ "M?ori Party Immigration Policy 2017". Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ "M?ori Party Pasefika Policy 2017". Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^ "M?ori Party Economic Policy 2017". Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ "M?ori Party Environment Policy". Retrieved 2018.
  15. ^ Jackson, Moana (1990). "Criminality and the Exclusion of M?ori". Victoria University of Wellington Law Review. 20: 27-29.
  16. ^ Pearson, David (5 May 2011). "Ethnic Inequalities in New Zealand". Te Ara. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ "M?ori Party Housing Policy 2017". M?ori Party. Retrieved 2018.
  18. ^ "M?ori Party Education Policy 2017". M?ori Party. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ "M?ori Party Employment Policy 2017". M?ori Party. Retrieved 2018.
  20. ^ Pollock, Kerryn (5 May 2011). "Health and Society in New Zealand: Socio-economic status, ethnicity and health inequality". Te Ara. Retrieved 2018.
  21. ^ "Election Policy 2008". Maori Party. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 2011. Our commitment to you is that we will uphold indigenous values, to ensure our country maintains its natural beauty for all who call this land home.
  22. ^ "Election Policy 2008". M?ori Party. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 2011. Primary and secondary schools will be required to teach heritage studies, which will include a history of the Pacific, in line with the aspirations of Pacific people.
  23. ^ a b Morgan Godfery, "Chapter 4.4: The M?ori Party," pp. 240-241.
  24. ^ Ngatai, George (16 July 2013). "George Ngatai - Standing for President of Maori Party - Speech" (Press release). Scoop.co.nz. Retrieved 2019.
  25. ^ Morgan Godfery, "Chapter 4.4: The M?ori Party," pp. 243-244.
  26. ^ "Maori Party stays in opposition". The New Zealand Herald. 18 October 2005.
  27. ^ Crewdson, Patrick (16 October 2005). "Coalition talks in chaos as Nats accuse Clark of failure". The New Zealand Herald.
  28. ^ Young, Audrey (19 October 2005). "Brash: I had the 57 votes". The New Zealand Herald.
  29. ^ Tony Gee, Audrey Young and Ruth Berry (7 October 2005). "National courts the Maori Party". The New Zealand Herald.
  30. ^ Dewes, Haydon (25 January 2006). "Taking partners for Ratana waltz". The Dominion Post.
  31. ^ Stokes, Jon (25 January 2006). "Parties forced to share stage at Ratana marae". The New Zealand Herald.
  32. ^ Chief Electoral Office: Official Count results: Overall status.
  33. ^ See M?ori electorate results at Chief Electoral Office: Official Count results: Electorate details.
  34. ^ "Key's Government". The New Zealand Herald. 17 November 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  35. ^ Morgan Godfery, "Chapter 4.4: The M?ori Party," pp. 246-247.
  36. ^ Morgan Godfery, "Chapter 4.4: The M?ori Party," pp. 247-248.
  37. ^ "New Zealand 2014 General Election Official Results". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2017.
  38. ^ Moir, Jo (20 February 2017). "Hone Harawira gets clear Te Tai Tokerau run for Mana not running against Maori Party in other seats". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2017.
  39. ^ Graham, Charlotte (23 September 2017). "Center-Right Party Hangs on in New Zealand Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017. A major upset in Saturday's results was the vanquishing of the Maori Party, a group which grew out of protest action about indigenous rights to New Zealand's foreshore and seabed. Formed in 2004, the party won two seats at the 2014 election; in the next Parliament, it will have none.
  40. ^ Trevett, Claire (24 September 2017). "Maori Party leader Te Ururoa Flavell leaving politics". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2017.
  41. ^ Satherley, Dan (24 September 2017). "NZ voted for return to 'the age of colonisation' - Marama Fox". Newshub. Retrieved 2017.
  42. ^ "M?ori have 'gone back like a beaten wife to the abuser', defiant Marama Fox says". Stuff. Retrieved 2018.
  43. ^ "Ratana unveiling for Turia's successor?". DominionPost. 13 January 2013
  44. ^ "Pita Sharples stands down, Flavell likely successor". One News. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 2014.

Further reading

External links


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