Luther Campbell
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Luther Campbell

Luther Campbell
Luther Campbell by David Cabrera.jpg
Campbell in 2017
Born
Luther Roderick Campbell

(1960-12-22) December 22, 1960 (age 58)
Other namesLuke Skyywalker, Solo Luke, Uncle Luke, Luke
Occupation
  • Rapper
  • promoter
  • record executive
  • actor
Years active1981-2010, 2017-present
Musical career
Genres
InstrumentsVocals
Labels

Luther Roderick Campbell (born December 22, 1960), also known as Luke Skyywalker, Uncle Luke and simply Luke, is an American rapper, promoter, record executive, and actor. He is best known for being the former leader of the best selling rap group 2 Live Crew, who had many lawsuits the most notorious one sexual content of his group's lyrics caused controversy and led to legal cases. However since the case was highly publicized, and their popularity grew.

Luther Campbell with The 2 Live Crew are the most well known figure of the Miami bass genre of rap. They are also Southern hip hop pioneer.

Usually, Campbell does not rap but rather shouts or chants, and has other rappers to fill in the verses. He often engages in a call and response manner, with him calling and the crowd responding.

Campbell also had a successful solo career as well as producing other artists.

Early life

Luther Campbell born in December 22, 1960 in Miami, Florida. His mother was a beautician with Bahamian ancestry, his father a custodian with Jamaican ancestry.[1] The youngest of five sons, he was named after Martin Luther King Jr..

After graduating high school, he was asked by his mom to leave the house every weekday at 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., regardless of employment.[2]

Career

Early 1980s-1984: Early career and discovering The 2 Live Crew

While working as a cook at Mt. Sinai Hospital in Miami Beach, Campbell was a concert promoter in Miami, bringing all the hot rap groups of the early 1980s to the city. In 1983, he enrolled in an eight-week study course at public radio station WDNA, learning basic audio editing and production techniques.

In 1984, he took notice of a single coming from California named ''Revelation'' by 2 Live Crew, which consisted of two rappers (Fresh Kid Ice and Amazing V) and a DJ (Mr. Mixx). The single was a smash hit on the South Florida club circuit, so he brought the from California to Miami for a performance. He took a special interest in the group and began managing them.

1986: Starting a music label, joining The 2 Live Crew, and groups breakthrough

The group eventually fully relocated in Florida without Amazing Vee and in 1986, 2 Live Crew recorded Throw the D with Ghetto Bass on the B-side, they went into a joint venture with Campbell to start Luke Skyyywalker Records, which was also his first MC name.

Shortly after he joined 2 Live Crew. In April of that year Brother Marquis joined the group in Miami. Campbell gave The 2 Live Crew a record deal and officially joined the group. They exploded on the local scene with their Gold-selling debut album, The 2 Live Crew Is What We Are (1986). This made Luke Skyyywalker and his band mates rap superstars in that area.[3]

1988-1991: Best selling albums and controversy

In 1988, the group released their second album, Move Somethin' It was certified Gold and featured the singles "Move Somethin'" and "Do Wah Diddy Diddy". The album improved on the charts from the previous album, making in to #68 on the Billboard 200 and #20 on the Top R&B/Hip Hop Albums chart.

Campbell decided to sell a separate clean version in addition to the explicit version of the album, Move Somethin' (1988), produced by Mr. Mixx. A record store clerk in Alexander City, Alabama, was cited for selling a copy to an undercover police officer in 1988. It was the first time in the United States that a record store owner was held liable for obscenity over music. The charges were dropped after a jury found the record store not guilty. Their following album Move Somethin' (1988) also went gold.[4]

Their third album As Nasty As They Wanna Be (1989), it became the group's largest seller, being certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. In 1990, the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida ruled that the album was legally obscene;[5] this ruling was later overturned by the Eleventh Circuit.[6] It is the first album in history to be deemed legally obscene.[7] An obscenity trial followed, in which Henry Louis Gates, Jr., addressed the court on behalf of the defendants, all of whom were eventually acquitted.

Campbell was also infamous in the late 1980s-early 1990s for his association with the University of Miami Hurricanes football team. Campbell was alleged to have been behind what was referred to as a "pay-for-play" system, which involved cash rewards for acts such as scoring touchdowns and big hits,[8] although Campbell has never actually donated to the University of Miami or its athletics department. In 1993, he also threatened to go public with various violations by University of Miami's athletic department, specifically their football program, if Ryan Collins, a black player, wasn't named their starting quarterback for that season.[9]

1990, saw the release of Banned in the U.S.A. (1990), originally credited as Luke's solo album featuring 2 Live Crew and in later editions credited as a 2 Live Crew album. The album included the hits "Do the Bart" and the title track. It was also the very first release to bear the RIAA-standard Parental Advisory warning sticker.[10] It peaked at number 20 on the Hot 100.[11]

The eponymous title single is a reference to the decision in a court case that its album As Nasty As They Wanna Be was obscene (the decision would later be overturned on appeal). Bruce Springsteen granted the group permission to interpolate his song "Born in the U.S.A." for it.

Displeased over the decision of Florida Governor Bob Martinez who, on being asked to examine the album, decided it was obscene and recommended local law enforcement take action against it and over the subsequent action of Broward County, Florida, sheriff Nick Navarro, who arrested local record-store owners on obscenity charges for selling the group's albums and the subsequent arrest of members of the group on obscenity charges, the group included the song "Fuck Martinez", which also includes multiple repetitions of the phrase "fuck Navarro". The group found two other men with the same names, and had them sign releases, as they thought that this action would make it impossible for Martinez or Navarro to sue them.

That same year they released Live in Concert is the first and only live album by American rap group 2 Live Crew and their fifth record overall. It was released under the Effect subsidiary label of Luke Records, a move that was deemed necessary for the company to be able to release additional 2 Live Crew material outside of their distribution deal with Atlantic Records. The album peaked at number 46 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums.[12]

Sports Weekend: As Nasty as They Wanna Be, Pt. 2 (1991). is the sixth album overall and fifth studio album by the 2 Live Crew (released in 1991) and the sequel of As Nasty As They Wanna Be. A clean version was released later that same year titled Sports Weekend: As Clean As They Wanna Be Part II and was the sequel of As Clean As They Wanna Be. This would be the last studio album by all original members of the 2 Live Crew.[13]

From that point on all the release by 2 Live Crew would always vary having one or two member of the original line up missing by the exception of Fresh Kid Ice.

1992-2006: Subsequent success and solo projects

In 1992, I Got Shit on My Mind was released. It was his first official solo album without The 2 Live Crew. It peaked at #52 on the Billboard 200 chart and #20 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart. It was the album that spawned the hit single "I Wanna Rock" (better known more prominently as "Doo-Doo Brown"), which became Luke's signature song. Upon its initial release in 1992, the song did not garner much attention until the following year, when it became a runaway hit, and charted at 73 on the Hot 100.[14]

Also that year, he produced The Chinaman was the first solo album by Fresh Kid Ice. It was released by Effect Records, a division of Luke Records. Singles that were released to promote the album were "Dick 'Em Down," "I'll Be There," and "Freak 'Em Down" (the clean version of "Dick 'Em Down," which wasn't featured in the album). "Freak 'Em Down" was turned into a video clip. The album is noted for being the first hip hop album embracing having an Asian heritage. With songs like "Long Dick Chinese," he inverted stereotypes into prideful declarations of self-identity. He showed there was a way for Asians to exist in hip-hop.,[15]The Chinaman sold over 200,000 with very limited promotion.[16] On the Billboard charts it peaked at #38 and stayed two weeks on the Heatseekers Albums Chart, and was on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums Chart for ten weeks, peaking at #56.[17][18]

June 8, 1993 saw the release of his third solo In the Nude it was another success, reaching #54 on the Billboard 200 and #8 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums.[19]

In 1994, he reunited with Fresh Kid Ice, and a local rapper named Verb made an album under the banner The New 2 Live Crew. It is the last 2 Live Crew related project to feature him. The album became a moderate hit, peaking at #52 on the Billboard 200 and #9 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, as well as producing two charting singles, "Hell, Yeah" and "You Go Girl" who were both made into music videos.[20][21]

Freak for Life is Campbell's fourth album. It was released on July 12, 1994 through Luke Records. Freak for Life peaked at #174 on the Billboard 200 and #24 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, making it his lowest charting album at the time. One single found mild success, "It's Your Birthday" peaked at #33 on the Hot Rap Singles and #91 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks.

Also in 1994, Campbell co-founded Liberty City Optimists, an inner city youth sports program. One of his notable apprentices is Devonta Freeman, who went on to play college football for Florida State Seminoles, rival of the Hurricanes.[22]

Luther Campbell and his label, Luke Records, Inc. went bankrupt in 1995 and sold their catalogs to Joseph Weinberger and Lil' Joe Records, Inc. in 1996.

Uncle Luke was released on May 14, 1996, on Luther Campbell Music and was mainly produced by Darren "DJ Spin" Rudnick, and Rod XL, with additional production by Frankie Cutlass, Ice Cube and Doug E. Fresh. Uncle Luke was a success, peaking at #51 on the Billboard 200 and #8 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums and spawned a single, "Scarred", which made it to #64 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #7 on the Hot Rap Singles, the song was also turned into a Video.

Changin' the Game is the sixth album released by Luke. It was released on November 11, 1997 on the Island Black Music label in collaboration with Luke Records and featured production from Campbell, Rod XL, Lil' Jon and Louis "Ugly" Howard. Though the album was met with some positive reviews, the album was flop and remains Luke's lowest charting album, only making it to #49 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. However, the single "Raise the Roof" found great success peaking at #26 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #1 on the Hot Rap Singles.[23] The song helped to popularize the arm gesture by the same name which involved repeatedly extending ones arms upwards with the palms of the hands also facing upwards. The song is also featured in the compilation album Jock Jams volume 4.

In 1998 he played a supporting role in the movie Ride a comedy film written and directed by Millicent Shelton. It stars Malik Yoba, Fredro Starr, and Melissa De Sousa. Also that year he played a supporting role in Ice Cube' The Players Club. The comedy/drama film stars Bernie Mac, Monica Calhoun, Jamie Foxx, John Amos, A. J. Johnson, Alex Thomas, Charlie Murphy, Terrence Howard, Faizon Love and LisaRaye.

Somethin' Nasty is the seventh album released by Campbell. It was released on March 13, 2001 on Luke Records through Koch Records' short-lived independent label distribution unit, KELA (Koch Entertainment Label Alliance) and featured production by Luke's former 2 Live Crew bandmate, Mr. Mixx, Daz Dillinger, Gorilla Tek, and Luke himself. The album found minor success, peaking at #149 on the Billboard 200, #36 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums and #6 on the Top Independent Albums.

Luke's last release, My Life & Freaky Times, was released in March 2006, and peaked at 32 at the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums.[24] The first singles serviced to radio were "Holla at Cha Homeboy", featuring Pitbull & Petey Pablo, and the reggaeton-leaning "Pop That" by Plan B and Rey Chester Secretweapon.[25]

That same year, Campbell appear in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories as DJ Luke for the hip-hop station Fresh 105 FM. Campbell hosts a sports talk show on Miami's 790 The Ticket with former football player Terry Kirby on Saturdays.

2007-present day: Later work

Luke has previously entered the adult film industry and cites on his MySpace page the need to clean up the "sometimes amateurish new courtship of Hip-Hop and Adult Entertainment".[26] He produced the Adult Entertainment movie Luke's Bachelor Party in 2007.

In December 2007, Campbell launched The Luke Entertainment Group and took the company public trading under the symbol LKEN on Pink Sheets. As of September 3, 2008, its current price is $0.01 per share.[27] With this launching of Luke Entertainment Campbell had bought an oil company with the stock trading symbol of FPPL. Luther Campbell was also a legendary DJ member of The Ghetto Style DJ's.

In 2008, he starred in his own short-lived show on VH1, Luke's Parental Advisory.

Campbell was interviewed about his involvement with the Miami Hurricanes for the documentary The U, which premiered December 12, 2009 as part of ESPN's 30 for 30 series.

In 2010, he briefly reunited with Fresh Kid Ice, Brother Marquis, and Mr. Mixx as the 2 Live Crew were honorees winners at the 2010 VH1 Hip-Hop Honors: The Dirty South Edition.[28]

On February 2, 2011, Campbell announced his intention to run for mayor of Miami-Dade County on a platform that includes making housing projects safer, transparency in local government, and taxing strippers.[29] He came in fourth in a field of 11 candidates, winning 11% of the vote.[30] Campbell is a registered Democrat.[31]

By thanksgiving 2014, Campbell reunited with 2 Live Crew (Fresh Kid Ice and Brother Marquis) for a series of shows until 2015.[32][33]

Style of rap

Campbell's work as a performer can be characterized as Southern rap; most of it is part of the Miami bass subgenre. The sexual content of his group's lyrics caused controversy and led to legal cases. Usually, Campbell does not rap but rather shouts or chants--very often in a call and response manner, with him calling and the crowd responding.

Personal life

He has six children from five previous relationships.[] On July 19, 2008, he married law school graduate Kristin Thompson in Dallas, Texas. She is the mother of his seventh child.[] Luther was brought up in Liberty City, Miami.

On February 18, 2009, Campbell was arrested for falling behind on child support payments.[34] He became a columnist for the Miami New Times[35] in February 2010. His column, Luke's Gospel,[36] provides "a forum for his crazy-ass views on current events," which include politics, sports and entertainment. He is quoted on the web site as saying: "It's the perfect place for me. I am a free-speech guy. It's just a match made in Heaven. Can you believe it? Me turned loose on the world in New Times. Wow."[37]

In 2014, Campbell tweeted that he would be defensive coordinator for Miami Norland Senior High School in 2014.

Discography

Studio albums

Year Album Chart Positions
US US Hip-Hop
1990 The Luke LP 21 10
1992 I Got Shit on My Mind 52 20
1993 In the Nude 54 8
1994 Freak for Life 174 24
1996 Uncle Luke 51 8
1997 Changin' the Game - 49
2001 Somethin' Nasty 149 36
2006 My Life & Freaky Times - 35 "--" denotes the album failed to chart or not released

Compilation albums

Singles

References

  1. ^ Jamaican Ancestry
  2. ^ Bishop, Greg (2012-11-05). "Luther Campbell Has a New Gig, and a New Rap for His Players". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Gold & Platinum - RIAA". RIAA. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "Gold & Platinum - RIAA". RIAA. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Skyywalker Records, Inc. v. Navarro, 739 F.Supp. 578 (S.D. Fla. 1990).
  6. ^ Luke Records, Inc. v. Navarro, 960 F.2d 134 (11th Cir. 1992).
  7. ^ Deflem, Mathieu. 1993. "Rap, Rock, and Censorship: Popular Culture and the Technologies of Justice." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Law and Society Association, Chicago, May 27-30, 1993
  8. ^ "Cash Bounties Reported at Miami". May 21, 1994. Retrieved 2014.
  9. ^ "Rapper's Threats on Behalf of Collins Trouble Qb's Dad". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 2014.
  10. ^ Schonfeld, Zach. "Does the Parental Advisory Label Still Matter?". Newsweek. Retrieved 2016.
  11. ^ "Luke Banned In The U.S.A. Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved .
  12. ^ "The 2 Live Crew Live In Concert Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved .
  13. ^ Wong Won, Christopher 'Fresh Kid Ice" (July 20, 2015). "My Rise 2 Fame": The Tell All Autobiography of a Hip Hop Legend. Iconic Three Media Group, LLC.
  14. ^ "Luke I Wanna Rock Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved .
  15. ^ Schwartz, Zachary (2015). "A BRIEF HISTORY OF ASIANS IN HIP-HOP, FROM 2 LIVE CREW TO "IT G MA"". Playboy. Retrieved 2015.
  16. ^ Wong Won, Christopher "Fresh Kid Ice" (July 20, 2015). "My Rise 2 Fame": The Tell All Autobiography of a Hip Hop Legend. Iconic Three Media Group, LLC.
  17. ^ "Heatseekers Albums Fresh Kid Ice Is The Chinaman". Billboard.
  18. ^ "Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums Fresh Kid Ice The Chinaman". Billboard.
  19. ^ "Luke In The Nude Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved .
  20. ^ "The New 2 Live Crew Back At Your Ass For The Nine-4 Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "The New 2 Live Crew Back At Your Ass For The Nine-4 Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved .
  22. ^ "Devonta Freeman has unlikely, but inspiring mentor". YouTube. Retrieved 2014.
  23. ^ "Luke Raise The Roof Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved .
  24. ^ "Uncle Luke My Life & Freaky Times Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved .
  25. ^ Clark, Carlos (February 1, 2006). "2 Live Crew Member Tells All". CMJ. Archived from the original on February 7, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  26. ^ Luther Canpbell, Myspace.
  27. ^ "LUKE ENTERTAINMENT (LKEN.PK)". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved 2014.
  28. ^ "Live from VH1 2010 Hip Hop Honors: The Dirty South". Essence. Retrieved .
  29. ^ "It's Official: Luther Campbell To Run For Mayor « CBS Miami". Retrieved 2014.
  30. ^ "Dade - Election Results". Retrieved 2014.
  31. ^ "Luther Rodrick Campbell Voting Record" Archived April 14, 2013, at Archive.today, FindTheData.
  32. ^ "2 Live Crew Reunion at LIV". New Miami Times. November 27, 2014.
  33. ^ "2 Live Crew & Uncle Luke at LIV". World Red Eye. August 31, 2015.
  34. ^ Castillo, Arielle (February 20, 2009). "Luther Campbell Speaks on Going to Jail". Miami New Times. Retrieved 2016.
  35. ^ S. Pajot (November 25, 2014). "Miami New Times website". Retrieved 2014.
  36. ^ "List of Campbell's columns on the Miami New Times website". Retrieved 2014.
  37. ^ Luther Campbell (February 23, 2010). ""Fire Heat coach Erik Spoelstra," February 25, 2010". Retrieved 2014.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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