Lower Sorbian Language
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Lower Sorbian Language
Lower Sorbian
dolnoserbina, dolnoserbski
Pronunciation['d?lns?rsk?i]
Native toGermany
RegionBrandenburg
EthnicitySorbs
Native speakers
6,900 (2007)[1]
Latin (Sorbian alphabet)
Language codes
dsb
dsb
Glottologlowe1385[2]
Linguasphere53-AAA-ba < 53-AAA-b < 53-AAA-b...-d (varieties: 53-AAA-baa to 53-AAA-bah)
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Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbina) is a West Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg.

Standard Lower Sorbian is one of the two literary Sorbian languages, the other being the more widely spoken standard Upper Sorbian. The Lower Sorbian literary standard was developed in the 18th century, based on a southern form of the Cottbus dialect.[3] The standard variety of Lower Sorbian has received structural influence from Upper Sorbian.[3]

Lower Sorbian is spoken in and around the city of Cottbus in Brandenburg. Signs in this region are typically bilingual, and Cottbus has a Gymnasium where one language of instruction is Lower Sorbian. It is a heavily endangered language.[4] Most native speakers today belong to the older generations.

Phonology

Bilingual road sign in Cottbus, Germany

The phonology of Lower Sorbian has been greatly influenced by contact with German, especially in Cottbus and larger towns. For example, German-influenced pronunciation tends to have a voiced uvular fricative [?] instead of the alveolar trill [r]. In villages and rural areas, German influence is less marked, and the pronunciation is more "typically Slavic".

Consonants

Consonant phonemes[5][6]
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Postalveolar Dorsal Glottal
hard soft hard soft hard soft
Nasal m m? n n?
Plosive voiceless p p? t k
voiced b b? d ?
Affricate t?s t t
Fricative voiceless f s ? ? x h
voiced v z ? ?
Trill r r?
Approximant w w? l j

Final devoicing and assimilation

Lower Sorbian has both final devoicing and regressive voicing assimilation:[15]

  • dub /dub/ "oak" is pronounced [dup]
  • susedka /'susedka/ "(female) neighbor" is pronounced ['susetka]
  • licba /'lit?sba/ "number" is pronounced ['l?id?zba]

The hard postalveolar fricative /?/ is assimilated to [?] before /t/:[16]

  • it /?tit/ "protection" is pronounced [?tit]

Vowels

The vowel inventory of Lower Sorbian is exactly the same as that of Upper Sorbian.[17] It is also very similar to the vowel inventory of Slovene.

Stress

Stress in Lower Sorbian normally falls on the first syllable of the word:[19]

  • ?u?yca ['wut?sa] "Lusatia"
  • p?ija?el ['p?ijal] "friend"
  • Chó?ebuz ['xbus] "Cottbus"

In loanwords, stress may fall on any of the last three syllables:[19]

  • internat [int?r'nat] "boarding school"
  • kontrola [k?n'tr?la] "control"
  • september [s?p't?mb?r] "September"
  • policija [p?'l?it?sija] "police"
  • organizacija [?r?an?i'zat?sija] "organization"

Most one-syllable prepositions attract the stress to themselves when they precede a noun or pronoun of one or two syllables:[19]

  • na dwórje ['na dw?r] "on the courtyard"
  • p?i mnjo ['p?i mn] "near me"
  • do m?sta ['d? msta] "into the city" (note that the [i] of m?sto ['m?ist?] becomes [?] when unstressed)

However, nouns of three or more syllables retain their stress:

  • p?ed wucabnikom [pd 'ut?sabn?ik?m] "in front of the teacher"
  • na drogowanju [na 'drowan?u] "on a journey"

Orthography

The Sorbian alphabet is based on the Latin script but uses diacritics such as the acute accent and caron.

Sample

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Lower Sorbian:

W?ykne lu?e su lichotne ro?one a jadnake po dostojnos?i a p?awach. Woni maju rozym a w?dobnos? a maju ze sobu w duchu brat?ojstwa wobchada?. (All people are born free and equal in their dignity and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they shall create their relationships to one another according to the spirit of brotherhood.)[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lower Sorbian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lower Sorbian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b Björn Rothstein, Rolf Thieroff (2010). Mood in the Languages of Europe. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 376-377. ISBN 9789027205872.
  4. ^ Moseley, Christopher, ed. (2010). Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (3rd ed.). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2.
  5. ^ a b c Stone (2002), p. 605.
  6. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180-181.
  7. ^ Hannusch (1988).
  8. ^ Stone (2002).
  9. ^ Zygis (2003).
  10. ^ This transcription follows Laver (1994:251-252). Other scholars may transcribe these sounds differently.
  11. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180-181, 190-191.
  12. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 40-41.
  13. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 600, 605.
  14. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 43, 46.
  15. ^ Hannusch (1998), p. 12.
  16. ^ Hannusch (1998), p. 13.
  17. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  18. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 606-607.
  19. ^ a b c Hannusch (1998), p. 14.
  20. ^ Omniglot

Bibliography

  • Hannusch, Erwin (1998), Niedersorbisch praktisch und verständlich, Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, ISBN 3-7420-1667-9
  • Laver, John (1994), Principles of Phonetics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45655-X
  • ?ewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjoserbskeje re, Budy?in: Ludowe nak?adnistwo Domowina
  • Stone, Gerald (2002), "Sorbian (Upper and Lower)", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 593-685, ISBN 9780415280785
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175-213, archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-11, retrieved

External links

Dictionaries

Czech-Lower Sorbian and Lower Sorbian-Czech

German-Lower Sorbian

Lower Sorbian-German


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