Earl of Linlithgow was a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1600 for Alexander Livingston, 7th Lord Livingston, along with the subsidiary title of Lord Livingston and Callendar. In 1695, the Earldom of Linlithgow merged with the junior Earldom of Callendar, which had been created in 1641 for a younger son of the 1st Earl.
The 5th Earl of Linlithgow (and 4th Earl of Callendar) was attainted in 1716 for his participation in the Jacobite Rising of 1715, and all of his peerages were forfeited. The seat of the Earls of Linlithgow was Callendar House in Falkirk, which is now a museum.