List of Volcanic Eruptions by Death Toll
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List of Volcanic Eruptions by Death Toll

Volcanic eruptions can be highly explosive. Some volcanoes have undergone catastrophic eruptions, killing large numbers of humans or other life forms. This list documents volcanic eruptions by human death toll.

Volcanic eruptions

Human death toll Volcano Location Year Source(s)
71,000 to 250,100+ (regarded as having caused the Year Without a Summer, creating famines and epidemics across the Northern Hemisphere) Mount Tambora Indonesia 1815 [1][2]
36,000+ Most of these deaths were not attributed to the eruption itself, but to the tsunami generated by it. Krakatoa Indonesia 1883 [3]
30,000 Mount Pelée Martinique 1902 [4]
23,000 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1985 [5]
15,000 to 20,000 in London, England due to post-eruption famine Mount Samalas Indonesia 1257
15,000 Mount Unzen Japan 1792 [6]
13,000+ (estimated) Mount Vesuvius Italy 79 [7]
10,000+ (~ 25% of Iceland's population); particulate and sulfur emissions caused widespread deaths and famines throughout Europe and Africa; 23,000 British died from poisoning; (80% of sheep, 50% of cattle and 50% of horses died in Iceland) Laki and Grímsvötn Iceland 1783 [8]
10,000 Kelud Indonesia 1586
6,000 Santa Maria Guatemala 1902 [9]
5,000 Kelud Indonesia 1919 [10]
4,011 Mount Galunggung Indonesia 1822 [11]
3,360 Mount Vesuvius Italy 1631
2,957 Mount Papandayan Indonesia 1772 [12]
2,942 Mount Lamington Papua New Guinea 1951 [12]
2,806 Mount Awu Indonesia 1856 [12]
2,000 Tseax Cone Canada 1700 c. 1700 [13][14]
1,900 El Chichón Mexico 1982 [15]
1,680 Soufrière St. Vincent 1902
1,584 Mount Agung Indonesia 1963
1,532 Mount Awu Indonesia 1892 [12]
1,500 (atmospheric particulates may have contributed to the Russian famine of 1601-03) Huaynaputina Peru 1600 [16][17]
1,369 Mount Merapi Indonesia 1930 [12]
1,335 Mount Mayon Philippines 1897
1,300 Taal Volcano Philippines 1911
1,151 Mount Asama Japan 1783
1,000 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1845
1,000 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1877
847 Mount Pinatubo Philippines 1991
600 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1595
500 Hibok-Hibok Philippines 1951
477 (official confirmed) Mount Bandai Japan 1888
426 Anak Krakatoa Indonesia 2018 [18]
400+ Kilauea Kingdom of Hawai'i 1790 [19]
353 Mount Merapi Indonesia 2010
326 Makian Indonesia 1861 [12]
245 Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002
190 Volcán de Fuego Guatemala 2018 [20]
151 Mount Ruapehu New Zealand 1953
150 Mount Tarawera New Zealand 1886
150 Tori-shima Japan 1902 [21]
144 (official confirmed) Mount Tokachi Japan 1926 [22]
106 Dubbi Eritrea 1861 [12]
87 Volcán Arenal Costa Rica 1968
70 Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 1977
63 Mount Ontake Japan 2014 [23]
57 Mount St. Helens United States 1980
56 Mount Etna Italy 1843 [12]
43 Mount Unzen Japan 1991
39 Taal Philippines 2020
31 Bayonnaise Rocks Japan 1952 [12]
31 Nabro Volcano Eritrea 2011 [24]
27 Mount Vesuvius Italy 1944 [12]
21 Whakaari/White Island New Zealand 2019 [25]
19 Soufrière Hills Montserrat 1997 [26]
18 Galunggung Indonesia 1982
16 Sinabung Indonesia 2014 [27]
10 Whakaari/White Island New Zealand 1914
9 Galeras Colombia 1993 [28]
5 Mount Hudson Chile 1971
4 Jebel at Tair Yemen 2007 [29]
3 Pacaya Guatemala 2010
3 Canlaon Volcano Philippines 1996
2 Mount Bromo Indonesia 2004
1 Eldfell Iceland 1973 [30][31][32]

See also

References

  1. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (1 June 2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment. 28 (2): 230-259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. S2CID 131663534.
  2. ^ "Most Powerful Volcanic Eruption In The History Of Mankind".
  3. ^ "Krakatoa Volcano: Facts About Deadly Eruption". Live Science.
  4. ^ "Benchmarks: May 8, 1902: The deadly eruption of Mount Pelée | EARTH Magazine". www.earthmagazine.org.
  5. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY | 13 | 1985: Volcano kills thousands in Colombia". news.bbc.co.uk.
  6. ^ "Mount Unzen eruption of 1792 | Japanese history". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  7. ^ "Vesuvius erupts - Aug 24, 79 - HISTORY.com". history.com.
  8. ^ "Local and Global Impacts of the 1783-84 Laki Eruption in Iceland". Wired.
  9. ^ "What is the largest eruption ever? | Volcano World | Oregon State University". volcano.oregonstate.edu.
  10. ^ "Indonesia's Mount Kelut Erupts : Natural Hazards". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 14 February 2014.
  11. ^ "Galunggung | Volcano World | Oregon State University". volcano.oregonstate.edu.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Simkin, T.; Siebert, L. (1994). "Fatalities and Evacuations". Volcanoes of the World (2nd ed.). Tucson, Arizona: Geoscience Press. pp. 163-176. ISBN 978-0-945005-12-4.
  13. ^ Hickson, C.J., Spurgeon, T.C., Cocking, R.B., Russell, J.K., Woodsworth, G.J., Ulmi, M. and Rust, A.C. (2007), "Tseax Volcano: A Deadly Basaltic Eruption in North-Western British Columbia's Stikine Volcanic Belt", Geological Society of America 103rd Annual Meeting, retrieved 2019CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  14. ^ Higgins, M.D. (2009). "The Cascadia megathrust earthquake of 1700 may have rejuvenated an isolated basalt volcano in western Canada: Age and petrographic evidence". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 179 (1-2): 149-156. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.10.016.
  15. ^ https://www.wired.com/2012/03/looking-back-at-the-1982-eruption-of-el-chichon-in-mexico/
  16. ^ "Firing the sky". www.thehindu.com. 18 February 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ Zijlstra, Albert (30 June 2017). "The winter of Huaynaputina". volcanocafe.org. Retrieved 2018.
  18. ^ "Number of injured in Indonesia tsunami surges to over 14,000". The Star Online. Asean Plus. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ Israel, Brett. "Kilauea Volcano's Deadliest Eruption Revealed". Live Science. Retrieved 2018.
  20. ^ "Thousands evacuated as Guatemala's Fuego volcano erupts". Reuters. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  21. ^ "INHABITANTS OF ISLAND ALL KILLED BY VOLCANO:; The 150 Japanese Residents of Torishima Dead - Eruption Still Proceeding" (PDF).
  22. ^ ja:##? Retrieved 19 June 2018.[better source needed]
  23. ^ "Ontake victims mourned a month after eruption as tourism industry scrambles to recover". The Japan Times Online. 27 October 2014.
  24. ^ "Thousands need aid after volcano eruption". IRIN. 6 July 2011.
  25. ^ "Whakaari/White Island eruption: Death toll rises to 21". RNZ. 29 January 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  26. ^ "The victims of Montserrat's volcano tragedy deserve an investigation". The Guardian. 25 June 2012.
  27. ^ "Indonesian volcano Mount Sinabung eruption causes 16 deaths". The Independent. 2 February 2014.
  28. ^ "Eruption: A Survivor's Tale | Scholastic.com". Scholastic Teachers.
  29. ^ Siebert, L.; et al. (2010). Volcanoes of the World (3rd ed.). Smithsonian Institution and University of California Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-520-26877-7.
  30. ^ "Deadly Gases". Oregon State University.
  31. ^ "Which Way The Wind Blows - The Reykjavik Grapevine". The Reykjavik Grapevine. 26 September 2014.
  32. ^ Williams Jr., R.S.; Moore, J.G. (1983). Man Against Volcano: The Eruption on Heimaey, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland (2nd edition) (PDF). USGS. p. 11.

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