List of Rulers of Partitioned Poland
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List of Rulers of Partitioned Poland
This list concerns the monarchs of Partitioned Poland, from 1795 and 19th- and early-20th-century claimants to the Polish throne. For the historical monarchs of Poland until 1795, see List of Polish monarchs.

Kings and tsars of the Kingdom of Poland

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Alexander I
(Aleksander I)
Alexander I of Russia by G.Dawe (1826, Peterhof) crop.jpg Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 9 June 1815 1 December 1825 The Kingdom of Poland created at the Congress of Vienna and therefore dubbed "Congress Poland".
Nicholas I
(Miko?aj I)
Franz Krüger - Portrait of Emperor Nicholas I - WGA12289.jpg Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1 December 1825 2 March 1855 deposed by the Polish Parliament (Sejm) on 25 January 1831 during the November Uprising (1830-1831), autonomy abolished in 1832.
Alexander II
(Aleksander II)
Zar Alexander II (cropped).jpg Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 2 March 1855 13 March 1881 The Kingdom of Poland annexed into the Russian Empire after the January Uprising (1863-1864), and the name of the kingdom was changed to Vistula Land (1867-1915)
Alexander III
(Aleksander III)
Alexander III, Emperor of Russia (1845-94).png Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 13 March 1881 1 November 1894
Nicholas II
(Miko?aj II)
 ? II.jpg Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1 November 1894 15 March 1917 during World War I "Vistula Land" was looted and abandoned by the retreating Russian army in 1915; abdicated in 1917

Kings and queens of Galicia and Lodomeria (Galicja)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Maria Theresa
(Maria Teresa)
Kaiserin Maria Theresia (HRR).jpg Habsburg 22 September 1772 29 November 1780 the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland (the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth); Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (who was also Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, etc.) recalled the old Hungarian claims to the Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ, and Czech claims to the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Joseph II
(Józef II)
Carl von Sales Bildnis Joseph II posthum 1823.jpg Habsburg-Lorraine 29 November 1780 20 February 1790
Leopold II
(Leopold II)
Mengs, Anton Raphael - Pietro Leopoldo d'Asburgo Lorena, granduca di Toscana - 1770 - Prado.jpg Habsburg-Lorraine 20 February 1790 1 March 1792
Francis II
(Franciszek II)
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png Habsburg-Lorraine 1 March 1792 2 March 1835 the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he abdicated and the Empire was formally dissolved. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich)
Ferdinand I
(Ferdynand I)
Kaiser Ferdinand I.jpg Habsburg-Lorraine 2 March 1835 2 December 1848 after the unsuccessful Cracow Uprising of 1846, the Free City of Cracow was annexed by Austria on 16 November 1846 as the Grand Duchy of Cracow; the full official name of the province was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Cracow with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Francis Joseph I
(Franciszek Józef I)
Emperor Francis Joseph.jpg Habsburg-Lorraine 2 December 1848 21 November 1916 after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and the reorganization of the Empire as the Dual Monarchy, a broad autonomy was granted to Galicia and Lodomeria within Cisleithania, the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary
Charles I
(Karol I)
Charles I of Austria.jpg Habsburg-Lorraine 21 November 1916 11 November 1918 renounced all participation in affairs of state but did not abdicate

Dukes of Warsaw (Warszawa)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Frederick Augustus I
(Fryderyk August)
Bacciarelli - Fryderyk August.jpg Wettin 9 July 1807 22 May 1815 grandson of Augustus III
King of Saxony 1805-1827
Duchy of Warsaw established by Napoleon I in 1807 as a protectorate of the French Empire, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and divided into the Kingdom of Poland, protectorate of the Russian Empire, and the Grand Duchy of Posen, protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia

Dukes of Danzig (Gda?sk)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
François Joseph Lefebvre
(Franciszek Józef Lefebvre)
François-Joseph Lefebvre.png Lefebvre 9 September 1807 2 January 1814 Free City of Danzig, a semi-independent state established by Napoleon I in 1807, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and reincorporated into Prussia

Grand Dukes of Posen (Pozna?)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Frederick William III
(Fryderyk Wilhelm III)
Friedrich Wilhelm III., König von Preußen (unbekannter Maler).jpg Hohenzollern 9 June 1815 7 June 1840 The Grand Duchy of Posen created at the Congress of Vienna; represented by Duke-Governor Antoni Radziwi until 1831.
Frederick William IV
(Fryderyk Wilhelm IV)
Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (1847).jpg Hohenzollern 7 June 1840 2 January 1861 autonomy abolished on June 28, 1848; the Grand Duchy was formally replaced by the Province of Posen in the Prussian constitution of 5 December 1848.
William I
(Wilhelm I)
Kaiser Wilhelm I. .JPG Hohenzollern 2 January 1861 9 March 1888 The Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia, became a part of the German Empire (1871-1918)
Frederick III
(Fryderyk III)
Emperor Friedrich III.png Hohenzollern 9 March 1888 15 June 1888
William II
(Wilhelm II)
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany - 1902.jpg Hohenzollern 15 June 1888 9 November 1918 abdicated in 1918


  • Grodziski S., Polska w czasach prze?omu (1764-1815), Kraków 2001. ISBN 83-85719-45-8

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