List of People Excommunicated by the Catholic Church
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List of People Excommunicated by the Catholic Church
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This is a list of some of the more notable people excommunicated by the Catholic Church. It includes only excommunications acknowledged or imposed by a decree of the Pope or a bishop in communion with him. Latae sententiae excommunications, those that automatically affect classes of people (members of certain associations or those who perform actions such as directly violating the seal of confession[1] or carrying out an abortion),[2] are not listed unless confirmed by a bishop or ecclesiastical tribunal with respect to certain individuals.

In Roman Catholic canon law, excommunication is a censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behavior or attitude that incurred the penalty, repent, and return to full communion.[3] Excommunication severs one from communion with the Church; excommunicated Catholics are forbidden from receiving any sacrament and refused a Catholic burial, but are still bound by canonical obligations such as attending Mass or fasting seasonally. Excommunicated Catholics, however, are barred from receiving the Eucharist or from taking an active part in the liturgy (reading, bringing the offerings, etc.).[4] They are still Catholics per se, but are separated from the Church.

1st century

2nd century

3rd century

4th century

5th century

6th century

  • St Columba was excommunicated in 562 by the synod of Teltown for allegedly praying for the winning side in an Irish War. The excommunication was later held to be an abuse of justice and the bishops in question removed their charge.[10]
  • The sons of Conall mac Domnaill by St Columba some time in the late 6th century, due to their persecution of churches [10]
  • Theodore of Mopsuestia by the Second Council of Constantinople

7th century

8th Century

9th Century

10th century

11th century

  • Michael Cerularius, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, in 1054. The legal validity of this excommunication has been questioned as it was issued by legates of Pope Leo IX after the Pope's death. It was declared lifted on December 7, 1965.[17]
  • Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor was excommunicated 4 times in the 11th century (and would later be excommunicated a fifth time in the 12th century). He was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII three separate times, and once more by Pope Urban II. The first was on 22 February 1076 over the Investiture Controversy. This excommunication was lifted on 28 January 1077 after Henry's public show of penitence known as the Road to Canossa. His second excommunication by Gregory was on 7 March 1080, and the third was in 1084 or 1085. Urban II excommunicated Henry in 1088.
  • Harold II, King of England, for perhaps politically motivated reasons by Pope Alexander II in order to justify the invasion and takeover of the kingdom by William the Conqueror in 1066.[18]
  • Boles?aw II the Generous, Duke of Poland, was excommunicated in 1080 after murdering the bishop Saint Stanislaus of Kraków.
  • Philip I of France, king of France, for repudiating his marriage and remarrying, by Hugh, Archbishop of Lyon and later reaffirmed by Pope Urban II.
  • Bishops in France, under orders of Benedict VIII, excommunicated feudal barons who had seized property belonging to the monastery of Cluny in 1016 [19]
  • The bishop of Autun excommunicated Cluniac monks in his diocese who took over the monastery of Vezelay without his permission; the excommunication was removed after they left the diocese [19]
  • In 1031 the council of Limoges in France excommunicated feudal barons in the diocese of Limoges who were conducting private warfare between themselves in the midst of widespread famine and pestilence that was killing off a large portion of the peasantry. The famine and pestilence were thought to be punishments from God for grave sins being committed close to the millennium anniversary of Christ's death and resurrection. The members of the council dashed their candles to the ground in unison after calling out 'As these lights are extinguished before your eyes, so let their joy be extinguished before the angels.' [19]

12th century

13th century

14th century

15th century

16th century

17th century

18th century

19th century

20th century

21st century

  • The Community of the Lady of All Nations for heretical teachings and beliefs after a six-year investigation. The declaration was announced by the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops on September 12, 2007.[70]
  • Fr. Dale Fushek (also laicized by Pope Benedict XVI 02/2010) and Fr. Mark Dippre. Former Priests were issued a Decree of Excommunication by Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted for operating "an opposing ecclesial community" in direct disobedience to orders to refrain from public ministry.[71]
  • Fr. Marek Bozek (since laicized by Pope Benedict XVI), and the lay parish board members of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church in St. Louis, Missouri in December 2005 were declared guilty of the ecclesiastical crime of schism by then-Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke.[72] Their excommunication was ratified by the Vatican in May 2008. Four of the parish board members have since reconciled with the Church.
  • Both the doctors and the mother of the nine-year-old victim in the 2009 Brazilian girl abortion case were said by Archbishop José Cardoso Sobrinho of Olinda and Recife to have incurred an automatic excommunication. The victim had an abortion after being raped and impregnated by her stepfather.[73][74] The National Conference of Bishops of Brazil contradicted Sobrinho's statement: it declared that, in accordance with canon law, the girl's mother was not in fact excommunicated and that there were no grounds for stating that any of the doctors involved were in fact excommunicated.[75] Disagreement with the Archbishop's view of the supposed excommunication was expressed also by other bishops.[76][77]
  • Sr. Margaret McBride, a nun, for allowing an abortion.[78] McBride later reconciled with the Church and is no longer living in a state of excommunication.
  • Paul Lei Shiyin for illicitly ordaining priests in China.
  • In October 2012, the newspapers El Observador and El País reported that all the Catholics who promoted the abortion law in Uruguay were excommunicated.[79][80] The newspaper Urgente24, in spite of a headline stating that what it called the "abortionist lawmakers" were excommunicated, explained in the body of the article that automatic excommunication applied only to someone who directly carried out an abortion.[81] The bishops website also explained that excommunication would automatically apply, under Canon Law 1398, only to anyone carrying out an abortion, and not to lawmakers.[82]
  • Fr. Roy Bourgeois (also laicized and dismissed from the Maryknoll Fathers) for participating in the ordination of a woman.[83]
  • Fr. Robert Marrone, by Bishop Richard Gerard Lennon of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cleveland in Cleveland, Ohio for violating the terms of his leave of absence. Marrone set up a worshipping community (the Community of St. Peter's) in a vacant warehouse and outside of a Catholic building or church after St. Peter's Parish in Cleveland was closed (it has since been reopened), in defiance of the bishop.[84]
  • Fr. Simon Lokodo, The Minister for Ethics and Integrity in Uganda, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Benedict XVI[85] when he entered politics in violation of Canon Law 285.3[86][87]
  • Fr. Roberto Francisco Daniel, known by local community as "Father Beto", by Bishop Caetano Ferrari, from Bauru, Brazil. Daniel was excommunicated because he refused a direct order from his bishop to apologize for or retract his statement that love was possible between people of the same sex. The priest also said a married person who chose to have an affair, heterosexual or otherwise, would not be unfaithful as long as that person's spouse allowed it.[88][89][90]
  • Fr Greg Reynolds of Melbourne, Australia was excommunicated in 2013 for continuing to celebrate Mass when not permitted, advocating the ordination of women, and promoting same-sex marriage.[91]
  • Fr. Jose Mercau in 2014 as part of the Catholic Church sexual abuse cases scandal.[92][93]
  • In June 2016, Pope Francis excommunicated a schismatic Italian Catholic sect in Italy calling itself the Universal Christian Church of the New Jerusalem.
  • In February 2018 Pope Francis excommunicated Fr Ezinwanne Igbo, a Nigerian priest working on the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia, for breaking the seal of the confessional.[94]

See also

References

  1. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 1388
  2. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 1398
  3. ^ "Code of Canon Law, canon 1312". Vatican.va. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "Even those who have joined another religion, have become atheists or agnostics, or have been excommunicated remain Catholics. Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law; their rights are restored when they are reconciled through the remission of the penalty." New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law, ed. by John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, Thomas J. Green, Paulist Press, 2000, p. 63 (commentary on canon 11).
  5. ^ 1 Corinthians 5:1-8
  6. ^ "1 Corinthians 5 - Devotional & Commentary: Church Discipline". koinoniatexas.org.
  7. ^ "oremus Bible Browser : 1 Timothy 1:20-1:20". oremus.org.
  8. ^ Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
  9. ^ "Page Not Found". fordham.edu.
  10. ^ a b Adomnan of Iona, Life of St Columba. Ed. by Richard Sharpe. Penguin Books, Toronto, 1995.
  11. ^ Andrew J. Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes, Lexington books. Toronto, 2007. p99
  12. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14570a.htm , retrieved June 18th 2018
  13. ^ Andrew J. Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes, Lexington books. Toronto, 2007.
  14. ^ Andrew J. Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes, Lexington books. Toronto, 2007.
  15. ^ Andrew J. Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington books, 2007
  16. ^ Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Death and Life in the Tenth Century, (University of Michigan Press, 1988), 130.
  17. ^ "Catholic-Orthodox Declaration". Vatican.va. 1965-12-07. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Johnny H (2010-09-24). "1066: The Pope in 1066: William or Harold?". Santlache.blogspot.com. Retrieved .
  19. ^ a b c Lucy Margaret Smith. The Early History of the Monastery of Cluny. Oxford University Press, 1920.
  20. ^ catholic encyclopedia. Entry: Honorius II
  21. ^ catholic encyclopedia, entry Innocent II
  22. ^ "Sir Gilbert De Clare (1243 - 1295) - Find A Grave Memorial". Findagrave.com. Retrieved .
  23. ^ a b catholic encyclopedia, entry Boniface VIII
  24. ^ a b catholic encyclopedia, entry Urban VI
  25. ^ "Biographies of Great Men & Women of England, Wales and Scotland". britannia.com.
  26. ^ "Jerome of Prague" biblicaltraining.org retrieved January 31, 2017
  27. ^ "Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani". Enciclopedia Italiana.
  28. ^ "Felix V" newadvent.org retrieved January 31, 2017
  29. ^ The Tablet, Volume 75 (June 28, 1890) p. 1010 via Google Books retrieved December 30, 2016
  30. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Girolamo Savonarola". newadvent.org.
  31. ^ Richard P. Hardy. The Life of St John of the Cross. London, 1982. p79
  32. ^ Journey to Carith: The Sources and Story of the Discalced Carmelites - Peter-Thomas Rohrbach - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved .
  33. ^ Richard P. Hardy. The Life of St John of the Cross. London, 1982. p61
  34. ^ "Outline of the Life of St Teresa of Avila". Ourgardenofcarmel.org. Retrieved .
  35. ^ "Carmelite ChroniclesTrouble in Avila". Order of Carmelites.
  36. ^ Richard Gray (1987), "The papacy and the Atlantic slave trade: Lourenco da Silva, the capuchins and the decisions of the Holy Office.", Past & Present (115): 52-68, doi:10.1093/past/115.1.52
  37. ^ newadvent.org/
  38. ^ E. Hales, "Napoleon and the Pope", (London:1962) pg 114
  39. ^ Apostolic Letters, in the form of a Brief, by which Bonaparte, and all the authors, perpetrators, and abettors of the usurpation of the Kingdom of Rome, and of the other dominions belonging to the Holy See, are declared to be excommunicated. PIUS VII. POPE. Ad perpetuam rei Memoriam
  40. ^ catholictextbookproject.com
  41. ^ "A BISHOP EXCOMMUNICATED.; Decree Against the Rev. S. Kaminski, Independent Polish Church, Buffalo" (PDF). The New York Times. October 18, 1898.
  42. ^ [1] Archived October 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ "Nun becomes first Australian saint". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  44. ^ Press, Margaret M. (1986). From Our Broken Toil -- South Australian Catholics 1836 - 1906. The Catholic Archdiocese of Adelaide. pp. 181-193. ISBN 0 949807 35 4.
  45. ^ [Gustavo Watson Marron, director of the historical archive of the archdiocese, cited in El Universal, 31 August 2009]
  46. ^ Villari, Luigi (1911). "Victor Emmanuel II". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  47. ^ americamagazine.org/
  48. ^ Augé, Claude, ed. (1898). "Loyson, Charles". Nouveau Larousse illustré (in French). 5. Paris: Éditions Larousse. p. 777.
  49. ^ "De Vargas Vila, ni paz en su tumba". El Colombiano. Retrieved .
  50. ^ "A history of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom (2 Volume Set)". Amazon.com.
  51. ^ POPE ORDERS SHARP ACTION.; Archbishop of Manila Instructed to Excommunicate Philippine National Church Promoters. New York Times. New York, N.Y.: Dec 29, 1902. pg. 7, 1 pgs.
  52. ^ Peterkiewicz, Jerzy (1975). The third Adam. London: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780192121981.
  53. ^ Reid, George. "Higher Biblical Criticism," The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 4 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908).
  54. ^ "PRIEST EXCOMMUNICATED.; Father Murri, Leader of Italian Catholic Democrats, Cut Off by Church". The New York Times. March 23, 1909. Retrieved 2010.
  55. ^ Mitja Velikonja. Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Texas A&M University Press, 2003. (p. 198)
  56. ^ "Self-styled 'Pope' dies in France". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, IL. Reuters. 24 June 1974. Retrieved 2017 – via Newspapers.com.open access publication - free to read
  57. ^ Juan Peron - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01.
  58. ^ Juan Domingo Perón - Encyclopedia.com
  59. ^ newspapers.com
  60. ^ nytimes.com
  61. ^ "The Role of Archbishop Joseph F". Loyno.edu. Retrieved .
  62. ^ "La excomunión de Fidel Castro cumple cincuenta años". ABC.es. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 2014.
  63. ^ Andrea Tornielli, "The mystery of Fidel Castro's excommunication" in Vatican Insider, 2 March 2012 Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  64. ^ "01/03/1962: Pope John XXIII excommunicated Fidel Castro". the-american-catholic.com.
  65. ^ "Office of Congregation for Bishops - Excommunication". ewtn.com.
  66. ^ "Apostolic Letter "Ecclesia Dei"". Vatican.va. Retrieved .
  67. ^ http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/news/2015/03/19/bishop-williamson-is-excommunicated-after-illicitly-ordaining-a-bishop/
  68. ^ a b "Vatican confirms excommunication for US dissident group" Catholic World News (07 December 2006)
  69. ^ Roewe, Brian (Jan 17, 2018). "Lincoln bishop offers way to lift excommunication of Call to Action members". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 2018.
  70. ^ "Army of Mary excommunicated by the Vatican". Catholic News Agency.
  71. ^ "The Roman Catholic Diocese of Phoenix". diocesephoenix.org.
  72. ^ "Archdiocese of St. Louis - Marek Bozek Dismissed from the Clerical State". Retrieved .
  73. ^ Duffy, Gary (March 5, 2009). "Rape row sparks excommunications". BBC News.
  74. ^ "Vatican backs abortion row bishop". BBC News. March 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  75. ^ Nunes Leal, Luciana (13 March 2009). "CNBB desautoriza iniciativa de bispo". O Estadão de S.Paulo. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014.
  76. ^ L'Osservatore Romano: "Dalla parte della bambina brasiliana"
  77. ^ "Mgr di FALCO, évêque de Gap, sur l'excommunication au Brésil". ZENIT - Le monde vu de Rome. Archived from the original on 2012-03-16.
  78. ^ Clancy, Michael (May 19, 2010). "Nun at St. Joseph's Hospital rebuked over abortion to save woman". Arizona Republic.
  79. ^ "Iglesia dice que legisladores que votaron despenalización quedan excomulgados". El Observador. 2012-10-18.
  80. ^ "Iglesia Católica excomulgó a quienes incentivaron la despenalización del aborto". El País. 2012-10-18.
  81. ^ "1er medida de la Iglesia tras la despenalización del aborto" (in Spanish). Urgente24. 2012-10-18.
  82. ^ "Uruguay bishops clarify statement on excommunication of lawmakers favoring abortion :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)". Catholic News Agency. 2012-10-24. Retrieved .
  83. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (20 November 2012). "Religion: Priest Excommunicated for Ordaining a Woman". The New York Times.
  84. ^ "Bishop Richard Lennon excommunicates the Rev. Robert Marrone". cleveland.com.
  85. ^ "Clerical Whispers: Pope fires Fr. Lokodo from priesthood". Clericalwhispers.blogspot.se. 2011-08-31. Retrieved .
  86. ^ Canon 285.3
  87. ^ "Catholic Church leadership on trial". Independent.co.ug. 2013-03-28. Retrieved .
  88. ^ "Padre que defende homossexuais diz estar "honrado" após excomunhão". uol.com.br.
  89. ^ "English translation of the reference named "Folha"". uol.com.br.
  90. ^ Fidelidade, Bissexualidade e a Igreja. YouTube. 17 January 2013.
  91. ^ "Pope Francis excommunicates pro-gay marriage priest. He's not the liberal the media wants". News - Telegraph Blogs.
  92. ^ Calatrava, Almudena (2014-11-09). "Pope Francis excommunicates pedophile Argentine priest". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2014-11-09.
  93. ^ "Pope defrocks Argentine priest on sexual abuse charges". cruxnow.com.
  94. ^ Pope excommunicates Father Ezinwanne Igbo for breaching confession secrecy

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