List of Official Languages
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List of Official Languages

This is a list of official, or otherwise administratively-recognized, languages of sovereign countries, regions, and supra-national institutions.

Official languages of sovereign countries, wholly or partly

A

Afar:

Afrikaans:

Aja-Gbe:

Akan (Akuapem Twi, Asante Twi, Fante):

Albanian:

Amharic:

Anii:

Arabic (see also List of countries where Arabic is an official language):

Armenian:

Assamese:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages, and with English as a link language)

Aymara:

Azerbaijani:

B

Balanta:

Bambara:

Bariba:

Basque:

Bassari:

Bedik:

Belarusian:

Bengali:

Berber:

Biali:

Bislama:

Boko:

Bomu:

Bosnian:

Bozo:

Buduma:

Bulgarian:

Burmese:

C

Cantonese:

Catalan:

Chinese, Mandarin:

Chichewa:

Chirbawe (Sena):

Comorian

Croatian:

Czech:

  • Czech Republic
  • Slovakia (legislation states that a person using Czech language at a Slovak institution must be treated as if using Slovak language)

D

Dagaare:

Dagbani:

Dangme

Danish:

Dari:

  • Afghanistan (a local variant of Persian, but defined as "Dari" in the Afghan constitution; together with Pashto)[30]

Dendi:

Dhivehi:

Dioula:

Dogon:

Dutch:

Dzongkha:

E

English (see also List of countries where English is an official language):

Estonian:

Ewe-Gbe:

F

Fijian:

Filipino:

Finnish:

Fon-Gbe:

Foodo:

Formosan:

French (see also List of countries where French is an official language):

Official language in:

Fula:

G

Ga:

Gàidhlig:

Gbe:

Gen-Gbe:

Georgian:

German:

Official language in 21 cantons:

Gonja:

Gourmanché

Greek:

Guaraní:

Gujarati:

  • India

H

Haitian Creole:

Hakka:

Hassaniya:

Hausa:

Hebrew:

Hindi:

Hiri Motu:

Hungarian:

I

Igbo:

Icelandic:

Indonesian:

Irish:

Italian:

Official language in:

J

Japanese:

  • Japan (de facto)

Javanese:

  • native to Java; Indonesia

Jola:

K

Kabye:

Kalanga:

Kannada:

  • India (with 21 other regional Languages, and with English as a link language)

Kanuri:

Kasem:

Kazakh:

Khmer:

Kinyarwanda:

Kirundi:

Kissi

Khoisan:

Korean:

Korean Sign Language:

Kpelle:

Kurdish:

Kyrgyz:

L

Lao:

Latvian:

Lithuanian:

Lukpa:

Luxembourgish:

M

Macedonian:

Malagasy:

Malay:

Malinke:

Maltese:

Mamara:

Manding (Mandinka, Malinke):

Mandinka:

Mandjak:

Mankanya:

Manx Gaelic:

M?ori:

  • New Zealand (with English and New Zealand Sign Language)

Marshallese:

Mauritian Creole

Mbelime:

Moldovan

Mongolian:

Montenegrin:

Mossi:

N

Nambya:

Nateni:

Nauruan

Ndau:

Ndebele (Northern):

Ndebele (Southern):

Nepali:

New Zealand Sign Language:

  • New Zealand (with English and M?ori)

Noon:

Northern Sotho:

Norwegian:

  • Norway (two official written forms - Bokmål and Nynorsk)

Nzema:

O

Oniyan:

Ossetian:

P

Palauan:

Papiamento:

Pashto:

Persian:

Polish:

Pig Latin:

Portuguese:

Punjabi:

Q

Quechua:

R

Romanian:

Romansh:

Russian:

S

Safen:

Samoa

Sango

Sena:

Serbian:

Serer:

Seychellois Creole

Shona:

Sinhala:

Slovak:

Slovene:

Somali:

Songhay-Zarma:

Soninke:

Sotho:

Spanish:

Susu:

Swahili:

Swati:

Swedish:

Syenara:

T

Taiwan Sign Language:

Taiwanese Hokkien:

Tajik:

Tagalog:

Tamasheq:

Tamil:

Tammari:

Tasawaq:

Tebu:

Telugu:

  • India (with 21 other regional Languages, and with English as a link language)[]

Tetum:

Thai:

Tigrinya:

Tok Pisin:

Toma:

Tonga:

Tongan

Tsonga:

Tswana:

Turkish:

Turkmen:

Tuvaluan

U

Ukrainian:

Urdu:

  • Pakistan (with English)
  • India (Urdu dialect and in script it is Sanscrit with 21 other regional languages, and with English as a link language)
  • Fiji (with English and Bau Fijian; known constitutionally as Hindustani as an umbrella term to cover Urdu, as well as Hindi.)

Uzbek:

V

Venda:

Vietnamese:

W

Waama:

Waci-Gbe:

Wamey:

Welsh:

Wolof:

X

Xhosa:

Xwela-Gbe:

Y

Yobe:

Yom:

Yoruba:

Z

Zimbabwean sign language:

Zulu:

Number of countries with the same official language

This is a ranking of languages by number of sovereign countries in which they are de jure or de facto official (or with a national language status). An '*' (asterisk) indicates a country whose independence is disputed.

Language World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Countries
English 59 24 16 4 3 12 India, United States, Pakistan, United Kingdom. See the full list
French 29 21 2 - 5 1 France, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Canada, Madagascar. See the full list
Arabic 27 14 - 13 - - Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Morocco. See the full list
Spanish 20 1 18 - 1 - Spain, Mexico, Equatorial Guinea, Easter Island in (Oceania). See the full list
Portuguese 10 6 1 2 1 - Brazil, Portugal, Mozambique, Angola. See full list
Russian 8 - - 3 5 - Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Abkhazia*, South Ossetia*, Transnistria*. See also the full list
German 7 1 - - 6 - Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Namibia
Fula 7 7 - - - - Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal
Italian 4 - - - 4 - Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Vatican City
Malay 4 - - 4 - - Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei
Manding 4 4 - - - - Burkina Faso (Dioula), Guinea (Malinke), Mali (Bambara), Senegal (Maninka)
Northern Sami 4 - - - 4 - Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia
Swahili 4 4 - - - - Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
Danish 3 - 1 - 2 - Denmark, Faroe Island*, Greenland*
Dutch 3 - 1 - 2 - Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname
Gbe 3 3 - - - - Benin, Ghana, Togo
Mandarin Chinese 3 - - 3 - - China, Singapore, Taiwan
Tamil 3 - - 3 - - India, Singapore, Sri Lanka
Persian 3 - - 3 - - Iran, Afghanistan (known as Dari), Tajikistan (known as Tajik)
Romanian 3 - - - 3 - Romania, Moldova, Transnistria*
Serbian 3 - - - 3 - Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*
Somali 3 3 - - - - Djibouti, Somalia, Somaliland*
Soninke 3 3 - - - - Mali, Mauritania, Senegal
Tswana 3 3 - - - - Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe
Turkish 3 - - - 3 - Turkey, Northern Cyprus* and Cyprus
Bengali 2 - 2 - - Bangladesh and India
Armenian 2 - - - 2 - Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh*
Aymara & Quechua 2 - 2 - - - Bolivia and Peru
Berber 2 2 - - - - Algeria and Morocco
Catalan 2 - - - 2 - Andorra and Spain
Chichewa 2 2 - - - - Malawi and Zimbabwe
Croatian 2 - - - 2 - Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Greek 2 - - - 2 - Greece and Cyprus
Hausa 2 2 - - - - Niger and Nigeria
Hindi 2 - - 1 - 1 India and Fiji
Korean 2 - - 2 - - North Korea and South Korea
Lingala 2 2 - - - - Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of the Congo
Nepali 2 - - 2 - - India and Nepal
Samoan 2 - - - - 2 American Samoa and Samoa
Slovak 2 - - - 2 - Slovakia and Czech Republic
Songhay-Zarma 2 2 - - - - Mali, Niger
Sotho 2 2 - - - - Lesotho and South Africa
Swati 2 2 - - - - Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa
Swedish 2 - - - 2 - Sweden and Finland
Tamasheq 2 2 - - - - Mali and Niger
Tigrinya 2 2 - - - - Eritrea and Ethiopia
Ukrainian 2 - - - 2 - Ukraine and Transnistria*
Venda 2 2 - - - - South Africa and Zimbabwe
Wolof 2 2 - - - - Mauritania and Senegal
Xhosa 2 2 - - - - South Africa and Zimbabwe
Guarani 2 - 2 - - - Paraguay and Bolivia
Bulgarian 1 - - - 1 - Bulgaria
Finnish 1 - - - 1 - Finland
Norwegian 1 - - - 1 - Norway
Icelandic 1 - - - 1 - Iceland

Official regional and minority languages

Abaza:

Adyghe:

Aghul:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Aklanon:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray)[68]

Albanian:

Altay:

Arabic:

Aranese see Occitan

Armenian:

Assamese:

Avar:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Azeri:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Balkar:

Bashkir:

Basque:

Bengali:

Bikol:

  • Luzon and Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray)[68]

Bosnian:

Buryat:

Cantonese Chinese:

  • China:


Catalan:

Cebuano:

  • Luzon and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan)[68]

Chavacano:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[68]

Chechen:

Cherkess:

Cherokee:

Chipewyan:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tch? (Dogrib))

Chukchi:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Chukchi population)[76]

Chuvash:

Cree:

  • Northwest Territories (with Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tch? (Dogrib))

Crimean Tatar

  • Crimea (with Russian and Ukrainian)

Croatian:

Dargwa:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Dolgan:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Dolgan population)[76]

Dutch:

English:

  • parts of Canada:
  • The United Kingdom:

Erzya:

Even:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Even population)[76]

Evenki:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Evenki population)[76]

Faroese:

Finnish:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Karelian and Veps)[79]

French:

  • parts of Canada

Frisian (West):

Friulian:

  • The Friuli region of northeastern Italy

Gagauz:

Galician:

  • part of Spain

German:

Greek:

Guaraní:

Gujarati:

Gwich'in:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tch? (Dogrib))

Hawaiian:

Hiligaynon:

  • Visayas and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan)[68]

Hindi:

Hungarian:

Ibanag:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[68]

Ilocano:

  • Luzon and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan.)[68]

Ingush:

Inuinnaqtun:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tch? (Dogrib))
  • Nunavut (with English, French, and Inuktitut)

Inuktitut:

  • Nunavut (with English, French, and Inuinnaqtun)
  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tch? (Dogrib))

Inuvialuktun:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tch? (Dogrib))

Irish:

Italian:

Ivatan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[68]

Japanese:

Kabardian:

Kalaallisut:

Kalmyk:

Kannada:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Kapampangan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ilocano, Ibanag, Ivatan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[68]

Karachay:

Karelian:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Finnish and Veps)[79]

Kashmiri:

Kazakh:

Khakas:

Khanty:

Kinaray-a:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray)[68]

Komi:

Komi-Permyak:

Korean:

Kumyk:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Kyrgyz:

Lak:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Lezgian:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Macedonian:*part of Albania

Maguindanao:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[68]

Malayalam:

Mansi:

Maranao:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[68]

Marathi:

Mari (Hill and Meadow):

Mayan:

Moksha:

Mongolian:

Náhuatl:

  • Mexico (*only recognized)
  • El Salvador (*only recognized)

Nenets:

Nepali:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Nogai:

Occitan:

Odia:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Ossetic (Digor and Iron dialects):

Pangasinan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[68]

Portuguese:*part of the People's Republic of China

Punjabi:

Romanian:

  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak and Ruthenian)

Russian. Russian is fixed as a state language in the Constitutions of the republics of the Russian Federation:

Rusyn:

  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak)
  • Ukraine
    • Zakarapts'ka region (with Ukrainian, Hungarian)

Rutul:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Sakha:

Sambal:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, and Tagalog)[68]

Sami:

  • Finland (in four municipalities)
  • Norway (in six municipalities in two provinces)
  • Sweden (in four municipalities and surrounding municipalities)

Sanskrit:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Saraiki

Sarikoli:

Selkup:

Serbian:

Sindhi:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)
  • Pakistan (Official language in the Province of Sindh along with Urdu and English)

North and South Slavey:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, and Tch? (Dogrib))

Slovak:

  • part of Serbia
  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Hungarian, Romanian and Ruthenian)

Slovene:

Spanish:

Surigaonon:

  • Visayas and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan)[68]

Tabasaran:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Tagalog:

  • Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan)[68]

Tahitian:

Tamil:

Tat:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Tatar:

Tausug:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Maranao, and Yakan)[68]

Telugu:

Tibetan:

Tch?:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, and South Slavey)

Tsakhur:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[67]

Tswana:

Turkish:

Tuvan:

Udmurt:

Urdu:

  • Pakistan (with English as co-official language)
  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Uyghur:

Veps:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Finnish and Karelian)[79]

Vietnamese:

Waray:

Welsh:

  • Wales (United Kingdom) (with English)

Yakan:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Tausug)[68]

Yiddish:

Yukaghir:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Yukaghir population)[76]

Zhuang:

Official languages of supra-national institutions

Different organisations sometimes refer to their principal languages of administration and communication as "working languages", whilst others refer to these as being "official".

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The sovereignty of Kosovo is disputed. See International recognition of Kosovo.

References

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  58. ^ Article 68. Constitution of the Russian Federation
  59. ^ (in Russian) 6. ? ? Archived 21 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ Slovak language is defined as official language together with Czech language by several laws - e.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz. Cited: "Nap?íklad Správní ?ád (zákon ?. 500/2004 Sb.) stanovuje: "V ?ízení se jedná a písemnosti se vyhotovují v ?eském jazyce. Ú?astníci ?ízení mohou jednat a písemnosti mohou být p?edkládány i v jazyce slovenském..." (§16, odstavec 1). Zákon o správ? daní a poplatk? (337/1992 Sb.) ,,Ú?ední jazyk: P?ed správcem dan? se jedná v jazyce ?eském nebo slovenském. Ve?kerá písemná podání se p?edkládají v ?e?tin? nebo sloven?tin?..." (§ 3, odstavec 1). http://portal.gov.cz
  61. ^ "Constitution of Paraguay 1992" (PDF).
  62. ^ Section 3. Spanish Constitution
  63. ^ Article 7. The Constitution of Kenya (2010) Archived 4 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  64. ^ "Welsh Language Act 1993". legislation.gov.uk. The Crown. Retrieved 2018.
  65. ^ a b c d e Article 11 of the Constitution of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic
  66. ^ a b Article 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Adygea
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Dagestan
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. GMA News. 13 July 2013.
  69. ^ a b Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Altay
  70. ^ a b c Article 76 of the Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic
  71. ^ a b Article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan
  72. ^ a b Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Buryatia
  73. ^ Article 108 of the Statute of the Zabaykalsky Krai
  74. ^ a b Article 10 of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic
  75. ^ "The Cherokee Nation & its Language" (PDF). University of Minnesota: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. 2008. Retrieved 2014.
  76. ^ a b c d e Article 6 of the Law of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) On languages in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
  77. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Chuvash Republic
  78. ^ a b c Article 12 of the Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia
  79. ^ a b c Law of the Republic of Karelia On state support of Karelian, Veps and Finnish languages in the Republic of Karelia Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  80. ^ a b Article 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of Ingushetia
  81. ^ a b Article 17 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kalmykia
  82. ^ Article 4 of the Law of the Republic of Altay On languages Archived 11 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  83. ^ a b Article 69 of the Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia
  84. ^ a b c Law of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug On the languages of the aboriginal minorities of the North living within the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
  85. ^ a b c Law of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug On native languages of the aboriginal minorities of the North within the territory of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
  86. ^ a b Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Komi
  87. ^ Article 42 of the Statute of the Perm Krai Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  88. ^ a b Article 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of Mari El
  89. ^ a b Article 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia--Alania
  90. ^ Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Karelia
  91. ^ a b Article 46 of the Constitution of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
  92. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan
  93. ^ a b Article 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tyva
  94. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Udmurt Republic
  95. ^ a b c d e f g h "Tre?e izvjee Republike Hrvatske o primjeni Europske povelje o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima" (PDF). Government of Croatia. August 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  96. ^ a b c d e f g h i Government of Croatia. "NAPUTAK ZA DOSLJEDNU PROVEDBU ZAKONA O UPORABI JEZIKA I PISMA NACIONALNIH MANJINA U REPUBLICI HRVATSKOJ". Narodne novine. Retrieved 2014.
  97. ^ a b c "Registar Geografskih Imena Nacionalnih Manjina Republike Hrvatske" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  98. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/02/english-official-language-border-bilingual_n_1249307.html

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