List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 322.221
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List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 322.221

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 322.221 under that system. These instruments are board zithers that use slats as resonators.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
322: Instrument whose strings are at right angles to the sound table, such that a line between the lower tips of the strings would point at the neck (harps)
322.2: Instrument has a pillar (frame harps)
322.22: Instrument has tuning action
322.221: Instrument can be tuned with hand levers

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


Instrument Tradition Hornbostel-Sachs classification Description
cláirsach (Scottish), cruit
Ireland 322.221 Polychord wire-strung harp with a fore-pillar


  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. Galpin Society. 14: 3-29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.


  1. ^ "News". The Historical Harp Society of Ireland. Retrieved 2007. The (Historical Harp Society of Ireland) was founded in 2002 to promote Ireland's forgotten national instrument, the wire-strung cláirseach: the historical harp of Ireland and the country's national emblem.
  2. ^ Patterson, Annie W. (July 1920). "The Folk-Music of Ireland: Its Past, Present, and Future Aspects". The Musical Quarterly. 6 (3): 455-467. doi:10.1093/mq/vi.3.455. Retrieved 2007. (Ireland) traces the origin of its national instrument, which is also its heraldic emblem, to ancient Egypt.

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