List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 322.211
Browse the List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 322.211 below, , or join the discussion on this topic. Add List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 322.211 to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 322.211

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 322.211 under that system. These instruments are diatonic frame harps.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
322: Instrument whose strings are at right angles to the sound table, such that a line between the lower tips of the strings would point at the neck (harps)
322.2: Instrument has a pillar (frame harps)
322.21: Instrument has no tuning action
322.211: Instrument is diatonic

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


Instrument Tradition Hornbostel-Sachs classification Description
harp, Paraguayan[1][2][3]
Paraguay 322.211 Diatonic harp with 32, 36, 38 or 40 strings, made from tropical wood and with songs in the Guarani language, with an exaggerated neck-arch, played with the fingernail
harp, Venezuelan[4]
Venezuela 322.211 Diatonic harp, with an exaggerated neck arch, similar to the Paraguayan harp


  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. Galpin Society. 14: 3-29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.


  1. ^ "The Harp: A Latin American Reinvention". BBC. July 6, 2001. Retrieved 2007.
  2. ^ Schechter, John M.; Daniel E. Sheehy; Ronald R. Smith (Spring-Summer 1985). "The New Grove: Latin America". Ethnomusicology. Society for Ethnomusicology. 29 (2): 317&ndash, 330. doi:10.2307/852145. JSTOR 852145.
  3. ^ "Paraguayan Harp". Dolmetsch Online. Retrieved 2007.
  4. ^ Nidel, Richard (2005). World Music: The Basics. Routledge. p. 349. ISBN 0-415-96800-3. The cuatro rivals the harp as the national instrument

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes