List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 322.12
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List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 322.12

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 322.12 under that system. These instruments may be known as angular harps.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
322: Instrument whose strings are at right angles to the sound table, such that a line between the lower tips of the strings would point at the neck (harps)
322.1: Instrument without a pillar (open harps)
322.12: Instrument has a neck that sharply angles away from the resonator (angular harps)

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


Instrument Tradition Hornbostel-Sachs classification Description
Assyrian harp
Assyrian {{{Number}}} Oldest-documented angular harp[1]
Egypt 322.12 Used in widely varying forms, though originally semi-circular and with five to seven strings, number of strings increased over time, while the size decreased[2][3]
Persian 322.12 Angular harp[2]
Ancient Greek 322.12 Angular harp[2]


  • Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Vadim Mikha?lovich Masson; János Harmatta; Boris Abramovich Litvinovski?; Clifford Edmund Bosworth (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. Motilal Banarsidass Publishing. ISBN 81-208-1596-3.
  • Knight, Roderick (Winter 1985). Society for Ethnomusicology. "The Harp in India Today". Ethnomusicology. University of Illinois Press. 29 (1): 9-28. doi:10.2307/852322. JSTOR 852322.
  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14. 14: 3-29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.


  1. ^ Knight, pg. 9, Depictions of the Assyrian harp date to the second millennium BC.
  2. ^ a b c Dani et al., pg. 588
  3. ^ Gilman, Daniel Coit, Harry Thurston Peck and Frank Moore Colby (Eds.), eds. (1906). "Egyptian Music". The New International Encyclopedia. Dodd, Mead & Company. p. 712. Although the harp always remained a national instrument, its popularity was later eclipsed by the lyre. |access-date= requires |url= (help)

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