List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 314.122
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List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 314.122

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 314.122 under that system (box zithers). These instruments are board zithers that use slats as resonators.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
31: Instruments which consist solely of a string bearer or a string bearer with a resonator that is not integral to the instrument
314: Instrument uses a string bearer that is shaped like a board, or is the ground (board zithers)
314.1: Instrument with strings parallel to the string bearer
314.12: Instrument has a resonator
314.122: Instrument has a resonator made from slats (box zithers)

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


Instrument Tradition Hornbostel-Sachs classification Description
Aeolian harp
æolian harp, wind harp
314.122 Box zither placed near a window so that wind stimulates the strings
czimbalom, cymbalom, cymbalum, ?ambal, tsymbaly, tsimbl, santouri, santur
Hungary 314.122-4 Chromatic hammered dulcimer with four legs
Russia 314.122-5 Zither-like instrument with between eleven and thirty-six strings, tuned diatonically
kankliai, kunkliai, kunklaliai, kanklos, kanklys, kanklus, kunkl, kankalai[4]
Lithuania 314.122-5 Stringed instrument
Estonia 314.122-5 Stringed instrument
Finland 314.122-5 Zither-harp, traditionally with five strings, now with up to thirty, held in the lap
k?kles, k?k?as, k?k?es, k?klis, k?k?is, k?kle, k?k?e, k?kla and k?k?a (in Latgale)[10]
Latvia and Latvian-Americans[11] 314.122-5[10] Diatonic, lute-like string instrument
Norway 314.122 Rectangular zither with five to nine strings, one melody string and several drone strings
Iran 314.122-4 Hammered dulcimer, trapezoidal-shaped with 72 strings and two sets of bridges, hit with mallets
yang ch'in, yang qin
China 314.122-4 Hammered dulcimer, with a trapezoidal sounding board and traditionally bronze strings, struck with rubber-tipped bamboo hammers
Bavaria 314.122 Stringed instrument with a soundbox, with strings stretched across it, originally with four melody strings and no more than fifteen accompaniment strings


  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14. 14: 3-29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.


  1. ^ Hartmann, Arthur (1916). "The Czimbalom, Hungary's National Instrument". The Musical Quarterly. II (4): 590&ndash, 600. doi:10.1093/mq/II.4.590. Retrieved 2007.
  2. ^ Hoerburger, Felix (1952). "Proceedings of the Fourth Conference Held at Opatija, Yugoslavia: Correspondence between Eastern and Western Folk Epics". Journal of the International Folk Music Council. 4: 23&ndash, 26. JSTOR 835837.
  3. ^ a b "The Baltic Countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania". Lithuanian-American Community. August 24, 1998. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007. A wooden stringed instrument, similar to the zither, is considered a "national" instrument for all three countries. The Estonian kannel, the Latvian kokles, and the Lithuanian kankles, though similar in design, have distinctive styles.
  4. ^ Tarnauskait?-Palubinskien?, Vida (2009). Kankl?s lietuvi? etnin?je kult?roje [Kankl?s in the Ethnic Culture of Lithuanians]. Vilnius: Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences. p. 477. ISBN 978-9955-20-449-7.
  5. ^ Grahn, Göran (April 1999). "Review of Musikkens Tjenere - Instrument - Forsker - Musiker by Mette Müller and Lisbet Torp". The Galpin Society Journal. 52: 367&ndash, 368. doi:10.2307/842547. JSTOR 842547.
  6. ^ Asplund, Anneli (December 2001). "The Kantele: Finland's National Instrument". Virtual Finland. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved 2007. (T)he kantele is an essential part of the power of (the Kalevala and thus became), in the 19th century, the Finns' national instrument.
  7. ^ Moisala, Pirkko (Autumn 1994). "The Wide Field of Finnish Ethnomusicology". Ethnomusicology. Ethnomusicology, Vol. 38, No. 3. 38 (3): 417&ndash, 422. doi:10.2307/852108. JSTOR 852108. (Researchers) have run a long-term campaign to introduce the kantele, which has been branded the national instrument of Finland, into every school.
  8. ^ Andersson, Otto (October-December 1911). "On Violinists and Dance-Tunes among the Swedish Country-Population in Finland towards the Middle of the Nineteenth Century". Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft. 13 (1): 107&ndash, 114. JSTOR 929299.
  9. ^ a b Isaacson, Lanae H. (Winter 1995). "Folk og Kultur: Arbog for Dansk Etnologi og Folkemindevidenskab". Scandinavian Studies. 67.n1 (2): 142.
  10. ^ a b c d Muktup?vels, Valdis (2018). Sline, Laura, ed. Folk music instruments in Latvia. Translated by Damberga, Andra. The University of Latvia Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-9934-1824-8-8.
  11. ^ Erdely, Stephen (1979). "Ethnic Music in the United States: An Overview". Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council. Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 11. 11: 114&ndash, 137. doi:10.2307/767568. JSTOR 767568. Its revival was initiated (among Latvian-Americans in the United States) in the 1930's (sic) by Latvian folklorists, who claimed it to be their true national instrument.
  12. ^ Norouzi, Khateren (September 16, 2006). "Iranian Music With Norwegian Radio-Television Symphony Orchestra". Iran Press Service. Retrieved 2007.
  13. ^ ARC music; Peter McClelland. "Glossary of Folk Instruments". Hobgoblin Music. Retrieved 2007.
  14. ^ Grove, George (1954). Dictionary of Music and Musicians. St. Martin's Press. The zither may be considered the national instrument of Bavaria
  15. ^ "The Concert Zither: A Brief History". Zithers-USA. Zither Newsletter USA. Retrieved 2008.

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