List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 312.22
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List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 312.22

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 312.22 under that system. These instruments are single-stringed heterochord musical bows with an attached resonator and a tuning noose.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
31: Instruments which consist solely of a string bearer or a string bearer with a resonator that is not integral to the instrument
312: Instrument has a string bearer made of a vaulted surface (tube zithers)
312.2: Instrument has strings that are stretched across a convex gutter (half-tube zithers)
312.22: Instrument is a heterochord

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive
Instrument Tradition Hornbostel-Sachs classification Description
Korea 312.22 Half-tube zither with seven silk strings, played with a piece of forsythia wood
?àn tranh
Vietnam 312.22 Wooden-bodied and steel-stringed zither
kayagum, kayago, kayag?m, ,
Korea 312.22-5 zither-like string instrument, with 12 strings.
komungo, k?mun'go, hyeongeum, hyongum, hy?n'g?m
Korea 312.22 Fretted zither
China 312.22
guzheng [3]
zheng, gu-zheng
China 312.22-5 Half-tube zither, rectangular with three sound holes on the bottom, now with twenty-one strings most typically, pentatonic tuning, strings are plucked by hand
Japan 312.22 Long and hollow thirteen-stringed instrument
koto, 17-string
Japan 312.22 17-stringed koto
China 312.22 Ancient plucked instrument
ya zheng, ya cheng
China 312.22


  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14. 14: 3-29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.


  1. ^ "Kayagum 3". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Kayagum". University of Washington Libraries. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Dong Yi in Zheng Recital at the Great Hall of the People". Link Chinese. Retrieved 2007. As the most popular national instrument in China, zheng (also known as gu-zheng) is one of the eldest Chinese string instruments with a history of at least 2,500 years.
  4. ^ "Koto". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008.

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