List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 311.221
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List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 311.221

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 311.221 under that system. It includes instruments that are true stick zithers with one resonator.


3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
31: Instruments which consist solely of a string bearer or a string bearer with a resonator that is not integral to the instrument
311: Instruments with a string bearer shaped like a bar, or consisting of a sideways board (bar zithers)
311.2: Instrument has a rigid and inflexible string carrier (stick zither)
311.22: Instrument has no curved or flexible end (true stick zither)
311.221: Instrument has one resonator gourd

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive

List

Instrument Tradition Hornbostel-Sachs classification Description
pin pia[1]
Lanna (Northern Thailand) 311.221 Chest-resonated stick zither with two to five strings
veena[2]
vina
India 311.222 Semitonically fretted lute with a long, cylindrical shape, resting on two gourds

References

  • Alvad, Thomas (October 1954). "233. The Kafir Harp". Man. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 54: 151-154. doi:10.2307/2795578. 
  • Knight, Roderick (Winter 1985). Society for Ethnomusicology. "The Harp in India Today". Ethnomusicology. University of Illinois Press. 29 (1): 9-28. doi:10.2307/852322. JSTOR 852322. 
  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14. 14: 3-29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168. 

Notes

  1. ^ McGraw, Andrew (Summer-Fall 2007). "The Pia's Subtle Sustain: Contemporary Ethnic Identity and the Revitalization of the Lanna 'Heart Harp'". Asian Music. 38 (2): 115–142. doi:10.1353/amu.2007.0035. 
  2. ^ Frishmuth, Sarah S. (July 1905). "Stringed Instruments". Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum. Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum, Vol. 3, No. 11. 3 (11): 45–48. doi:10.2307/3793687. JSTOR 3793687. India has an infinite variety of lutes, the vina, her national instrument, having a... 

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