List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 311.221
Browse the List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 311.221 below, , or join the discussion on this topic. Add List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 311.221 to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
List of Musical Instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs Number: 311.221

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 311.221 under that system. It includes instruments that are true stick zithers with one resonator.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
31: Instruments which consist solely of a string bearer or a string bearer with a resonator that is not integral to the instrument
311: Instruments with a string bearer shaped like a bar, or consisting of a sideways board (bar zithers)
311.2: Instrument has a rigid and inflexible string carrier (stick zither)
311.22: Instrument has no curved or flexible end (true stick zither)
311.221: Instrument has one resonator gourd

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


Instrument Tradition Hornbostel-Sachs classification Description
pin pia[1]
Lanna (Northern Thailand) 311.221 Chest-resonated stick zither with two to five strings
India 311.222 Semitonically fretted lute with a long, cylindrical shape, resting on two gourds


  • Alvad, Thomas (October 1954). "233. The Kafir Harp". Man. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 54: 151-154. doi:10.2307/2795578.
  • Knight, Roderick (Winter 1985). Society for Ethnomusicology. "The Harp in India Today". Ethnomusicology. University of Illinois Press. 29 (1): 9-28. doi:10.2307/852322. JSTOR 852322.
  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14. 14: 3-29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.


  1. ^ McGraw, Andrew (Summer-Fall 2007). "The Pia's Subtle Sustain: Contemporary Ethnic Identity and the Revitalization of the Lanna 'Heart Harp'". Asian Music. 38 (2): 115-142. doi:10.1353/amu.2007.0035.
  2. ^ Frishmuth, Sarah S. (July 1905). "Stringed Instruments". Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum. Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Museum, Vol. 3, No. 11. 3 (11): 45-48. doi:10.2307/3793687. JSTOR 3793687. India has an infinite variety of lutes, the vina, her national instrument, having a...

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes