List of Minor Planets
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List of Minor Planets
The catalog of minor planets is published by the Minor Planet Center and contains more than half a million entries, including 134340 Pluto.[1] For an overview, see index.
Growing number of minor planets since 1995:
  •      numbered and named bodies
  •      numbered but unnamed bodies
  •      unnumbered bodies (not part of this list)

The following is a list of numbered minor planets in numerical order. Minor planets are all small bodies in the Solar System, including dwarf planets, with the exception of comets. The catalog consists of hundreds of pages, each containing 1000 minor planets. Every year, tens of thousands of newly numbered minor planets are published in the Minor Planet Circular by the Minor Planet Center on behalf of the International Astronomical Union (see index).[1][2] As of September 2019, there are 541,128 numbered minor planets (secured discoveries) out of a total of 796,832 observed bodies, with the remainder being unnumbered minor planets.[3][4]

The catalog's first object is 1 Ceres, discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi in 1801, while its best-known entry is Pluto, listed as 134340 Pluto. The vast majority (97%) of minor planets are asteroids from the asteroid belt (the catalog uses a color code to indicate a body's dynamical classification). There are more than a thousand different minor-planet discoverers observing from a growing list of registered observatories. In terms of numbers, the most prolific discoverers are LINEAR, Spacewatch, MLS, NEAT and CSS. There are also 21,922 named minor planets mostly after people, places and figures from mythology and fiction.[4] Approximately 96% of all numbered catalog entries remain unnamed. and 518523 Bryanshumaker are currently the lowest-numbered unnamed and highest-numbered named minor planets, respectively.[1]

It is expected that the upcoming survey by the LSST will discover another 5 million minor planets during the next ten years--a tenfold increase from current numbers.[5] While all main-belt asteroids with a diameter above 10 kilometers have already been discovered, there might be as many as 10 trillion 1-meter-sized asteroids or larger out to the orbit of Jupiter; and more than a trillion minor planets in the Kuiper belt of which hundreds are likely dwarf planets.[5][6] For minor planets grouped by a particular aspect or property, see § Specific lists.

Description of partial lists

The list of minor planets consists of more than 500 partial lists, each containing 1000 minor planets grouped into 10 tables. The data is sourced from the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and expanded with data from the JPL SBDB (mean-diameter), Johnston's archive (sub-classification) and others (see detailed field descriptions below). For an overview of all existing partial lists, see § Main index.

The information given for a minor planet includes a permanent and provisional designation (§ Designation), a citation that links to the meanings of minor planet names (only if named), the discovery date, location, and credited discoverers (§ Discovery and § Discoverers), a category with a more refined classification than the principal grouping represented by the background color (§ Category), a mean-diameter, sourced from JPL's SBDB or otherwise calculated estimates in italics (§ Diameter), and a reference (Ref) to the corresponding pages at MPC and JPL SBDB.

The MPC may credit one or several astronomers, a survey or similar program, or even the observatory site with the discovery. In the first column of the table, an existing stand-alone article is linked in boldface, while (self-)redirects are never linked. Discoverers, discovery site and category are only linked if they differ from the preceding catalog entry.

Example

Designation Discovery Properties Ref
Permanent Provisional Citation Date Site Discoverer(s) Category Diam.
189001 4889 P-L -- September 24, 1960 Palomar PLS -- 3.4 km MPC · JPL
189002 6760 P-L -- September 24, 1960 Palomar PLS NYS 960 m MPC · JPL
189003 3009 T-3 -- October 16, 1977 Palomar PLS -- 5.1 km MPC · JPL
189004 Capys 3184 T-3 Capys October 16, 1977 Palomar PLS L5 12 km MPC · JPL
189005 5176 T-3 -- October 16, 1977 Palomar PLS -- 3.5 km MPC · JPL

The example above shows five catalog entries from one of the partial lists. All five asteroids were discovered at Palomar Observatory by the Palomar-Leiden survey (PLS). The MPC directly credits the survey's principle investigators, that is, the astronomers Cornelis van Houten, Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld and Tom Gehrels. (This is the only instance where the list of minor planets diverges from the Discovery Circumstances in the official MPC list.[7]) 189004 Capys, discovered on 16 October 1977, is the only named minor planet. Its background color indicates that it is a Jupiter trojan (from the Trojan camp at Jupiter's L5), estimated to be approximately 12 kilometers in diameter. All other objects are smaller asteroids from the inner (white), central (light-grey) and outer regions (dark grey) of the asteroid belt. The provisional designation for all objects is an uncommon survey designation.

Designation

After discovery, minor planets generally receive a provisional designation, e.g. , then a leading sequential number in parenthesis, e.g. , turning it into a permanent designation (numbered minor planet). Optionally, a name can be given, replacing the provisional part of the designation, e.g. . (On Wikipedia, named minor planets also drop their parenthesis.)

In modern times, a minor planet receives a sequential number only after it has been observed several times over at least 4 oppositions.[8] Minor planets whose orbits are not (yet) precisely known are known by their provisional designation. This rule was not necessarily followed in earlier times, and some bodies received a number but subsequently became lost minor planets. The 2000 recovery of , which had been lost for nearly 89 years, eliminated the last numbered lost asteroid.[9] Only after a number is assigned is the minor planet eligible to receive a name. Usually the discoverer has up to 10 years to pick a name; many minor planets now remain unnamed. Especially towards the end of the twentieth century, large-scale automated asteroid discovery programs such as LINEAR have increased the pace of discoveries so much that the vast majority of minor planets will most likely never receive names.

For these reasons, the sequence of numbers only approximately matches the timeline of discovery. In extreme cases, such as lost minor planets, there may be a considerable mismatch: for instance the high-numbered was originally discovered in 1937, but it was a lost until 2003. Only after it was rediscovered could its orbit be established and a number assigned.

Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid ResearchSpacewatchMount Lemmon SurveyNear-Earth Asteroid TrackingCatalina Sky SurveyLowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object SearchPalomar–Leiden surveyEric Walter ElstWide-field Infrared Survey ExplorerPan-STARRSList of minor planet discoverersCircle frame.svg
Top 10 discoverers of minor planets account for nearly 90% of all discoveries (as of November 2017; total of 506,410 numbered bodies; corrected MPC-figures).[10][11]

Discoverers

The MPC credits more than 1000 professional and amateur astronomers as discoverers of minor planets. Many of them have discovered only a few minor planets or even just co-discovered a single one. Moreover, a discoverer does not need to be a human being. There are about 300 programs, surveys and observatories credited as discoverers. Among these, a small group of U.S. programs and surveys actually account for most of all discoveries made so far (see pie chart). As the total of numbered minor planets is growing by the tens of thousands every year, all statistical figures are constantly changing. In contrast to the Top 10 discoverers displayed in this articles, the MPC summarizes the total of discoveries somewhat differently, that is by a distinct group of discoverers. For example, bodies discovered in the Palomar-Leiden Survey are directly credited to the program's principal investigators.

Discovery site

Observatories, telescopes and surveys that report astrometric observations of small Solar System bodies to the MPC receive a numeric or alphanumeric code such as 675 for the Palomar Observatory, or I41 for the Palomar Transient Factory, a dedicated survey that was conducted at Palomar Observatory during 2009-2012. On numbering, such an observatory may directly be credited by the MPC as discoverer.

Category

In this catalog, minor planets are classified into one of 8 principal orbital groups and highlighted with a distinct color. These are:

The vast majority of minor planets are evenly distributed between the inner-, central and outer parts of the asteroid belt, which are separated by the two Kirkwood gaps at 2.5 and 2.82 AU. Nearly 97.5% of all minor planets are main-belt asteroids (MBA), while Jupiter trojans, Mars-crossing and near-Earth asteroids each account for less than 1% of the overall population. Only a small number of distant minor planets, that is the centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects, have been numbered so far. In the partial lists, table column "category" further refines this principal grouping:

Principal orbital groups(c) MPs (#) MPs (%) Distribution Orbital criteria
  Near-Earth object(a) 2,915 0.54%
NEOs: 2,915 (0.5%)MCs: 5,421 (1.0%)MBA (inner): 177,117 (32.7%)MBA (middle): 189,856 (35.1%)MBA (outer): 160,076 (29.6%)JTs: 4,920 (0.9%)Centaurs: 131 (0.0%)TNOs: 665 (0.1%)Circle frame.svg
q < 1.3 AU
  Mars-crosser 5,421 1.00% 1.3 AU < q < 1.666 AU; a < 3.2 AU
  MBA (inner) 177,119 32.73% a < 2.5 AU; q > 1.666 AU
  MBA (middle) 189,857 35.09% 2.5 AU < a < 2.82 AU; q > 1.666 AU
  MBA (outer) 160,076 29.58% 2.82 AU < a < 4.6 AU; q > 1.666 AU
  Jupiter trojan 4,920 0.91% 4.6 AU < a < 5.5 AU; e < 0.3
  Centaur 131 0.02% 5.5 AU < a < 30.1 AU
  Trans-Neptunian object 665 0.12% a > 30.1 AU
Total (numbered) 541,131(b) 100% Source: JPL's SBDB[11]
(a) NEO-subgroups with number of members: Aten (238), Amor (1,201), Apollo (1,470) and Atira (6) asteroids.[b]
(b) Including 27 unclassified bodies: 6144 Kondojiro, 8373 Stephengould, 9767 Midsomer Norton, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 514107 Ka`epaoka`awela, , , (colored as    for being unclassified).[c]
(c) This chart has been created using a classification scheme adopted from and with data provided by the JPL Small-Body Database.[11][d]

Diameter

If available, a minor planet's mean diameter in meters (m) or kilometers (km) is taken from the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which the Small-Body Database has also adopted.[19] Mean diameters are rounded to two significant figures if smaller than 100 kilometers. Estimates are in italics and calculated from a magnitude-to-diameter conversion, using an assumed albedo derived from the body's orbital parameters or, if available, from a family-specific mean albedo (also see asteroid family table).[e]

Main index

This is an overview of all existing partial lists of numbered minor planets (LoMP). Each table stands for 100,000 minor planets, each cell for a specific partial list of 1,000 sequentially numbered bodies. The data is sourced from the Minor Planet Center.[1] For an introduction, see § top.

Numberings 1-100,000

Numberings 100,001-200,000

Numberings 200,001-300,000

Numberings 300,001-400,000

Numberings 400,001-500,000

Numberings 500,001-600,000

Specific lists

Euler diagram showing the types of bodies in the Solar System (see Small Solar System body).

The following are lists of minor planets by physical properties, orbital properties, or discovery circumstances:

See also

Other lists

Notes

  1. ^ Sources for asteroid families determined by the synthetic hierarchical clustering method: for asteroids number 1 to 393,347 (D. Nesvorný 2014, Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families), and for asteroids 393,348 to 494,645 (AstDys as of 2018, Family classification (A. Milani / Z. Kne?evi? 2014). Following 8 families from latter were mapped to family names of former: Hertha->Nysa, Minerva->Gefion, Klytaemnestra->Telramund, Lydia->Padua, Innes->Rafita, Zdenekhorsky->Nemesis, Klumpkea->Tirela, Gantrisch->Lixiaohua, Harig->Witt. All other families at AstDys that are not listed by Nesvorný do not show an abbreviated family name with a linked "Family Identification Number" (FIN). Instead, LoMP-entries for members of these families display the number of the parent body, e.g. (5) for 5 Astraea.
  2. ^ a b Split-up of NEOs into Amor, Aten, Apollo and Atira asteroid is based on the orbital criteria given in adjunct table. The data is sourced from JPL Small-Body Orbital Elements "Numbered Asteroids (50 MB)" file
  3. ^ There are a few minor planets that remain unclassified based on the defined orbital criteria. At least five of these bodies have a semi-major axis too large to be an outer main-belt asteroid, and an orbit too eccentric to be classified as a Jupiter trojan (JPL classifies these bodies simply as "asteroids", while the MPC, which never distinguishes between inner, outer and middle MBAs, classifies them as "main-belt asteroids"). Other unclassified minor planets include Mars-crossers (as per MPC) with a semi-major axis of that of an outer-MBA (as per JPL).
  4. ^ This table adopts the orbital criteria used by the JPL Small-Body Database, with the exception of (1.) using a different limit to categorize asteroids of the intermediate main belt (i.e. a = 2.5-2.82 AU), and (2.) adding another orbital criteria to outer MBAs (q > 1.666 AU).
    The values for an object's perihelion and aphelion need to be derived from the semi-major axis and the eccentricity as they are not provided in the data source (q = a(1-e); Q = a(1+e)).
  5. ^ Diameters are calculated as a function of absolute magnitude (H) and geometric albedo (p) as documented at CNEOS. While "H" is taken from the Ascii files at the Small Body Data Base, the assumed albedo is taken from an asteroid-family specific figure (Nesvorny, synthetic HCM v.3, as shown in table) or, alternatively - for background asteroids, Jupiter trojans, near-Earth and distant objects - from the body's orbital parameters (as per 2. Taxonomic Class, orbital class, and albedo at the LCDB and/or Johnston's Archive). This is: 0.20 (inner MBAs and NEOs), 0.057 (outer MBAs and Jupiter trojans), 0.10 (middle MBAs with a semi-major axis between 2.6 and 2.7 AU), 0.09 (centaurs and TNOs). The conversion formula for a given albedo and abs. magnitude is: pow(10, (3.1236 - (0.5 × log10(p)) - (0.2 × H))).

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ "Minor Planet - Running Tallies". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Minor Planet Statistics - Orbits And Names". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ a b Jones, R. Lynne; Juric, Mario; Ivezic, Zeljko (January 2016). "Asteroid Discovery and Characterization with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope" (PDF). Asteroids: New Observations. 318: 282-292. arXiv:1511.03199. Bibcode:2016IAUS..318..282J. doi:10.1017/S1743921315008510. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ Bidstrup, P. R.; Andersen, A. C.; Haack, H.; Michelsen, R. (August 2008). "How to detect another 10 trillion small Main Belt asteroids". Physica Scripta. 130. Bibcode:2008PhST..130a4027B. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2008/T130/014027. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets (185001)-(190000)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ An opposition is the time when a body is at its furthest apparent point from the Sun, and in this case is defined as the time when an asteroid is far enough from the Sun to be observed from the Earth. In most cases, this is about 4 to 6 months a year. Some notable minor planets are exceptions to this rule, such as .
  9. ^ Cowen, Ron (1 November 2002). "Astronomers Rediscover Long-Lost Asteroid". Science News. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. 19 May 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ a b c "JPL Small-Body Orbital Elements "Numbered Asteroids (50 MB)"". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ "List Of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. 28 October 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ "List of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs)". Minor Planet Center. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ Johnston, Wm. Robert (30 December 2017). "List of Known Trans-Neptunian Objects". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 2018.
  16. ^ "List Of Other Unusual Objects". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ Johnston, Wm. Robert (3 February 2019). "Asteroids with Satellites". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 2019.
  18. ^ Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Pravec, Petr (July 2009). "The asteroid lightcurve database". Icarus. 202 (1): 134-146. Bibcode:2009Icar..202..134W. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.02.003. Retrieved 2019. (LCDB query form)
  19. ^ "NEOWISE Diameters and Albedos". PDS Small Bodies Node. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 2019.

Further reading

External links

Minor Planet Center

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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