List of Loanwords in Tagalog
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Source languages of the lexicon of the Tagalog language

The Tagalog language has developed a unique vocabulary since its inception from its Austronesian roots.


The Filipino language incorporated Spanish loanwords as a result of 333 years of contact with the Spanish language. In their review of a Pilipino-English dictionary, Llamzon and Thorpe (1972) point out that 33% of word roots are of Spanish origin.[1] An example is the sentence below in which Spanish-derived words are in italics (original in parentheses):

Tagalog: "Puwede (Puede) ba akóng umupô sa silya (silla) sa tabi ng bintana (ventana) hábang nása biyahe (viaje) táyo sa eroplano (aeroplano)?"
Translation in English: ("May I sit on the chair near the window during our voyage in the aeroplane?")

The adoption of the Abakada alphabet in 1940[2] changed the spelling of most of the Spanish loanwords present in the Filipino language. The loanwords derived from the Spanish language have their original spellings indigenized according to the rules of the Abakada alphabet. Examples include:

agila (from Sp. águila), alkalde (from Sp. alcalde), bakuna (from Sp. vacuna), banyo (from Sp. baño), baso (from Sp. vaso), biktima (from Sp. víctima), bintana (from Sp. ventana), bisita (from Sp. visita), biyahe (from Sp. viaje), braso (from Sp. brazo), demokrasya (from Sp. democracia), diyaryo (from Sp. diario), estudyante (from Sp. estudiante), heneral (from Sp. general), hustisya (from Sp. justicia), kama (from Sp. cama), kambiyo (from Sp. cambio de marcha), keso (from Sp. queso), kutsara (from Sp. cuchara), kuwarto (from Sp. cuarto), kuwento (from Sp. cuento), lababo (from Sp. lavabo), mensahe (from Sp. mensaje), meryenda (from Sp. merienda), mikrobyo (from Sp. microbio), niyebe (from Sp. nieve), panyo (from Sp. paño), pila (from Sp. fila), plema (from Sp. flema), presyo (from Sp. precio), prinsesa (from Sp. princesa), reseta (from Sp. receta médica), reyna (from Sp. reina), serbisyo (from Sp. servicio), sinturon (from Sp. cinturón), teklado (from Sp. teclado), telebisyon (from Sp. televisión), tinidor (from Sp. tenedor), trabaho (from Sp. trabajo), tuwalya (from Sp. toalla) and yelo (from Sp. hielo).[3][4][5]

Other loanwords derived from the Spanish language underwent spelling and pronunciation changes. Vowel changes can be observed to some of the Spanish words upon adoption into the Filipino language. For example, an /i/ to /a/ vowel shift can be observed in the Filipino word paminta, which came from the Spanish word pimienta.[3] A rare vowel change from /e/ to /u/ can be observed in the words unano (from Sp. enano) and umpisa (from Sp. empezar). Other words derived from Spanish underwent vowel deletion upon adoption into the Filipino language, such as the words pusta (from Sp. apostar), tarantado (from Sp. atarantado), kursonada (from Sp. corazonada), Pasko (from Sp. Pascua) and labi (from Sp. labio).[3] Consonant shifts can also be observed to some of the Spanish words upon their adoption into the Filipino language. The [r] to [l] consonant shift can be observed in the following words:

albularyo (witch doctor or folk healer, from Sp. herbolario), alma (from Sp. armar), almusal (from Sp. almorzar), asukal (from Sp. azúcar), balbas (from Sp. barba), bandila (from. Sp. bandera), dasal (from Sp. rezar), hibla (thread or strand, from Sp. hebra), hilo (dizzy, from Sp. giro), hulmá (to mould, from Sp. ahormar), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), litratista (photographer, from Sp. retratista), litrato (photograph, portrait or picture; from Sp. retrato), multo (from Sp. muerto), nunal (from Sp. lunar), pastol (from Sp. pastor) and pasyal (from Sp. pasear).

The loss of the /l/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino word kutson derived from the Spanish colchón. The loss of the /t/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino words talino[6] (intelligence or wisdom, from Sp. talento) and tina[7] (dye, from Sp. tinta). Some Spanish-derived words have also undergone consonant or syllable deletion upon introduction to Tagalog like in the case of limos (from Sp. limosna), masyado (from Sp. demasiado), posas (from Sp. esposas), restawran (from Sp. restaurante), riles (rail, railway or railroad; from Sp. carriles), sindi (from Sp. third-person singular present tense conjugation of the verb encender) and sintunado (from Sp. desentonado).[4]

The Spanish digraph [ll] is pronounced by the Spaniards as /j/ during the Renaissance era and this reflected on the pronunciation and the spelling of Spanish-derived loanwords in Tagalog introduced before the 19th century, where the digraph [ll] becomes [y] in Tagalog.[8] Such is the case of the words barya (from Sp. barilla), kabayo (from Sp. caballo), kutamaya (from. Sp. cota de malla), lauya (a stew of meat and vegetables, from Sp. la olla), sibuyas (from Sp. cebollas) and tabliya or tablea (from Sp. tablilla de chocolate). Spanish loanwords in which the digraph [ll] is pronounced as /lj/ in Tagalog were probably introduced (or reintroduced) during the 19th century by educated Peninsulares.[9] Examples include apelyido (from Sp. apellido), balyena (from Sp. ballena), kalye (from Sp. calle), kutsilyo (from Sp. cuchillo), makinilya (from Sp. maquinilla de escribir), sepilyo (from Sp. cepillo de dientes), silya (from Sp. silla) and sigarilyo (from Sp. cigarrillo). There are also rare cases of Tagalog doublets coming from the same Spanish etymological root which exhibit both the influences of the Renaissance /j/ and the latter /?/ sounds, like in the case of the Tagalog word pair laryo and ladrilyo, both from Sp. ladrillo.[10] There are also instances of the Spanish digraph [ll] being transformed into [l] upon adoption by Tagalog. Such is the case of the following words: kulani (lymph node, from Sp. collarín[11]), kursilista (from Sp. cursillista) and úling (coal, soot or charcoal; from Sp. hollín[12]).

Vestigial influences of Old and Middle Spanish voiceless palato-alveolar fricative /?/ are evident in some of the Spanish-derived loanwords in Tagalog, where the /?/ sound is transformed into the Tagalog /s/.[13] Examples include sabon (from Sp. jabón, pronounced as /?a'bon/ in Middle Spanish), sugal (to gamble, from Sp. jugar, pronounced as /?u'gar/ in Middle Spanish) and tasa (to sharpen, from Sp. tajar, pronounced as /ta'?ar/ in Middle Spanish). Loanwords which have the pronunciation that reflects the transition from Middle Spanish /?/ to Modern Spanish /x/ are also present in Tagalog. The Modern Spanish /x/ sound is rendered in Tagalog as [h]. Example cases include ahedres (from Sp. ajedrez), anghel (from Sp. ángel), halaya (from Sp. jalea), hardin (from Sp. jardín), hepe (police chief, from Sp. jefe), kahera (female cashier, from Sp. cajera), kahero (male cashier, from Sp. cajero) and kahon (from Sp. cajón). There are also rare cases of doublets that exhibit influences of both the Middle Spanish /?/ and Modern Spanish /x/ like for example in the case of Tagalog muson and muhon (both from Sp. mojón).

Others have morphed like 'ku(ha)nin' (Sp.: 'coja' + Tag.: '-nin'), which has inconspicuously developed into another pure Tagalog-sounding word. Another one is maámong kordero (from Sp. amo & cordero). Combined together, it conveys the description of a meek, tame, harmless human with Tagalog adjective prefix and suffix added. The compound word batya't palo-palo, a must word in the laundry business where many Spanish words proliferate. The words were taken from the Spanish batea for "washing tub" and palo for "stick" or "beater", something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish provenance at all. Others are umpisa (empieza), pulubi (pobre), pader (pared).

Some have acquired an entirely new meaning, such as kursonada (corazonada, originally meaning '"hunch"), which means "object of desire"; sospetsoso (sospechoso) is the "suspicious person" and not the "suspect" as in the original; insekto ("insecto"), which still means "insect" but also refers to a "pesty clownish person"; or even sige (sigue), a Spanish word for "continue" or "follow", which is now widely understood to mean "all right" or "go ahead".

Others use Spanish prefixes and/or suffixes, combined from Tagalog or other languages, without which the word can not be completed and convey its meaning. For example, pakialamero (from Tag. pakialam, "to meddle" and the Sp. suffix -ero, masculine subject); same as majongero ("mahjong", a Chinese word and the Sp. suffix -ero). Daisysiete is a corruption and portmanteau of the English "daisy" and the Spanish diecisiete ("seventeen"), now meaning a sweet and sexually desirable underaged (below 18, hence the number) female. Bastusing katawán (Sp.: basto & Tag.: katawan) is an example of a two-word term for a bombshell body

Even after the Spanish era, Tagalog is still being influenced by Spanish as new words are coined, albeit along its own terms, viz., alaskadór ("Alaska" + Sp. suffix '-ador'); barkada (from Sp.: barca,"boat" to "clique"); bérde ("verde"="green", nuanced to "toilet humour" or "blue joke"); which are not readily understood in Spain or any Latin American country. In a strange twist, even if Filipinos have a chance to Tagalized words using foreign words, currently English—their most accessible influence—they coin words in a uniquely Hispanizing way i.e. "boksingero" (from Eng. "boxing") instead of using the Spanish "boxeador". Or "basketbolista" (from Eng. "basketball"), instead of borrowing from Spanish "baloncesto" to make it say "baloncestista" or "baloncestador" (although basketball "básquetbol" in many Latin American countries).

Here are some examples of Spanish-derived Tagalog words in the following format: Word (Etymology - Original Definition/s if different from Nuanced Definition. = Derivative Definition if Compound Words) - Nuanced Definition. Shared Definition precedes Nuanced Definition if both exist.

Tagalog Spanish Meaning Native equivalent(s)
Abante Avante Ahead; Forward Pasulóng, Pausad
Abelyana[14] Avellana Common hazel (Corylus avellana)
Abiso Aviso Warning Babalâ
Ahedres Ajedrez Chess
Ahente Agente Agent Kinatawán
Alemanya Alemania Germany
Amarilyo Amarillo Yellow Dilaw
Antena Antena Antenna
Aparador Aparador Closet
Asoge Azogue Mercury (Hg)
Asul Azul Blue Bughaw
Asupre Azufre Sulfur (S) Sangyawa
Atenas Atenas Athens
Baryo Barrio Village Barangay, Bukid, Nayon
Baso Vaso Drinking glass
Basura Basura Garbage, Trash, Waste Kalat, Dumi
Bentilador Ventilador Electric fan
Bisagra Bisagra Hinge (door)
Bisikleta Bicicleta Bicycle
Bruha Bruja Witch; Woman with unpleasant personality Mangkukulam
Bulsá Bolsa Pocket
Busina Bocina Car horn
Britanya Bretaña Britain
Datos Datos Datum/Data
Departamento Departamento Department Kagawarán
Dinero Dinero Money Pera, salapi
Deskaril Descarrilar To derail
Diyos Dios God Panginoon
Duwende Duende Elf, goblin
Diyaryo Diario Newspaper Pahayagan
Ebanghelyo Evangelio Gospel Mabuting Balita
Edad Edad Age Gulang
Ekolohiya Ecología Ecology
Ekonomiya Economía Economy Kabuhayan, Pagtitipid, Katipirán
Ekwador Ecuador Equator
Elyo Helio Helium (He)
Embahada Embajada Embassy Pasuguan
Embahador Embajador Ambassador
Ensalada Ensalada Salad
Eroplano Aeroplano Airplane
Espada Espada Sword
Espanyol/Español Español Spanish Tabak
Espongha Esponja Sponge
Estados Unidos Estados Unidos United States
Estadistika Estadística Statistics
Estupido Estúpido Stupid Tanga
Garahe Garaje Garage Taguán (lit. "hiding place")
Gasolina Gasolina Gasoline
Gastos Gastos Expenses
Gitara Guitarra Guitar
Gobyerno Gobierno Government Pamahalaan
Guwapo Guapo Handsome Makisig, Magandang lalaki
Giyera Guerra War Digmaan
Hapón Japón Japan
Haponés Japonés Japanese
Hardin Jardín Garden Halamanan
Hardinero Jardinero Gardener
Hepe Jefe Chief of police
Heringgilya Jeringuilla Syringe
Huwes Juez Judge Hukom, tagahatol
Idroheno Hidrógeno Hydrogen (H)
Industriya Industria Industry
Ingles Inglés English
Inglatera Inglaterra England
Intindí Entiende Understand Unawà
Kalabasa Calabaza Squash (Cucurbita maxima)
Kaloriya Caloría Calorie (unit of energy or heat)
Kamelyo Camello Camel
Kampeon Campeón Champion
Kandidato Candidato Candidate
Kapasidad Capacidad Capacity Kakayahán
Kapilya Capilla Chapel
Keso Queso Cheese
Kloro Cloro Chlorine (Cl)
Kobalto Cobalto Cobalt (Co)
Kolehiyo Colegio College Dalubhasaan
Kolesterol Colesterol Cholesterol
Konstitusyón Constitución Constitution Saligang Batás (lit. "basic/foundational law")
Kontrabando Contrabando Contraband, Smuggled Goods
Konsepto Concepto Concept Dalumat
Kordero Cordero Lamb Batang tupa
Korte Corte Court Hukuman
Kotse/Awto Coche/Auto Car/Auto Sasakyán (lit. the more general "vehicle")
Kumusta ¿Cómo está? How is/are? (interrogative word used as a substitute for an adjective of quality)[15]
Kuweba Cueva Cave Yungib
Kuwenta Cuenta Bill Bayarin
Lapis Lápiz Pencil
Libra Libra Pound (unit of measurement)
Lingguwistika Lingüística Linguistics
Loko Loco Crazy Balíw, sira-ulo
Lugar Lugar Place Poók
Luhò Lujo Luxury Rangyâ, Karangyaan
Maleta Maleta Suitcase, luggage
Mani Maní Peanut
Mantikà Manteca Cooking oil
Mantsa Mancha Stain
Margarina Margarina Margarine
Matematika Matemática Mathematics
Matematiko Matemático Mathematician
Memorya Memoria Memory Alaala, Gunita
Militar Militar Military Hukbo, Sandatahan
Minuto Minuto Minute (unit of time)
Miyembro Miembro Member Kasapi, Kagawad
Monarkiya Monarquía Monarchy Kaharián (lit. "kingdom")
Motorsiklo Motocicleta Motorcycle
Musika Música Music Tugtugin
Mustasa Mostaza Mustard
Nasyonalista Nacionalista Nationalist Makabayan, Makabansâ
Obispo Obispo Bishop
Oksiheno Oxígeno Oxygen (O)
Olanda Holanda Netherlands
Onsa Onza Ounce (unit of measurement)
Opisyal Oficial Official
Otel Hotel Hotel
Pabrika Fábrica Factory Pagawaan
Pamilya Familia Family
Panderetas Panderetas Tambourine
Pantalon Pantalón Pants, trousers
Papél Papel Paper
Paról Farol Star-shaped Christmas lantern
Parke Parque Park Liwasan
Pasaporte Pasaporte Passport
Payaso Payaso Clown Lukayo
Pelikula Película Movie
Pilduras Píldoras Medicinal pill
Pilipinas Filipinas Philippines
Piso Peso Philippine Peso
Porke Porque Because Kasi
Probinsiya Provincia Province Lalawigan
Presidente Presidente President Pangulo
Presko Fresco Fresh Sariwa
Protina Proteina Protein
Pulgada Pulgada Inch (unit of measurement)
Pulisya Policía Police
Puwede Puede Can, Could, May, Might Kaya, Maaarì (denotes permission. i.e., more like "may")
Puwera[16] Fuera Except (preposition) Maliban sa, Maliban kay
Radyo Radio Radio
Realidad Realidad Reality Katunayan, Katotohanan
Reló, Relos, Rilos Reloj Clock (or any instrument used to track time) Orasán
Repúblika República Republic
Sabadista Sabadista Member of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church
Sapatos Zapatos Shoes
Sardinas Sardinas Sardines (any fish belonging to the family Clupeidae)
Sarado Cerrado Closed Nakapinid
Selyo Sello Seal (the Tagalog "selyo" usually refers to postage stamp) Tatak (also means "brand", "label" and "mark")
Sentimyento (or "senti") Sentimiento Sentiment
Senyales Señales Signs Tanda
Sikolohiya Psicología Psychology
Sim Zinc Zinc (Zn)
Simple Simple Simple Payak
Sipilyo Cepillo Brush
Siyudad Ciudad City Lungsod
Sundalo Soldado Soldier Kawal
Sustansya Sustancia Food nutrient
Sustento Sustento Financial support
Suweldo Sueldo Salary Sahod
Tableta Tableta Tablet
Tangke Tanque Tank
Tarheta Tarjeta Card
Tasa Taza Mug, Cup
Teklado Teclado Keyboard Tipaan (usu. for computers)
Tela Tela Cloth, Fabric
Telebisyón Televisión Television
Telepono Teléfono Telephone
Tiya Tía Aunt
Tiyo Tío Uncle
Tsino Chino Chinese Intsík (mildly derogatory), Tsekwa (Filipino slang)
Tsinelas Chinelas Slippers, flip-flops (contrast with bakya which refers to wooden clogs)
Tisa Tiza Chalk
Tsismis Chismes Gossip Satsát (also "chatter")
Tumbaga Tumbaga Gold-copper alloy
Unibersidad Universidad University Pamantasan
Welga Huelga Industrial strike
Yelo Hielo Ice
Yodo Yodo Iodine (I)

Note that the first syllable of loanwords from Spanish that start with /aw/ are also sometimes pronounced and spelled /o/ (e.g. 'otonomiya' rather than 'awtonomiya') due to the predominance of pronunciation of loanwords from English.


Tagalog Spanish Latin Meaning Native equivalent
Agila Águila Aquila Eagle Banoy
Ahensiya Agéncia Ag?ns Agency Sangáy, Sukursal (Sp. sucursal)
Ambisyoso Ambicioso Ambitiose Ambitious Mapaghangád, Mapangarap
Andar Andar Ambi? To turn on or to start an engine (usually of the car)
Arina Harina Far?na Flour
Arko Arco Arcus Arch Balantók
Armás Armas Arma Arms (Weapon) Sandata (Sans. "sa?yatta", via Malay "senjata")
Asno Asno Asinus Donkey
Baka Vaca Vacca Cow
Bakasyón Vacación Vacatio Vacation Magliwaliw (meaning "to do a leisure trip")
Barko Barco Barca Ship Layag
Basura Basura Verr? Garbage/Trash/Waste Kalat, Dumi
Berde Verde Viridis Green Luntian
Bulkán Volcán Vulc?nus Volcano
Diperensiya Diferencia Differentia Difference Pagkakaibá
Direktor Director Directus Director Tagapangasiwa
Diyós Dios Deus God Bathalâ (Sans.), Panginoón ("Lord") or Maykapal ("Creator")
Ebanghelyo Evangelio ?vangelium Gospel
Edad Edad Aetate Age Gulang
Edukasyón Educación ?duc?ti? Education Pag-aaral
Ehersisyo Ejercicio Exerce? Exercise Galaw, Kilos
Espanya España Hisp?nia Spain
Estudyante Estudiante Stud?ns Student Mag-aarál
Puwersa Fuerza Fortis Force Lakás (also translated as "strength", "energy", "vigor", etc.)
Hustisya Justicia I?stitia Justice Katárungan [1]
Impluwensiya Influencia Potentiam Influence Lakas, Kapangyarihan
Impiyerno Infierno Infernum Hell
Inutil Inútil In?tilis Useless, Worthless
Kabalyero Caballero Caball?rius Knight
Kabayo Caballo Caballus Horse
Kalbo Calvo Calvus Bald Upaw, Panot, Walang Buhok
Kampana Campana Campana Bell Batingáw (also refers to a gong or any instrument that makes a distinctive sound when stroke)
Kandila Candela Cand?la Candle
Karne Carne Car? Meat Lamán ("flesh")
Kasál Casar Casa Marry Pag-iisang-dibdib
Keso Queso C?seus Cheese
Kutis Cutis Cutis Skin Balat
Kuwadrado Cuadrado Quadr?tus Square Parisukat
Labi Labio Labium Lip
Lengguwahe Lenguaje Lingua Language Wika
Libro Libro Librum Book Aklat
Mansanas Manzana M?la Apple (Malus domestica)
Merkado Mercado Mercatus Market/merchant Pamilihan, palengke
Mundó Múndo Mundus World Daigdíg, Sanlibutan
Multa Multa Multa Fine(monetary sum as a penalty)
Museo Museo Museum Museum Tanghalan
Negosyo Negocio Neg?tium Business Pangangalakal
Número Número Numerus Number Bilang
Oras Horas H?ra Time, Hour Panahón ("time")
Ordinaryo Ordinario Ordinarius Ordinary Karaniwan
Ospitál Hospital Hospit?lis Hospital Pagamútan
Padre/Pari Padre Pater Priest
Peligro Peligro Periculum Danger Panganib
Pistá/Piyesta Fiesta F?stum Feast Kaarawán (lit. "anniversary"; colloquially used mostly for "birthday" from the longer "Kaarawán ng kapanganakan"), Pagdiriwang (Celebration)
Reyna Reina R?g?na Queen
Sabón Jabón S?p? Soap
Sebo Sebo S?bum Grease, Oil, Fat, Lard, Tallow Taba
Selebrasyon Celebracion Celebratio Celebration Pagdiriwang, Pagdaraos, Diwang
Sementeryo Cementerio Caemeterium Cemetery Libingan
Serbesa Cerveza Cervisia Beer
Sereso Cerezo Cerasus Cherry
Saserdote Sacerdote Sacerd?s Priest Pari
Silya Silla Sella Chair Upuan (lit. more general "seat")
Simbolo Simbolo Symbolum Symbol Sagisag
Sinturón Cinturón Cingulum Belt
Siyensiya Ciencia Scientia Science Aghám (via Sanskrit "Agama")
Suwerte Suerte Sors Good fortune, good luck Mapalad
Transportasyón Transportación Comportatio Transportation Sasakyan
Triyanggulo Triángulo Triangulum Triangle Tilasitha; Tatsulok
Trigo Trigo Tr?ticum Wheat
Ubas Uvas Uva Grapes
Unibersidad Universidad ?niversit?s University Pamantasan
Yero Hierro Ferrum Iron (the element or material) Bakal


Tagalog Spanish Greek symbol Greek equivalent Meaning Native equivalent
Angkla Ancla Ánkura Anchor Sinipete
Anghel Ángel ? Ángelos Angel/Messenger Anghel/Sugo
Balyena Ballena Phállaina Whale Tandayag
Bibliya Biblia Bíblos Bible Banal na Kasulatan
Bibliyoteka Biblioteca ? bibilotheka Library Aklatan
Biyolohiya Biología ? and bíos and logía Biology
Bodega Bodega ? apoth?k? Storehouse Kamalig, Pintungan
Katoliko Católico Katholikós Catholic ('Universal/General')
Kristo Cristo ? Khristós Christ ('The Anointed One'/
'The Messiah')
Kristiyano Cristiano ? Khristianós Christian
Eksena Escena Sk?n? Scene Tagpô
Eskuwela Escuela Skholeîon School Páaralán
Obispo Obispo Epískopos Bishop
Makina Máquina Makhina Machine, Pulley
Parokya Parroquia Paroikía Community
Selos Celos Zêlos Jealousy Paninibugho, inggit
Teknolohiya Tecnología ? tekhnología Technology


Tagalog Spanish Hebrew symbol Hebrew equivalent Meaning
Hesus Jesús Y?a? Jesus
Paskó Pascua Pesakh Passover

Spanish influences on Tagalog morphosyntax

Although the overall influence of Spanish on the morphosyntax of the Tagalog language was minimal[17], there are fully functional Spanish-derived words that have produced syntactic innovations on Tagalog.[18] Clear influences of Spanish can be seen in the morphosyntax of comparison and the existence of Spanish-derived modals and conjunctions[19], as will be discussed in more detail below.

Kumusta as a question word in Tagalog

All of the interrogative words used in Tagalog are non-Spanish in origin, with the exception of kumusta. The word kumusta is derived from the Spanish ¿cómo está? and it functions as a Tagalog interrogative word used as a substitute for an adjective of quality or condition.[20]Kumusta can also be used as a greeting (similar to English "Hello!") or as a verb with the meaning of "to greet" or "to say hello".

Spanish-derived comparative markers

Tagalog has several comparative markers that are etymologically derived from Spanish. The particle mas (meaning "more", from Sp. más), in conjunction with the various Tagalog counterparts of the English "than" (kaysa + sa-marker, sa, kay), is used as a comparative marker of non-equality.[21] Another comparative marker of non-equality is kumpara[22] (from Sp. comparado), usually followed with the appropriate sa-marker and used as the Tagalog equivalent of the English "compared to". Lastly, the word pareho (from Sp. parejo), commonly employed with the Tagalog linker -ng, is used as a comparative marker of equality.[23]

Spanish-derived Tagalog modals

There are several Spanish-derived words that have acquired function as modals upon adoption in Tagalog. Tagalog modals, including those that are etymologically derived from Spanish, can be classified into two main groups: words realizing deontic modality (i.e modals concerned with expressing inclination, obligation and ability) and words realizing epistemic modality (i.e. modals concerned with degrees of reality).

Deontic modality in Tagalog is realized through words which are grammaticized by Paul Schachter and Fe T. Otanes as "pseudo-verbs".[24] An example of a Spanish-derived Tagalog deontic modal is gusto (from Sp. gusto), which is used to denote preference or desire. Gusto is considered to be more commonly used than its other counterparts such as nais or ibig, since the latter two are both perceived as more formal than gusto and are more frequently used in writing than in speech. Another example is puwede (from Sp. puede), which can be translated in English as "can" and is thus used to express permission or ability. The word puwede co-exists with its non-Spanish-derived equivalent maaari and the two pseudo-verbs are deemed to have little semantic difference, with puwede only being considered usually as more colloquial and less formal than maaari.[25]

Epistemic modality in Tagalog is realized through words functioning as adverbials. These words, when used as modals, are typically linked to the clause that they modalize through the Tagalog linker -ng or na. An example of a Spanish-derived epistemic modal used for expressing high degree of probability is sigurado + -ng (from Sp. seguro + -ado), with the meaning of "surely" or "certainly", and is considered as a synonym of Tagalog tiyak. The word siguro (from Sp. seguro) is an epistemic modal marking moderate degree of probability, with the meaning of "maybe", "probably" or "perhaps". The word siguro is also identified by the linguist Ekaterina Baklanova as a Spanish-derived discourse marker in Tagalog, thus contrasting the claims of other scholars such as Patrick Steinkrüger that none of the numerous discourse markers in Tagalog are of Spanish origin.[26] Similarly to Tagalog, the word siguro is also considered as an adverbial clitic in Cebuano[27] and in Masbateño[28]. Posible + -ng (from Sp. posible), which can be translated to English as "possibly", is a Tagalog epistemic modal marking low degree of probability. Examples of Spanish-derived Tagalog epistemic modals marking excessive degree of intensity include masyado + -ng (from Sp. demasiado) and sobra + -ng (from Sp. sobra) while medyo (from Sp. medio) marks moderate degree of intensity. The word parang (derived from Sp. comparar + Tagalog -ng) is an epistemic modal expressing similarity, with the meaning of "looks like", "it seems", "apparently" or "somewhat".

Spanish-derived Tagalog conjunctions

Several conjunctions in Tagalog have Spanish-derived etymological roots. The Tagalog disjunctive conjunction o (from Sp. o, meaning "or") has completely substituted the old Tagalog equivalent "kun"[29], rendering the latter obsolete. Two Spanish-derived counter-expectational adversative conjunctions used in Tagalog are pero (from Sp. pero) and kaso (from Sp. caso)[30], both of which are considered as synonyms of the Tagalog counterparts ngunit, subalit, etc. The Tagalog ni (from Sp. ni) can be used as a negative repetitive conjunction, similar to the English "neither...nor" construction. When not repeated, ni assumes a scalar focus value stripped off of all its conjunction function, translatable to English as "not even".[31]Basta (from Sp. basta), when used as a conditional conjunction, assumes a meaning similar to English "as long as" or "provided that". Maski (from Sp. mas que) is a synonym of Tagalog kahit and both are used as Tagalog concessive conjunctions.[32]Porke (from Sp. porque) assumes the function of emphatic causal conjunction in Tagalog and it is used to express an ironic or critical attitude, translatable to English as "just because" or "only because".[33] The Tagalog puwera kung (from Sp. fuera) is used as a negative exceptive conditional conjunction, translatable in English as "unless" or "except if". The Tagalog oras na (from Sp. hora) is a temporal conjunction which can be translated in English as "the moment that". The Tagalog imbes na (from Sp. en vez) is used as an implicit adversative conjunction and it can be translated in English as "instead of". The Tagalog para (from Sp. para), when used to introduce verb-less or basic-form predicates, assume the role of a purposive conjunction. However, if followed by the appropriate dative sa-marker, para assumes the role of a benefactive marker in Tagalog.

Loanwords that underwent semantic shift

Upon adoption into Tagalog, a number of Spanish-derived terms underwent a process of semantic shift or change in meaning. A loanword is said to have undergone a semantic shift if its meaning in Tagalog deviates from the original meaning of the word in the source language (in this case, Spanish). A type of semantic shift is the so-called semantic narrowing, which is a linguistic phenomenon in which the meaning of a Spanish-derived word acquires a less general or inclusive meaning upon adoption into Tagalog. Semantic narrowing occurs when a word undergoes specialization of usage. For example, the word kuryente (meaning "electricity" or "electric current") comes from the Spanish word corriente, which is a general term to refer to any current, whether electric or not. Upon adoption of the word corriente into Tagalog as kuryente, it underwent a semantic narrowing and its usage became restricted to refer only to an electric current, unlike its Spanish counterpart. Another example of a semantic narrowing is the Tagalog word ruweda (meaning "Ferris wheel"), a term derived from the Spanish word rueda which refers to any kind of wheel. Upon adoption into Tagalog, ruweda underwent usage specialization and its meaning became restricted to the Ferris wheel.

Semantic shift may also occur through semantic interference by another language, usually the English language. This phenomenon can result into reinterpretation of a Spanish-derived term by attributing to it an English meaning upon assimilation into Tagalog. An example is the Tagalog word libre, which is derived from the Spanish translation of the English word free, although used in Tagalog with the meaning of "without cost or payment" or "free of charge", a usage which would be deemed incorrect in Spanish as the term gratis would be more fitting. Another example is the Tagalog word iskiyerda, derived from the Spanish term izquierda meaning "left" as opposed to "right", although used in Tagalog with the meaning of "to leave".

Here is the list of Spanish-derived words which underwent semantic shift upon assimilation into Tagalog:

Tagalog Spanish-derived word Meaning in Tagalog Spanish equivalent
Alahero Alhajero (meaning "jewel case") Jeweller; jewel-maker Joyero
Algodon Algodon (meaning "cotton") False trevally (Lactarius lactarius)[34] Pagapa; pez blanco
Almohadilya[35] Almohadilla (meaning "cushion" or "small pillow") Mouse pad Alfombrilla para el ratón o mouse
Almusal Almorzar (meaning "to have lunch") Breakfast Desayuno
Asar[36] Asar (meaning "to roast") To annoy Molestar
Baho Vaho (meaning "whiff", "steam" or "vapor") Foul odor Hedor; mal olor
Bahura Bajura (meaning "coastal" or "shallow-water") Coral reef Arrecife coralina
Barkada Barcada (meaning "boat load" or "boat trip") Group of friends; clique Pandilla de amigos o camaradas
Basta Basta (meaning "enough") Just so that; as long as Siempre y cuando; siempre que
Bida Vida (meaning "life") Protagonist Protagonista
Biskotso Bizcocho (meaning "sponge cake") Toasted bread Pan tostado
Bulsa Bolsa (meaning "bag") Pocket in garments Bolsillo
Dehado Dejado (meaning "left behind" or "careless") Underdog; at a disadvantage Desfavorecido; desaventajado
Delikado Delicado (meaning "delicate") Dangerous Peligroso
Dilihensiya Diligencia (meaning "diligence" or "errand") To ask for a loan or debt; to borrow money Pedir un préstamo
Disgrasya Desgracia (meaning "misfortune") Accident Accidente
Diskarte Descarte (meaning "discard") Resourcefulness Ingeniosidad; capacidad de improvisación
Gisado Guisado (meaning "stew") Sauteed Salteado
Harana Jarana (meaning "commotion", "partying" or "revelry") Serenade Serenata
Hepe Jefe (meaning "chief" or "boss") Police chief Comisario; jefe de policía
Impakto Impacto (meaning "impact" or "shock") Evil spirit Espíritu maligno
Inutil Inútil (meaning "useless") Sexually impotent Sexualmente impotente
Iskiyerda Izquierda (meaning "left") To leave Irse de; abandonar
Kabayo Caballo (meaning "horse") Ironing board Tabla de planchar
Kabisera Cabecera (meaning "head", "heading" or "headboard") Capital city Capital; ciudad cabecera
Kakawate Cacahuate (meaning "peanut") Gliricidia sepium Madre de cacao
Kasilyas Casillas (meaning "cubicles") Toilet; restroom Baño
Konyo Coño (vulgar and offensive word) Socialite; belonging to the upper-class De clase alta
Kubeta Cubeta (meaning "bucket") Toilet; restroom Baño
Kulebra Culebra (meaning "snake") Shingles Culebrilla; herpes zóster
Kursonada Corazonada (meaning "hunch") Object of interest or desire Deseo del corazón
Kuryente Corriente (meaning "current") Electricity; electric current Electricidad; corriente eléctrica
Labakara Lavacara (meaning "washbasin") Face towel Toalla de tocador
Lakwatsa Cuacha (meaning "excrement") Truancy; out loafing; out roaming Vaguear; holgazanear; hacer novillos
Lamyerda Mierda (meaning "excrement") Truancy; out loafing; out roaming Vaguear; holgazanear; hacer novillos
Libre Libre (meaning "free") Without cost or payment Gratis
Liyamado Llamado (meaning "called", "named" or "destined") Favorite (as in betting, races, etc.); at an advantage Favorecido
Mantika Manteca (meaning "lard" or "butter") Cooking oil Aceite
Muta Mota (meaning "speck" or "dirt") Eye dirt; eye discharge Legaña
Palengke Palenque (meaning "stockade" or "palisade") Market Mercado
Palitada Paletada (meaning "shovelful" or "trowelful") Plaster Yeso
Papagayo Papagayo (meaning "parrot") Kite Cometa
Parada Parada (meaning "stop") Parade Desfile
Parol Farol (meaning "lantern", "lamp" or "streetlight") Christmas lantern (see Parol) Estrella navideña
Parolero Farolero (meaning "lamplighter") Christmas lantern maker Artesano de estrellas navideñas
Pasamano Pasamano (meaning "handrail") Window sill Alféizar, repisa de la ventana
Pitso Pecho (meaning "chest" or "bosom") Chicken breast Pechuga de pollo
Postiso Postizo (meaning "false" or "detachable") Denture; false teeth Prótesis dental; dentadura postiza
Putahe Potaje (meaning "vegetable stew or soup") Dish; course Plato
Rebentador Reventador (meaning "agitator") Firecracker Petardo
Rekado Recado (meaning "message" or "errand") Spices; condiments Especia; condimiento
Ruweda Rueda (meaning "wheel") Ferris wheel[37] Rueda de la fortuna
Semilya Semilla (meaning "seed") Semen Semen
Sentido Sentido (meaning "sense" or "meaning") Temple (anatomy) Templo; sien
Siguro Seguro (meaning "surely") Maybe; perhaps; probably Quizás; probablemente
Silindro Cilindro (meaning "cylinder") Harmonica Armónica
Sintas Cintas (meaning "ribbon", "tape" or "belt") Shoelace Cordón de zapato; cintas para zapatos
Siyempre Siempre (meaning "always") Of course Por supuesto
Suplado Soplado (meaning "blown" or "inflated") Snobbish; haughty Presuntuoso, arrogante
Suporta Soportar (meaning "to withstand" or "to bear") Support Apoyo
Sustansiya Sustancia (meaning "substance") Nutrient Sustancia nutritiva; nutriente
Tirada Tirada (meaning "throw" or "print run") Tirade; speech of violent denunciation Diatriba
Todas Todas (meaning "all") Completely killed or exterminated Matar
Todo Todo (meaning "all", "entire", "each", "every", etc.) All-out; fully; maximum Al máximo
Tosino Tocino (meaning "bacon") Sweet cured meat Carne curada endulzada
Tsamporado Champurrado (meaning "chocolate-based atole") Sweet chocolate rice porridge Arroz al chocolate
Tsika Chica (meaning "girl") Gossip Chisme
Turon Turrón (meaning "nougat") Fried banana roll Rollo de platano frito
Tuwalya Toalla (meaning "towel") Tripe Mondongo; tripa; callos

Tagalog words derived from pluralized Spanish nouns

Some of the Spanish loanwords in Tagalog appear in their pluralized form, marked with -s or -es. However, in Tagalog, such words are not considered as plural and when they are pluralized in Tagalog, they need to be pluralized in the way that Tagalog pluralizes native words, i.e., by placing the pluralization marker mga before the word.[38] For example, the word butones (meaning button used in clothing, from Sp. botones) is considered singular in Tagalog and its plural form is mga butones.

Tagalog Word Spanish-Derived Word Meaning in Spanish Meaning in Tagalog
Alahas Alhaja (plural form: alhajas) Jewel; Jewelry Jewel; Jewelry
Alkatsopas Alcachofa (plural form: alcachofas) Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
Aratiles Dátil (plural form: dátiles) Date (Phoenix dactilyfera) Calabur or Panama cherry (Muntingia calabura)
Armas Arma (plural form: armas) Weapon; Arm Weapon; Arm
Balbas Barba (plural form: barbas) Beard (facial hair) Beard (facial hair)
Banyos Baño (plural form: baños) Bath; Bathroom Sponge bath
Bayabas Guayaba (plural form: guayabas) Guava (Psidium guajava) Guava (Psidium guajava)
Beses Vez (plural form: veces) Time (repetition) Time (repetition)
Boses Voz (plural form: voces) Voice Voice
Butones (var. bitones) Botón (plural form: botones) Button (clothing) Button (clothing)
Datos Dato (plural form: datos) Fact; Detail; Piece of Information; Data Datum/Data
Garbansos Garbanzo (plural form: garbanzos Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)
Gastos Gasto (plural form: gastos) Cost; Expense; Spending Cost; Expense; Spending
Gisantes Guisante (plural form: guisantes) Pea (Pisum sativum) Pea (Pisum sativum)
Guwantes Guante (plural form: guantes) Glove Glove
Kalatas[39] Carta (plural form: cartas) Letter; Chart; Charter Paper; White Paper; Letter; Written Message
Kamatis Tomate (plural form: tomates) Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum)
Kasilyas Casilla (plural form: casillas) Cubicle; Booth Toilet
Kastanyas Castaña (plural form: castañas) Chestnut (Castanea spp.) Chestnut (Castanea spp.)
Kostilyas Costilla (plural form: costillas) Rib Rib
Kubyertos Cubierto (plural form: cubiertos) Cutlery; silverware Cutlery; silverware
Kuwerdas Cuerda (plural form: cuerdas) Rope; string; chord String of a musical instrument
Kuwintas Cuenta (plural form: cuentas) Jewelry bead Necklace
Kuwitis Cohete (plural form: cohetes) Rocket Fireworks
Labanos Rabano (plural form: rabanos) Radish (Raphanus sativus) Radish (Raphanus sativus)
Lansones Lanzón[40] (plural form: lanzones) Phil. Sp. term for Lansium domesticum Langsat or lanzones (Lansium domesticum)
Letsugas Lechuga (plural form: lechugas) Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
Manggas Manga (plural form: mangas) Sleeve (clothing) Sleeve (clothing)
Mansanas Manzana (plural form: manzanas) Apple (Malus domestica) Apple (Malus domestica)
Materyales Material (plural form: materiales) Material Material
Medyas Media (plural form: medias) Sock Sock
Opisyales Oficial (plural form: oficiales) Officer Officer
Oras Hora (plural form: horas) Hour (unit of time) Hour (unit of time); Time
Panderetas Pandereta (plural form: panderetas) Tambourine Tambourine
Palanas[39] Plana (plural form: planas) Plain (geography) Flat area along a river
Papeles Papel (plural form: papeles) Paper Document
Patatas Patata (plural form: patatas) Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
Pares Par (plural form: pares) Pair Pair; Similar
Pasas Pasa (plural form: pasas) Raisin Raisin
Pastilyas Pastilla (plural form: pastillas) Pill; Tablet; Candy Sweet milk candy (see Pastillas)
Peras Pera (plural form: peras) Pear (Pyrus spp.) Pear (Pyrus spp.)
Perlas Perla (plural form: perlas) Pearl Pearl
Pilduras Pildora (plural form: pildoras) Pill; Tablet Medicinal pill
Pohas Foja (plural form: fojas) Sheet Sheet
Posas Esposa (plural form: esposas) Handcuffs Handcuffs
Presas Presa (plural form: presas) Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)
Prutas Fruta (plural form: frutas) Fruit Fruit
Pulbos Polvo (plural form: polvos) Dust; powder Powder
Pulseras Pulsera (plural form: pulseras) Bracelet Bracelet
Puntos Punto (plural form: puntos) Dot; Period; Point (sports) Score; Point
Rehas Reja (plural form: rejas) Bar; Railing Bar; Railing
Riles Carril (plural form: carriles) Lane; Track Rail; Railroad; Railway
Rosas Rosa (plural form: rosas) Rose (Rosa spp.) Rose (Rosa spp.); Pink (color)
Salas Sala (plural form: salas) Living room Living room
Sapatos Zapato (plural form: zapatos) Shoe Shoe
Sardinas Sardina (plural form: sardinas) Sardine (Clupeidae) Sardine (Clupeidae)
Senyales Señal (plural form: señales) Sign; Signal Sign
Senyas Seña (plural form: señas) Sign; Signal Sign; Signal
Sibuyas Cebolla (plural form: cebollas) Onion (Allium cepa) Onion (Allium cepa)
Sigarilyas Seguidilla[41] (plural form: seguidillas) Phil. Sp. term for Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)
Silahis Celaje (plural form: celajes) Cloudscape; Skylight (architecture) Sunray; Bisexual person[42] (slang)
Singkamas Jícama (plural form: jícamas) Mexican turnip (Pachyrhizus erosus) Mexican turnip (Pachyrhizus erosus)
Sintas Cinta (plural form: cintas) Ribbon; Tape; Lace Shoelace
Sintomas Síntoma (plural form: síntomas) Symptom Symptom
Sopas Sopa (plural form: sopas) Soup Soup
Sorbetes Sorbete (plural form: sorbetes) Sorbet Ice cream
Tsinelas Chinela (plural form: chinelas) Slipper; flip-flop Slipper; Flip-flop
Tsismis Chisme (plural form: chismes) Gossip Gossip
Ubas Uva (plural form: uvas) Grape (Vitis spp.) Grape (Vitis spp.)
Uhales Ojal (plural form: ojales) Buttonhole Buttonhole
Uhas Hoja (plural form: hojas) Leaf Sheet metal

Tagalog words derived from Spanish verbs

Several Spanish verbs are also adopted into Tagalog. Most of them are in their infinitive form characterized by the deletion of their final /r/, like for example in the case of the Tagalog intindi (to understand) derived from the Spanish verb entender[43]. This feature is also found in Chavacano verbs which have a Spanish origin and it can be argued that an already restructured form of Spanish (Chavacano or a pidgin) was the origin of these Tagalog words[44]. A list of these loanwords can be viewed below.

Alternatively, upon adoption into Tagalog, the final /r/ of the Spanish verbs in their infinitive form becomes /l/. Such is the case of the following loanwords: almusal (to have breakfast, from Sp. almorzar), dasal (from Sp. rezar), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), minindal (from Sp. merendar), pasyal (from Sp. pasear) and sugal (from Sp. jugar). In some cases, the final /r/ remains unaltered in the Tagalog form like in the case of andar (to set in action or motion; from Sp. andar), asar (to annoy or to verbally irritate; from Sp. asar) and pundar (to establish or to save money for something; from Sp. fundar).

Conjugated Spanish verbs are also adopted into Tagalog. Examples include: kúha (from Sp. coger), pára (from Sp. parar), pása (from Sp. pasar), puwede (from Sp. poder), tíra (from Sp. tirar) and sige (from Sp. seguir). Imbiyerna (meaning to annoy or to irritate someone) is derived from the Spanish verb infernar (meaning to irritate or to provoke) and was allegedly coined by Ricardo "Rikki" Dalu, originally to describe the hellish feeling and the frustration he experienced when attending Spanish classes[45]. In some cases, the conjugated verbs are combined with another word to form Tagalog morphemes like in the case of the following words: asikaso (from the combination of Sp. hacer and Sp. caso), balewala or baliwala (from the combination of Sp. valer and Tag. wala), etsapwera (from the combination of Sp. echar and Sp. fuera) and kumusta (from the combination of Sp. cómo and Sp. estar).

Tagalog Verb Spanish Verb Meaning in Spanish Meaning in Tagalog
Akusá Acusar To accuse To accuse
Alsá Alzar To lift; to raise; to erect To rise in rebellion
Analisá Analizar To analyze To analyze
Apelá Apelar To appeal To appeal
Aprobá Aprobar To approve To approve
Apurá Apurar To finish; to rush (Lat. Am.) To hurry
Alkilá (var. arkilá) Alquilar To rent; to rent out To rent; to rent out
Asintá Asentar To set up; to secure; to lay down To aim at
Aturgá Otorgar To grant; to bestow; to confer To take on responsibility
Awtorisá Autorizar To authorize To authorize
Bará Barrar To cover in mud To block; to clog
Batí Batir To beat; to whisk; to whip To beat; to whisk; to whip; to masturbate (vulgar)
Beripiká Verificar To verify To verify
Bulkanisá Vulcanizar To vulcanize To vulcanize
Burá Borrar To erase To erase
Burdá Bordar To embroider To embroider
Deklará Declarar To declare To declare
Determiná Determinar To determine To determine
Diktá Dictar To dictate To dictate
Dimití Dimitir To resign To resign
Dirihí Dirigir To manage; to be in charge of To manage; to be in charge of
Disaprobá Disaprobar To disapprove To disapprove
Disarmá Desarmar To disarm To disarm
Disimpektá Desinfectar To disinfect To disinfect
Disimulá Disimular To conceal; to cover up To conceal; to cover up
Diskargá Descargar To unload; to discharge; to download To unload
Diskitá Desquitar To make up for To take it out on
Diskubrí Descubrir To discover To discover
Dismayá Desmayar To become disheartened; to become demoralized To become disheartened; to become demoralized
Distrungká Destroncar To hack away To forcefully open a door, a lock, etc.
Galbanisá Galvanizar To galvanize To galvanize
Gisá Guisar To stew To stir fry in oil, usually with garlic and onions
Hulmá Ahormar To shape; to mould To shape; to mould
Husgá Juzgar To judge To judge
Imbestigá Investigar To investigate To investigate
Imbitá Invitar To invite To invite
Intindí Entender To understand To understand
Itsá Echar To throw To throw
Kalkulá Calcular To calculate To calculate
Kanselá Cancelar To cancel To cancel
Kantá Cantar To sing To sing
Kargá Cargar To load; to charge; to fill To load; to charge; to fill
Kodipiká Codificar To codify; to encode To codify; to encode
Kondená Condenar To condemn To condemn
Konserbá Conservar To conserve To conserve
Konsiderá Considerar To consider To consider
Kublí Cubrir To cover; to cover up To hide from sight
Kubrá Cobrar To demand or to receive payment To demand or to receive payment
Kulá Colar To strain; to bleach To bleach
Kultí Curtir To tan To treat leather or other materials with tanning agents (e.g. tannin)
Kumbidá Convidar To invite To invite
Kumbinsí Convencir To convince To convince
Kumpará Comparar To compare To compare
Kumpirmá Confirmar To confirm To confirm
Kumpiská Confiscar To confiscate; to seize To confiscate; to seize
Kumpuní (var. komponé) Componer To make up; to compose; to repair To repair
Kusí Cocer To cook To cook
Labá Lavar To wash To wash
Legalisá Legalizar To legalize To legalize
Liberalisá Liberalizar To liberalize To liberalize
Manipulá Manipular To manipulate To manipulate
Marká Marcar To mark To mark
Nominá Nominar To nominate To nominate
Obligá Obligar To force; to oblige To force; to oblige
Obserbá Observar To observe To observe
Operá Operar To operate To surgically operate
Palsipiká Falsificar To falsify To falsify
Palyá Fallar To fail; to break down and stop working To fail; to break down and stop working
Paralisá Paralizar To paralyze To paralyze
Pasá Pasar To pass; to happen; to go through To pass an academic course, an examination, an interview, etc.
Pasmá[46] Pasmar To amaze; to astonish; to chill to the bone Pasma (folk illness) and, by extension, to have pasma
Pintá Pintar To paint To paint
Pirmá Firmar To sign To sign
Pormalisá Formalizar To formalize To formalize
Prepará Preparar To prepare To prepare
Preserbá Preservar To preserve To preserve
Proklamá Proclamar To proclaim To proclaim
Pundí Fundir To melt; to merge To burn out
Puntá Apuntar To aim; to point out; to write down To go to
Purgá Purgar To purge To cleanse; to take a purgative or laxative
Pursigí Perseguir To pursue; to follow; to chase; to persecute To persevere
Pustá Apostar To bet; to wager To bet; to wager
Ratipiká Ratificar To ratify To ratify
Reboká Revocar To revoke To revoke
Rekomendá Recomendar To recommend To recommend
Repiná Refinar To refine To refine
Sangkutsá Sancochar or Salcochar To boil with water and salt To pre-cook food with spices and aromatics
Salbá Salvar To save To save
Sará Cerrar To close To close
Silbí Servir To serve To serve
Sindí Encender To ignite; to turn on; to switch on To ignite; to turn on; to switch on
Suldá Soldar To solder; to weld To solder; to weld
Sulsí Zurcir To sew; to mend To sew; to mend
Sumité Someter To subdue; to subjugate; to submit To submit; to put forward
Suspendé Suspendir To suspend To suspend
Tahî Tejer To sew; to mend To sew; to mend
Tantiyá Tantear To feel; to weigh up; to estimate To estimate
Tarantá Atarantar To stun; to daze; to stupify To confuse; to baffle; to bewilder
Tasá Tajar To chop; to cut; to slice To sharpen
Timplá Templar To cool down; to moderate To blend; to mix; to prepare drinks, medicine, chemical solutions, etc.
Tumbá Tumbar To knock down To knock down
Tustá Tostar To toast To toast
Umpisá Empezar To begin; to start To begin; to start

Spanish-Tagalog hybrid compound terms

Some Tagalog compound terms are actually formed through a combination of a native Tagalog term and an etymologically Spanish term, like in the case of the idiomatic expression balat-sibuyas (a term referring to a person's easiness to be offended), which is a combination of the Tagalog balat and Spanish cebolla. The linguist Ekaterina Baklanova distinguishes at least two types of Spanish-Tagalog compound terms: hybrid loanwords[47] or mixed-borrowings[48] are partially translated Spanish terms which are adopted into Tagalog, e.g. karnerong-dagat (derived from the Spanish term carnero marino, meaning "seal") and anemonang-dagat (derived from the Spanish term anémona de mar, meaning "sea anemone"), while hybrid neologisms[49][50] are new terms invented by Filipinos with use of some native and already assimilated Spanish-derived material, e.g. pader-ilog, meaning "embankment", derived from the combination of the Tagalog word ilog (meaning "river") and Spanish word pared (meaning "wall" and adopted in Tagalog as the word pader).

Below is the list of some Spanish-Tagalog hybrid compound terms. Because of the lack of standardization, some of the compound terms listed below are written differently (i.e. without the hyphen) in other Tagalog-based literature. For example, while the term sirang-plaka is usually encountered in many Tagalog-based works without the hyphen, there are also some instances of the term being written with the hyphen like in the case of one of the books written by the Chairman of the Commission on the Filipino Language Virgilio Almario, entitled Filipino ng mga Filipino: mga problema sa ispeling, retorika, at pagpapayaman ng wikang pambansa. Another example is the term takdang-oras, which can also be encountered in the literature without the hyphen. As a rule, a hybrid compound term below will be hyphenated if it has at least one instance of it being written with the hyphen in Tagalog-based literary works.

Compound term Root words Meaning
Agaw-eksena agaw (from Tagalog, meaning to snatch) + eksena (from Sp. escena) Scene-stealer
Alsa-balutan alsa (from Sp. alzar) + balutan (from Tagalog, meaning package) To pack up; to change residence
Amoy-tsiko amoy (from Tagalog, meaning smell) + tsiko (from Sp. chicozapote) Drunk; intoxicated
Anemonang-dagat anemona (from Sp. anémona) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea) Sea anemone
Bágong-salta bago (from Tagalog, meaning new + salta (from Sp. saltar) Newcomer
Balat-sibuyas balat (from Tagalog, meaning skin) + sibuyas (from Sp. cebollas) A person who is easily offended
Balik-eskwela balik (from Tagalog, meaning return) + eskwela (from Sp. escuela) Back-to-school
Bantay-sarado bantay (from Tagalog, meaning to guard) + sarado (from Sp. cerrado) Well-guarded; closely guarded
Bigay-todo bigay (from Tagalog, meaning to give) + todo (from Sp. todo) Giving one's all
Boses-ipis boses (from Sp. voces) + ipis (from Tagalog, meaning cockroach) Inaudible voice
Boses-palaka boses (from Sp. voces) + palaka (from Tagalog, meaning frog) Croaky voice
Bugbog-sarado bugbog (from Tagalog, meaning to beat up) + sarado (from Sp. cerrado) Heavily beaten
Bulak-niyebe bulak (from Tagalog, meaning cotton) + niyebe (from Sp. nieve) Snowflake
Dilang-anghel dila (from Tagalog, meaning tongue) + anghel (from Sp. angel) Having the gift of prophecy
Dilang-baka dila (from Tagalog, meaning tongue) + baka (from Sp. vaca) Opuntia cochenillifera
Doble-ingat doble (from Sp. doble) + ingat (from Tagalog, meaning to be cautious) To take extra precautions
Doble-talim doble (from Sp. doble) + talim (from Tagalog, meaning sharpness) Double-edged
Epikong-bayan epiko (from Sp. poema épico) + bayan (from Tagalog, meaning country) Folk epic
Esponghang-dagat espongha (from. Sp. esponja) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea) Sea sponge
Giyera-patani giyera (from Sp. guerra) + patani (from Tagalog term for Phaseolus lunatus) Heated verbal exchange
Hating-globo hati (from Tagalog, meaning half) + globo (from Sp. globo) Hemisphere
Hiram-kantores hiram (from Tagalog, meaning to borrow) + kantores (from Sp. cantores) Non-returnable
Kabayong-dagat kabayo (from Sp. cavallo) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea) Seahorse (Hippocampus spp.)
Karnerong-dagat karnero (from Sp. carnero) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea) Seal
Kayod-marino kayod (from Tagalog, meaning to grate) + marino (from Sp. marino) Hard worker
Kilos-protesta kilos (from Tagalog, meaning movement) + protesta (from Sp. protesta) Demonstration; street protest
Kuwentong-bayan kwento (from Sp. cuento) + bayan (from Tagalog, meaning country) Folk stories
Lakad-pato lakad (from Tagalog, meaning walk) + pato (from Sp. pato) Waddle
Leong-dagat leon (from Sp. león) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea) Sea lion
Mukhang-pera mukha (from Tagalog, meaning face) + pera (from Sp. perra gorda or perra chica) Profit-oriented; easily corruptible through bribes
Pader-ilog pader (from Sp. pared) + ilog (from Tagalog, meaning river) Embankment
Pampalipas-oras lipas (from Tagalog, meaning to pass) + oras (from Sp. horas) Pastime; hobby
Panday-yero panday (from Tagalog, meaning smith) + yero (from Sp. hierro) Ironsmith
Patay-malisya patay (from Tagalog, meaning dead) + malisya (from Sp. malicia) Feigning innocence; pretending not to know that something is amiss
Pusòng-mamon puso (from Tagalog, meaning heart) + mamon (from Sp. mamón) Soft-hearted; kind and compassionate
Sanib-puwersa sanib (from Tagalog, meaning to join together) + puwersa (from Sp. fuerza) To join forces
Siling-haba sili (from Sp. chile) + haba (from Tagalong, meaning length) Capsicum annuum var. longum
Siling-labuyo sili (from Sp. chile) + labuyo (from Tagalog, meaning wild chicken) Capsicum frutescens
Singsing-pari singsing (from Tagalog, meaning ring) + pari (meaning priest, from Sp. padre) Millipede
Sirang-plaka sira (from Tagalog, meaning broken) + plaka (from Sp. placa) Someone or something that annoyingly repeats itself
Sulat-makinilya sulat (from Tagalog, meaning script/writing) + makinilya (from Sp. maquinilla) Typewritten
Taas-presyo taas (from Tagalog, meaning high) + presyo (from Sp. precio) Price increase
Tabing-kalsada tabi (from Tagalog, meaning side) + kalsada (from Sp. calzada) Roadside
Tabing-kalye tabi (from Tagalog, meaning side) + kalye (from Sp. calle) Roadside
Takaw-aksidente takaw (from Tagalog, meaning greedy) + aksidente (from Sp. accidente) Accident-prone
Takaw-disgrasya takaw (from Tagalog, meaning greedy) + disgrasya (from Sp. desgracia) Accident-prone
Takdang-oras takda (from Tagalog, meaning to set/to assign) + oras (from Sp. horas) Fixed or appointed time
Takdang-petsa takda (from Tagalog, meaning to set/to assign) + petsa (from Sp. fecha) Due date; Deadline
Tanim-bala tanim (from Tagalog, meaning to plant) + bala (from Sp. bala) Planting evidence of illegal bullet possession
Tanim-droga tanim (from Tagalog, meaning to plant) + droga (from Sp. droga) Planting evidence of illegal drug possession
Táong-grasa tao (from Tagalog, meaning human) + grasa (from Sp. grasa) Homeless man or woman
Tubig-gripo tubig (from Tagalog, meaning water) + gripo (from Sp. grifo) Tap water
Tulak-droga tulak (from Tagalog, meaning to push) + droga (from Sp. droga) Drug pusher
Túlog-mantika tulog (from Tagalog, meaning sleep) + mantika (from Sp. manteca) Someone or something that doesn't wake up easily
Tunog-lata tunog (from Tagalog, meaning soundor tune) + lata (from Sp. lata) Tinny; sounding like tin


English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. This kind of conversation is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are mostly modern and technical terms, but English words are also used for short usage (many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid literal translation and repetition of the same particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest vocabulary of Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog sentence are written as they are, but they are sometimes written in Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:

Tagalog English Traditional Word(s)
Adik Drug addict Durugista (Sp. drogas + -ista)
Adyenda Agenda
Bag Bag Supot
Bakwit Evacuate Lumikas
Barbikyu Barbecue
Basketbol Basketball
Beysbol Baseball
Bilyar Billiard
Biskuwit Biscuit
Bistek Beef steak
Bodabíl Vaudeville
Boksing Boxing
Bolpen Ballpoint pen
Drayber Driver Tsuper (Sp. chofer)
Dyaket Jacket
Dyakpat Jackpot
Dyip/Dyipni Jeep/Jeepney
Gadyet Gadget
Gradweyt Graduate Nakapagtapos ng pag-aaral; gradwado (Sp. graduado)
Hayskul High school Paaralang sekundarya (sekundarya = Sp. secundaria); Mataas na paaralan
Helikopter Helicopter
Interbyu Interview Panayam, Entrebista (Sp. entrevista)
Internet Internet
Iskedyul Schedule Talaorasan (oras = Sp. horas)
Iskolar Scholar
Iskor Score Puntos (Sp. punto)
Iskul School Paaralan
Iskrip Script
Iskrin Screen Tábing
Iskuter Scooter
Iskuwater Squatter
Ispayral Spiral Balisungsong
Ispiker Speaker (person) Tagapagsalita, Tagatalumpati, Mananalumpati
Isponsor Sponsor Tagatangkilik
Isport Sport Palaro, Palakasan, Paligsahan (also translates as "contest" or "tournament")
Isprey Spray Wisik
Istandard Standard Pamantayan, Panukatan
Kabinet Cabinet Aparador (Sp.)
Kambas Canvass
Kapirayt Copyright Karapatang-sipi
Karot Carrot Asinorya, Asanorya
Kemikal Chemical
Kendi Candy Minatamis (Eng. "sweets")
Ketsap Ketchup Sarsa (Sp. salsa)
Keyk Cake
Kompiyuter Computer
Korek Correct Ayos, Tama (Sans.), Tumpak
Kyut Cute Lindo (m) & Linda (f) (Sp.)
Lider Leader Pinuno
Lobat[51] Low battery
Madyik Magic Salamangka
Magasin Magazine
Miskol[51] Missed call
Miting Meeting Pulong
Nars Nurse
Okey OK, Okay Sige (Sp. sigue)
Plastik Plastic
Pulis Police
Rali Rally
Sandwits Sandwich
Tambay Stand by
Tenis Tennis
Tin-edyer Teenager Lalabintaunin
Titser Teacher Guro (Sans. "guru"), Maestro (m) & Maestra (f)(Sp.)
Tisyu Tissue
Traysikel Tricycle Trisiklo
Trey Tray
Wáis Wise Mautak, Maabilidad (abilidad = Sp.)


Many Malay loanwords entered the Tagalog vocabulary during pre-colonial times as Old Malay became the lingua franca of trade, commerce and diplomatic relations during the pre-colonial era of Philippine history as evidenced by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD and accounts of Pigafetta at the time of the Spanish arrival in the country five centuries later.

Tagalog Etymology Meaning in Tagalog
Balaklaot[52] barat laut (Malay, meaning northwest) Northwestern winds
Batubalani[53] batu (Malay and Tagalog, meaning stone) + berani (Malay, meaning brave) Magnetite; Magnet stone
Bibingka[54] kuih bingka (Malay, referring to tapioca or cassava cake) Rice cake with coconut milk
Bilanggo belenggu (Malay, meaning shackles or chain) Prison; Prisoner
Binibini[55] bini (Malay, meaning wife) Miss; Young lady
Bunso[56] bongsu (Malay, meaning youngest-born) Youngest child
Dalamhati dalam (Malay, meaning within) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Grief
Dalubhasa juru (Malay, meaning expert) + bahasa (Malay, meaning language) Expert (in general)
Hatol[57] atur (Malay, meaning order or arrangement) Sentence pronounced by a judge in court
Kanan[58] kanan (Malay, meaning right) Right
Kawal[59] kawal (Malay, meaning watchman, patrol or guard) Soldier; Warrior
Kulambo[60] kelambu (Malay, meaning mosquito net) Mosquito net
Lagari[61] gergaji (Malay, meaning carpenter's saw) Carpenter's saw
Lunggati lung (Tagalog root word meaning grief[62]) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Eagerness; Ambition
Luwalhati luwal (Tagalog, meaning outside) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Inner peace
Uluhati ulo (Tagalog, meaning head) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Remembrance; Reminiscence
Pighati pedih (Malay, meaning pain) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Affliction; Anguish; Woe
Pirali[63] pijar (Malay, meaning borax) Calcium carbonate
Salaghati salag or salak (Tagalog, meaning full and levelled) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Displeasure; Resentment
Takal[64] takar (Malay, meaning a measure of capacity for oil, etc.) Measurement by volume of liquids and of grains
Tanghali[65] tengah (Malay, meaning half) + hari (Malay, meaning day) Noon; Midday
Tiyanak[66] puntianak (Malay, referring to a vampire, ghost or reanimated body supposed to suck blood) Vampiric creature that imitates the form of a child
Usap[67] ucap (Malay, meaning utterance) Conversation


As in most Austronesian languages, the Sanskrit vocabulary incorporated into Tagalog are mostly borrowed indirectly via Malay or Javanese.[68] Examples include:

Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning in Tagalog
Agham ?gama (), meaning acquisition of knowledge, science Science
Antala Antara (), meaning duration, gap Delay
Asal ?c?ra (?), meaning manner of action, conduct, behavior Behaviour; Character
Bahala Bhara (), meaning burden, load, weight, heavy work To manage; to take care of; to take charge
Balita V?rt? (), meaning account, report News
Bansa Vaa (), meaning bamboo cane, genealogy, dynasty, race, Country
Banyaga Va?ijaka (), meaning merchant, trader Foreigner
Basa Vaca (), meaning voice, speech To read
Bathalà Batthara (), meaning noble lord, venerable Supreme Being; God
Bihasa Abhyasa (), meaning habit Accustomed
Budhi Bodhi (?), meaning understanding Conscience
Dala Dhara (), meaning bearing, supporting To carry; to bring
Dawa[69] Yava (), meaning Hordeum vulgare Panicum miliaceum
Daya Dvaya (?), meaning twofold nature, falsehood Cheating; Deception
Diwa J?va (), meaning the principle of life, vital breath Spirit; Soul
Diwata Devata (), meaning divinity Fairy, Goddess, Nymph
Dukha Dukkha (?),meaning sorrow, misery, hardship Poverty
Dusa Do?a (), meaning harm, damage, bad consequence Suffering
Dusta Dita (), meaning defiled, violated, injured Ignominiously insulted
Gadya Gaja (), meaning elephant Elephant
Ganda Gandha (?), meaning aroma, fragrance Beauty; beautiful
Guro Guru (?), meaning master, teacher Mentor; Teacher
Halaga Argha (?), meaning value Price; Value
Halata Arthaya (), meaning perceive Noticeable; Perceptible; Obvious
Haraya Hridaya (?), meaning heart Imagination
Hina H?na (), meaning weaker/lower than, abandoned, deficient Weakness; fragility
Hiwaga Vihaga (?), meaning bird Mystery; miracle
Kasubha Kusumbha (?), meaning Carthamus tinctorius Carthamus tinctorius
Kastuli Kast?r? (?), meaning Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmoschus moschatus
Katha Kath? (), meaning a feigned story, fable Literary composition; Fiction; Invention
Kalapati; Palapati P?r?pata? (), meaning pigeon Pigeon
Kuba Kubja (), meaning hunchback Hunchback
Kuta Kota (), meaning fort, stronghold Fort
Ladya Raja (), meaning king, chief, sovereign Raja
Lagundi Nirgundi (?), meaning Vitex negundo Vitex negundo
Laho R?hu (?), meaning eclipse Eclipse,; to vanish
Lasa Rasa (), meaning taste, savour Taste
Likha Lekh? (?), meaning drawing, figure To create
Lisa Lik (), meaning egg of a louse Egg of a louse
Madla Mandala (), meaning circle, multitude The general public
Maharlika Maharddhika (), meaning prosperous Nobility; Prehispanic Tagalog social class composed of freedmen
Mukha Mukha (), meaning face Face
Mula Mula (), meaning basis, foundation, origin, beginning From; since; origin
Mutya Mutya (), meaning pearl Amulet; Charm; Jewel; Pearl
Paksa Paksha (?), meaning a point or matter under discussion Theme; topic; subject
Palakol Para?u (?), meaning axe Axe
Palibhasa Paribhasa (?), meaning speech, censure, reproof Irony; Sarcasm; Criticism
Parusa Tagalog prefix pa- + dusa, from Sanskrit do?a () Punishment
Patola Patola (?), meaning Trichosanthes dioica Luffa acutangula
Saksí S?k?in (), meaning eye-witness Witness
Sakuna Zakuna (?), meaning a bird of omen Disaster
Salamuha Samuha (?), meaning gathering, crowd To mingle with people
Salanta Randa (?), meaning maimed, crippled Infirm
Salita Carita (?), meaning behaviour, acts, deeds, adventures To speak; to talk; word
Samantala Samantara (?), meaning parallel Meanwhile
Sampalataya Sampratyaya (?), meaning trust, confidence Faith
Sandata Sa?yatta (), meaning prepared, being on one's guard Weapon
Sigla S?ghra (), meaning swift, quick, speedy Enthusiasm; Vitality
Suka Cukra (), meaning vinegar Vinegar
Sutla S?tra (), meaning thread, string, wire Silk
Tala T?ra (), meaning star Star
Tanikala Skhala (), meaning chain Chain
Tingga Tivra (), meaning tin, iron, steel Tin
Tsampaka Campaka (), meaning Magnolia champaca Magnolia champaca
Upang Upa (), meaning towards, near to So as to, in order to



Tagalog Tamil Meaning
Mangga[] (M?ng?i) Mango
Malunggay[] (Murungai) Moringa
Puto[] (Puttu) Rice cake

Arabic and Persian

There are very few words in Tagalog that are identified as Arabic or Persian in origin. According to Jean-Paul Potet, there are 60 Tagalog words that are identified with reasonable confidence as derived from Arabic or Persian, half of which are probably (roughly 23%) or unquestionably (roughly 26%) borrowed indirectly through Malay[70]. The other half of the identified loanwords are directly derived from Arabic or Persian, like for example the word gumamela (the local Tagalog term for the Hibiscus flowers, derived from Arabic meaning beautiful). The table below shows the different Arabic loanwords, including the archaic and poetic ones, incorporated into the Tagalog lexicon. If an Arabic loanword is considered to be borrowed through the mediation of Malay, the intermediate Malay term is also specified.

Several Spanish loanwords incorporated into Tagalog have origins in the Arabic language.[71] Examples include alahas (meaning jewel, from Sp. alhaja and ultimately from Arabic ? meaning "necessary or valuable thing"), albayalde (meaning white lead, from Sp. albayalde and ultimately from Arabic ? meaning "white" or "whiteness"), alkansiya (meaning piggy bank, from Sp. alcancía and ultimately from Arabic meaning "treasure"), alkatsopas (meaning artichoke, from Sp. alcachofa and ultimately from Arabic ), almires (meaning small mortar, from Sp. almirez and ultimately from Arabic ), asapran (meaning saffron, from Sp. azafrán and ultimately from Arabic ), baryo (meaning village, from Sp. barrio and ultimately from Arabic ), kapre (a Filipino mythological creature, from Sp. cafre and ultimately from Arabic ), kisame (meaning ceiling, from Sp. zaquizamí and ultimately from Arabic meaning "ceiling in the sky"), etc. The table below does not include these numerous Hispano-Arabic terms as it will only focus on those loanwords which are directly borrowed from Arabic or Persian, or indirectly borrowed through Malay.

Tagalog Arabic/Persian Malay intermediate Meaning in Tagalog
Agimat (Arabic, meaning amulet, talisman, magic spell) Azimat (meaning talisman) Amulet; talisman
Alak (Arabic, meaning liquor) Arak (meaning liquor) Liquor
Anakura[72] (Persian, meaning ship's captain) Nakhoda (meaning ship's captain) Ship's captain
Daulat ? (Arabic, meaning rotation, turn of fortune) Daulat (meaning prosperity, happiness) Luck; fortune; fate
Gumamela (Arabic, meaning beautiful) Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Hukom (Arabic, meaning judgment) Hukum (meaning judgment,law) Judge
Katan ? (Arabic, meaning circumcision) Circumcised
Kupya (Arabic, meaning headgear, keffieh) Kopiah (meaning cap) Iron helmet or similar headgear
Malim ? (Arabic, meaning teacher) Malim (meaning maritime pilot) Maritime pilot
Mansigit ? (Arabic, meaning mosque) Temple
Paham (Arabic, meaning understanding) Paham (meaning science, understanding) A learned person; scholar
Pangadyi Tag. pang- + ? (Arabic, meaning a pilgrim to Mecca) Pengajian (meaning recitation, reading) Muslim prayer; prayer to a Tagalog deity
Pinggan[73] (Persian, meaning cup, bowl) Pinggan (meaning dish, plate, saucer) Dish plate
Salabat ? (Arabic, meaning any non-alcoholic drink) Ginger tea
Salamat[74] (Persian, meaning thank you) Thank you
Salapi (Arabic, meaning to pay, to earn) Coin; money
Salawal[73] (Persian, meaning bloomers, pantaloons, trousers) Seluar (meaning breeches, trousers) Underpants
Siyak (Arabic, meaning elder, master, teacher, sheik) Siak (meaning a mosque caretaker) Muslim cleric
Sumbali ? (Arabic, meaning to say or repeat "Subhanallah") Cutting the throat of an animal
Sunat (Arabic, meaning tradition) Sunat (meaning circumcision) Excision of the clitoris


Many of the Chinese loanwords in Tagalog are derived from Hokkien, the Southern Chinese variety spoken in the Philippines. Most of the 163 Hokkien-derived terms collected and analyzed by Gloria Chan-Yap are fairly recent and do not appear in the earliest Spanish dictionaries of Tagalog[75]. Many of the Hokkien-derived loanwords like pancit[76] entered the Tagalog vocabulary during the Spanish colonial era when the Philippines experienced an increased influx of Chinese immigrants (mostly from the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong in Southern China[77]) as Manila became an international entrepôt with the flourishing of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade[78][79]. Attractive economic opportunities boosted Chinese immigration to Spanish Manila and the new Chinese settlers brought with them their skills, culinary traditions and language, with the latter then influencing the native languages of the Philippines in the form of loanwords, most of which are related to cookery[80][81]. On the other hand, only few of the Chinese loanwords are derived from Mandarin[75].

Tagalog Hokkien (H) Meaning in Hokkien Meaning in Tagalog
Angkak /âng-khak (H) Red yeast rice Red yeast rice
Apyan /a-phiàn (H) Opium Opium
Ate /á-chí (H) Appellation for elder sister Appellation for elder sister
Baktaw /ba?k-táu (H) Carpenter's ink marker Carpenter's ink marker
Bakya /ba?k-kia?h (H) Wooden clogs Wooden clogs
Bataw /pà-ta? (H) Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus)
Batsoy /bà-cuì (H) Dish with loin of pork as main ingredient Batchoy
Bihon /bî-hún (H) Rice vermicelli Rice vermicelli
Biko /bí-k? (H) Sweetened rice cake Sweetened rice cake
Bimpo[82] /b?n-p? (H) Face towel Face towel
Betsin /b?-cheng (H) Monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate
Buwisit[83] /b?-uî-sít (H) Without clothes or food Nuisance
Diko /d?-kô (H) Appellation for second eldest brother Appellation for second eldest brother
Dimsum /dim2 sam1 (C) Dim sum; snack; pastry Dim sum
Ditse /d?-cì (H) Appellation for second eldest sister Appellation for second eldest sister
Ginto[84] /kim-tiâu (H) Gold bar Gold (Au)
Hikaw /h?-kau (H) Earrings Earrings
Hopya /h?-pià (H) Sweet mung bean cake Sweet mung bean cake
Hukbo /hôk-b? (H) Service Army
Husi /hù-si (H) Quality cotton Cloth made from pineapple fibre
Huwepe /huè-p? (H) Torch Torch
Huweteng /huê-t?ng (H) Jueteng Jueteng
Impo /in-bó? (H) His mother Grandmother
Ingkong /in-kông (H) His father Grandfather
Intsik /in-chek/in-chiak (H) His uncle; their uncle (informal) Chinese people, language, or culture
Kintsay /khîn-cha? (H) Celery (Apium graveolens) Celery (Apium graveolens)
Kiti /ke-t? (H) Young Chick Young Chick
Kutsay /khû-cha? (H) Chinese chives (Allium ramosum) Chinese chives (Allium ramosum)
Kusot /kù-sùt (H) Sawdust Sawdust
Kuya /ko?-hia? (H) Appellation for elder brother Appellation for elder brother
Lawin /la?-yêng (H) Any bird belonging to Accipitridae or Falconidae Any bird belonging to Accipitridae or Falconidae
Lithaw[85] /lé-thaú (H) Plough Ploughshare
Lomi /ló?-m? (H) Lor mee - Chinese noodle dish Lomi / Pancit Lomi - Filipino-Chinese noodle dish
Lumpiya /lûn-pià (H) Fried or fresh spring rolls Fried or fresh spring rolls
Mami /mà-m? (H) Meat and noodles in soup Meat and noodles in soup
Miswa /m?-sòa? (H) Misua - chinese salted noodles Very thin variety of salted noodle Misua soup
Pansit /pân-si?t (H) Dish that is conveniently cooked i.e. noodle dish Pancit - any noodle dish
Pakyaw /pák-kiaù (H) Wholesale buying Wholesale buying
Petsay[86] /p?-cha? (H) Napa cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) Napa cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis)
Pesa /p?-sà-hí (H) Plain boiled fish Plain boiled fish
Pinse /piên-s? (H) Borax Borax
Pisaw /pì-siù (H) Dagger Small knife
Puntaw /pùn-taù (H) Dustpan Dustpan
Puthaw[87] /pú-thâu (H) Axe Hatchet; Small axe
Sampan /san-pán (H) Chinese boat; Chinese junk Chinese boat; Chinese junk
Sangko /sâ-kô (H) Appellation for third eldest brother Appellation for third eldest brother
Sanse /sâ-cì (H) Appellation for third eldest sister Appellation for third eldest sister
Singki /sin-kheh (H) New guest / customer Newcomer; Beginner
Sitaw /chî-ta? (H) Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis)
Siyansi /chian-sî (H) Kitchen turner Kitchen turner
Sotanghon /su?-tâng-hùn (H) Cellophane noodles Cellophane noodles
Suki /chù-khè (H) Important costumer Regular customer; Patron
Sungki[82] /chûn-khì (H) Protruding tooth Buck tooth
Susi /só-sî (H) Key Key
Suwahe /su?-hé (H) Greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) Greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis)
Suya /soe-a (H) Expression for "How unlucky!" Disgust
Siyokoy /cuí-kuì (H) Water spirit; Water devil Merman
Siyomay /si?-ma? (H) Steamed dumpling Shumai/Siomai - Steamed dumpling
Siyopaw /si?-pa? (H) Meat-filled steamed bun Siopao - Meat-filled steamed bun
Taho /ta?-hû (H) Tofu Taho
Tahure (var. tahuri) /ta?-hû (H) Tofu Fermented tofu in soy sauce
Tanglaw /tiêng-laú (H) Lamp; Lantern Light
Tanso /táng-sò (H) Copper wire Copper (Cu), Bronze
Tawsi /t?u-si (H) Beans preserved in soy sauce Beans preserved in soy sauce
Timsim (var. tingsim) /tiêng-sîm (H) Lampwick Lampwick
Tinghoy /tiêng-huè (H) Wick lamp Wick lamp in glass filled with oil
Tikoy /tî-kè (H) Sweetened rice cake Sweetened rice cake
Toge /t?u-gê (H) Bean sprout Bean sprout
Tokwa /ta?-kuâ (H) Tofu Tofu
Totso ?/ta?-i?-chò-hí (H) Fish cooked in soy sauce and vinegar Sautéed fish with tahure
Toyo /t?u-iû (H) Soy sauce Soy sauce
Tsaa ?/tsá (H) Tea Tea
Tutsang /thâu-chang (H) Hair Short hair on a woman's head
Upo /?-pú (H) Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)
Utaw /?-ta? (H) Black Soybean (Glycine max) Soybean (Glycine max)
Wansoy (var. unsoy, yansoy) /i?n-suî (H) Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)


There are very few Tagalog words that are derived from Japanese[88]. Many of them are introduced as recently as the twentieth century like tansan[89] (bottle cap, from the Japanese which originally means refers to soda and carbonated drinks) and karaoke (from the Japanese ?, literally means "empty orchestra") although there are very few Japanese words that appear in the earliest Spanish dictionaries of Tagalog such as katana (Japanese sword, from the Japanese with the same meaning).

Some Filipino jokes are based on comical reinterpretation of Japanese terms as Tagalog words like for example in the case of otousan (from the Japanese ? meaning "father") which is reinterpreted as utusan (meaning "servant" or "maid") in Tagalog[90]. As for the Tagalog word Japayuki, it refers to the Filipino migrants who flocked to Japan starting in the 1980s to work as entertainers and it is a portmanteau of the English word Japan and the Japanese word yuki (or , meaning "going" or "bound to").

Tagalog Japanese Meaning in Japanese Meaning in Tagalog
Bonsay (bonsai) Bonsai; miniature potted plant (slang) Short in height[91][92]; bonsai; miniature potted plant
Dorobo (dorob?) Thief; burglar; robber Thief; burglar; robber
Dyak en poy[93] (jankenpon) Rock-paper-scissors game Rock-paper-scissors game
Kampay (kanpai) Cheers Cheers
Karaoke ? (karaoke) Karaoke (singing to taped accompaniment) Karaoke (singing to taped accompaniment)
Karate (karate) Karate Karate
Katana ? (katana) Katana; a Japanese sword Katana; a Japanese sword
Katol (katorisenk?) Mosquito coil; anti-mosquito incense Mosquito coil; anti-mosquito incense
Kimona (kimono) Kimono (or other trad. Japanese clothing) Traditional Philippine blouse made of piña or jusi
Kirey (kirei) Pretty; lovely; beautiful; fair (slang) Pretty; lovely; beautiful; fair
Kokang (k?kan) Exchange; interchange (slang) Exchange; interchange
Pampan ? (panpan) (slang) Prostitute (esp. just after WWII) (slang) Prostitute
Shabu (shabu) (slang) Methamphetamine hydrochloride Methamphetamine hydrochloride
Taksan-taksan (takusan) Much; many (slang) Much; many
Tansan (tansan) Carbonated water Bottle cap
Tsunami (tsunami) Tsunami; tidal wave Tsunami; tidal wave


Tagalog gained Nahuatl words through Spanish from the Galleon trade with Mexico during the Hispanic era.[94]

Here are some examples:

Tagalog Word Nahuatl Root Word Spanish Word Meaning and Further Comments
Abokado Ahuacatl Aguacate Persea americana
Akapulko (var. kapurko) Acapolco Acapulco Senna alata
Alpasotis (var. pasotis) Epazotl Epazote Chenopodium ambrosioides
Atole[95] Atolli Atole Paste made from flour
Atsuwete Achiotl Achiote Bixa orellana
Guwatsinanggo Cuauchilnacatl Guachinango Shrewd; cunning; astute
Kakaw Cacáhuatl Cacao Theobroma cacao
Kakawati (var. kakawate) Cacáhuatl Cacahuate Gliricidia sepium
Kalatsutsi (var. kalanotse) Cacaloxochitl Cacalosúchil Plumeria rubra
Kamatis Tomatl Tomate Solanum lycopersicum
Kamatsile Cuamóchitl Guamúchil Pithecellobium dulce
Kamote Camotli Camote Ipomoea batatas
Koyote (var. kayote) Coyotl Coyote Canis latrans
Kulitis Quilitl Quelite Amaranthus viridis
Mekate Mecatl Mecate Rope or cord made out of abaca
Mehiko M?xihco Mexico Mexico
Nanay[96][97] Nantli Nana Mother
Paruparo[98][94](var. paparo) Papalotl Papalote Butterfly
Petate[99] Petlatl Petate Woven palm-matting
Peyote Peyotl Peyote Lophophora williamsii
Pitaka Petlacalli Petaca Coin purse
Sakate Zacatl Zacate Hay or grass for fodder
Sangkaka Chiancaca Chancaca Cakes of hardened molasses
Sapote Tzapotl Zapote Pouteria sapota
Sayote Chayotli Chayote Sechium edule
Sili Ch?lli Chile Chili pepper
Singkamas Xicamatl Jicama Pachyrhizus erosus
Sisiwa Chichiua Chichigua Wet nurse
Tamalis (var. tamales) Tamalli Tamal Rice-based tamales wrapped in banana leaves or corn husks
Tapangko[100] Tlapanco Tapanco Awning
Tatay[96][101] Tahtli Tata Father
Tisa Tizatl Tiza Chalk
Tiyangge (var. tsangge) Tianquiztli Tianguis Open-air market
Tokayo (var. tukayo, katukayo) Tocayotia Tocayo Namesake
Tsiklet (var. tsikle) Chictli Chicle Chewing gum
Tsiko Tzicozapotl Chicozapote Manilkara zapota
Tsokolate Xocolatl Chocolate Chocolate

See also


  1. ^ Thompson, Roger M. (2003). Filipino English and Taglish: Language Switching from Multiple Perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 59. ISBN 9789027248916. In their review of a Pilipino English dictionary, Llamzon and Thorpe (1972) point out that 33% of word roots are of Spanish origin.
  2. ^ "Ebolusyon ng Alpabetong Filipino". Retrieved 2010.
  3. ^ a b c Forastieri Braschi, Eduardo; Cardona, Julia; López Morales, Humberto. Estudios de lingüística hispánica : homenaje a María Vaquero.
  4. ^ a b Quilis, Antonio; Casado-Fresnillo, Celia. La lengua española en Filipinas. Historia. Situación actual. El chabacano. Antología de textos.
  5. ^ Alcantara y Antonio, Teresita (1999). Mga hispanismo sa Filipino: batay sa komunikasyong pangmadla ng Filipinas : pag-aaral lingguwistiko. Diliman, Quezon City : Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. ISBN 978-9718781777.
  6. ^ Lopez, Cecilio (January 1, 1965). "The Spanish overlay in Tagalog". Lingua. 14: 481. doi:10.1016/0024-3841(65)90058-6. ISSN 0024-3841.
  7. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - d". Apparently a phonologically modified borrowing of Spanish tinta 'dye'.
  8. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. p. 308. ISBN 9781326615796. The Spanish digraph [lj]/[?] was certainly pronounced [j] by many Spaniards during the Renaissance in so far as it often became [j] in Tagalog
  9. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. p. 308. ISBN 9781326615796. Conversely, other terms had the pronunciation [lj], and this is reflected in Tagalog. These were probably introduced in the Philippines in the 19th century by educated Peninsulares
  10. ^ Lopez, Cecilio (January 1, 1965). "The Spanish overlay in Tagalog". Lingua. 14: 480. doi:10.1016/0024-3841(65)90058-6. ISSN 0024-3841. T. ladrilyo : laryo 'brick. tile'
  11. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. pp. 318-319. ISBN 9781326615796.
  12. ^ Alcantara y Antonio, Teresita (1999). Mga hispanismo sa Filipino: batay sa komunikasyong pangmadla ng Filipinas : pag-aaral lingguwistiko. Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. p. 86. ISBN 9789718781777.
  13. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. p. 307. ISBN 9781326615796.
  14. ^ K, Lim T. (2012). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 1, Fruits. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 472. ISBN 9789048186617.
  15. ^ Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T. (1983). Tagalog Reference Grammar (in Tagalog). University of California Press. p. 514. ISBN 9780520049437.
  16. ^ Vos, Frederik and Fiona De. "Tagalog Pwera sa, Maliban sa".
  17. ^ Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa (2008). "Hispanisation processes in the Philippines (Patrick O. Steinkrüger)". Hispanisation: the impact of Spanish on the lexicon and grammar of the indigenous languages of Austronesia and the Americas. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 211. ISBN 9783110207231. Spanish has exerted less influence on the syntactical structure of Philippine languages, including Tagalog.
  18. ^ Sayahi, Lotfi; Westmoreland, Maurice (2005). "Code-switching or Borrowing? No sé so no puedo decir, you know (John M. Lipski)". Selected Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project. p. 2. ISBN 9781574734058. A number of indigenous languages that have coexisted with Spanish for long periods of time have fully incorporated Spanish functional words, at times producing syntactic innovations that depart significantly from the base structures of the borrowing language. Thus Tagalog has pirmi < firme `always,' para (sa) `for the benefit of' (e.g. Ito ay álaala ko para sa aking iná `this is my gift for my mother'), puwede `can, may, [to be] possible' gustó `like, desire,' siguro `maybe,' por eso, pero, puwés < pues `therefore,' etc. (Oficina de Educación Iberoamericana 1972).
  19. ^ Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa (2008). "Hispanisation processes in the Philippines (Patrick O. Steinkrüger)". Hispanisation: the impact of Spanish on the lexicon and grammar of the indigenous languages of Austronesia and the Americas. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 211. ISBN 9783110207231. Clear influences of Spanish can be observed in the morphosyntax of comparison, some modal adverbials and conjunctions.
  20. ^ Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T (1983). Tagalog reference grammar. University of California Press. p. 514. ISBN 9780520049437. Kumusta, which is derived from Spanish cómo está 'how is', is used as the interrogative substitute for an adjective of quality.
  21. ^ Ramos, Teresita V.; Cena, Resty M. (1990). Modern Tagalog. University of Hawaii Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780824813321. Non-Equality mas, sa/ kaysa (sa)/ (kaysa) kay
  22. ^ Gallego, Maria Kristina S. (2015). "Ang mga Nominal Marker ng Filipino at Ivatan". Daluyan: Journal ng Wikang Filipino (in Tagalog). 21 (1): 86. ISSN 2244-6001. Retrieved 2019. Ang comparison o paghahambing ay ipinapahayag gamit ang kumpara, kaysa, o katulad kasama ng nominal marker. Ang paghahambing sa (63a) ay nagpapakita ng pagkakaiba, samantalang ang sa (63b) ay nagpapakita ng pagkakatulad.
  23. ^ Sabbagh, Joseph (June 1, 2011). "Adjectival passives and the structure of VP in Tagalog". Lingua. 121 (8): 1439. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2011.03.006. ISSN 0024-3841. Significantly, there is a way to express a meaning that is quite similar to the sentences in (42), using the adverbial pareho ('same'). Consider the examples in (43).
  24. ^ Martin, J.R. (June 1990). "Interpersonal Grammatization: Mood and Modality in Tagalog" (PDF). Philippine Journal of Linguistics. 21: 23. Modulation (or deontic modality) is concerned with inclination, obligation and ability. In Tagalog, modulation is grammaticized through what Schachter and Otanes (1972:261-73) refer to as 'pseudo-verbs', which for them are a subclass of adjectivals.
  25. ^ Asarina, Alya; Holt, Anna (September 2005). "Syntax and Semantics of Tagalog Modals" (PDF). UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics: 13. Puwede and maaari may both be translated as 'can'. There seems to be little semantic difference between the two.
  26. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura (28): 38-39. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803. ISSN 1656-152X. I have to disagree with Patrick Steinkrüger's assumption that "none of the numerous discourse particles in Tagalog are of Spanish origin".
  27. ^ Tanangkingsing, Michael (2013). "A Study of Second-Position Enclitics in Cebuano". Oceanic Linguistics. 52 (1): 224. ISSN 0029-8115. = siguro (epistemic)
  28. ^ Lee, Celeste Chia Yen (January 24, 2013). "Clitic pronouns in Masbatenyo". SIL International: 5. siguro 'probably'
  29. ^ Blake, Frank R. (Frank Ringgold) (1925). A grammar of the Tagálog language, the chief native idiom of the Philippine Islands. New Haven, Conn., American oriental society. p. 77. Retrieved 2019. kun 'or'.
  30. ^ Elli, Vea. "ON THE STUDY OF TAGALOG, KAPAMPANGAN, IBANAG AND ITAWIS COORDINATING CONSTRUCTIONS". Retrieved 2019. Adversative conjunctions often are optional orzero-morpheme coordinators in these languages. In Tagalog, there are coordinators like 'pero', 'kaso' , 'kaya lang' , 'subalit', 'datapwat', 'bagkus', and 'ngunit'.
  31. ^ Cardoso, Hugo C.; Baxter, Alan N.; Nunes, Mário Pinharanda (2012). "Nenang, nino, nem não, ni no: Similarities and differences (Mauro Fernandez)". Ibero-Asian Creoles: Comparative Perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 228. ISBN 9789027252692. There are two formats in Tagalog for expressing the scalar value 'not even'. The first and possibly the older configuration consists of the addition of the particle man to the negator, followed by the particle lang ('only, just'): for example, "hindi man lang lumawag si John 'John didn't even call'" (De Vos 20I0:322). The second schema, described in the reference grammar compiled by Schachter & Otanes (1972), involves the loan particle ni from Spanish, stripped of all coordinate value and supplemented by a second negator.
  32. ^ Cardoso, Hugo C.; Baxter, Alan N.; Nunes, Mário Pinharanda (2012). ""'Maskin', 'maski', 'masque' ... in the Spanish and Portuguese creoles of Asia: Same particle, same provenance?" (Mauro Fernandez)". Ibero-Asian Creoles: Comparative Perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 187. ISBN 9789027252692. It is worth noting that in no instance was maski ever used to replace a corresponding concessive conjunction in the indigenous language. Still in use, therefore, are Kapampangan bista, Tagalog kahit, Bikol minsan, Visaya bisan and others, to cite just one equivalent conjunction among many still found in each of these languages.
  33. ^ Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T (1983). Tagalog reference grammar. University of California Press. p. 477. ISBN 9780520049437. Porke is used only in informal contexts, and expresses an ironic or critical attitude (often expressible in English by 'just because').
  34. ^ "Common Names Summary - Lactarius lactarius". Remarks: Also spelled 'Algudon'. 'algodon' borrowed from Spanish 'algodón', i.e., cotton.
  35. ^ "". mouse pad -- almohadilya (Sp.: almohadilla)
  36. ^ Zorc, R. David. "Tagalog slang" (PDF). Philippine journal of linguistics. Linguistic Society of the Philippines. 21 (1990): 77. asar upset, angry [Sp. asar 'roast']
  37. ^ Orosa, Rosalinda L. "Victory Liner takes you to 'Perya Nostalgia' |". In this day and age of throwbacks and flashbacks on social media, perya enthusiasts would be pleased to still find classic carnival rides like the tsubibo (carousel), ruweda (Ferris wheel), the tame rollercoaster dubbed the Caterpillar, the topsy-turvy Octopus, and the Flying Swing.
  38. ^ Bundang, Rebekah (1997). Spanish Loanwords in Tagalog (PDF) (B.A.). Swarthmore College. Dept. of Linguistics. p. 10. Some Spanish loanwords appear in Tagalog in what would be their plural form in Spanish, marked with -s or -es; therefore, when they are pluralized in Tagalog, they need to be pluralized in the way that Tagalog pluralizes native words, i. e., by placing the morpheme mga
  39. ^ a b Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. p. 204. ISBN 9781291457261.
  40. ^ Blanco, Manuel (1837). Flora de Filipinas: según el sistema sexual de Linneo (in Spanish). en la imprenta de Sto. Thomas, por Candido Lopez. p. 326. El fruto del lanzón cultivado, no deja ser sabroso: su corteza despide una leche pegajosa, y las semillas son verdes y amargas. Es conocido de todos en las Islas; pero ignoro si la palabra lanzones ó lansones es extranjera ó del país: ella tiene semejanza con lasona, que es cebolla
  41. ^ Penido, Miguel Colmeiro y (1871). Diccionario de los diversos nombres vulgares de muchas plantas usuales ó notables del antiguo y nuevo mundo, con la correspondencia científica y la indicacion abreviada de los unos é igualmente de la familia á que pertenece cada planta (in Spanish). G. Alhambra. p. 173.
  42. ^ Garcia, J. Neil C (2008). Philippine gay culture: binabae to bakla, silahis to MSM. University of the Philippines Press. p. 134. ISBN 9789715425773. OCLC 300977671. It roughly translates to "bisexual", although as with bakla, the cultural marker of this particular variety of sexual being is mostly not sexuality per se, but predictably enough, gender: the silahis is a male who looks every bit like a "real man" - he may even be married and with a family - but who, in all this time, would rather swish and wear skirts and scream "like a woman".
  43. ^ Lopez, Cecilio (January 1, 1965). "The Spanish overlay in Tagalog". Lingua. 14: 477. doi:10.1016/0024-3841(65)90058-6. ISSN 0024-3841.
  44. ^ Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa (2008). Hispanisation: the impact of Spanish on the lexicon and grammar of the indigenous languages of Austronesia and the Americas. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 209. ISBN 9783110207231. OCLC 651862960.
  45. ^ Cariño, Linda Grace. "How Swardspeak was born, truly-ly! |".
  46. ^ Bello, Walden F.; Guzman, Alfonso de (1971). Modernization: Its Impact in the Philippines. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 39. The state of the body A, together with the state of nature B, leads to disorder X; e.g., hunger together with getting wet causes pasmá (< Spanish pasmar 'to astonish, to cause spasms').
  47. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (January 24, 2013). "Morphological assimilation of borrowings in Tagalog". SIL International: 10. While adopting a borrowing the recipient language may replace some part of the borrowing (mostly the root or its part) with the native lexical material, thus making a HYBRID LOANWORD. In the case of Tagalog borrowed morphemes may be substituted with those of PREVIOUSLY ASSIMILATED loanwords, thus some of the Tagalog hybrid loans consist only of borrowed material
  48. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 42-43. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803.
  49. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (January 24, 2013). "Morphological assimilation of borrowings in Tagalog". SIL International: 10. There are much more HYBRID NEOLOGISMS (CREATIONS) in the modern Tagalog, i.e. new words invented by Filipinos with use of some native and already assimilated borrowed material.
  50. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 45. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803.
  51. ^ a b Sawikaan 2007: Mga Salita ng Taon. 2008. ISBN 9789715425834.
  52. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 42. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803. ISSN 1656-152X.
  53. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2018). Ancient Beliefs and Customs of the Tagalogs. p. 214. ISBN 9780244348731.
  54. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". Borrowing, most likely from Malay. Under this hypothesis the consistent partial reduplication in Philippine forms is unexplained, but no borrowing hypothesis in the other direction appears plausible.
  55. ^ Hall, D. G. E; Cowan, C. D; Wolters, O. W (1976). Southeast Asian history and historiography: essays presented to D.G.E. Hall. Cornell University Press. p. 353. ISBN 978-0801408410. OCLC 2185469.
  56. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". Borrowing from Malay.
  57. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - o".
  58. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 37. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803. ISSN 1656-152X. Mal. /kanan/ (< *ka-wanan) [Wolff 1976]
  59. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - w". Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Tamil.
  60. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - m". Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kulambu 'curtain'.
  61. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - t". Borrowing of Malay g?rgaji 'a saw; to saw'.
  62. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. p. 88. ISBN 9781326615796.
  63. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - m". Also Balinese pijar 'borax, solder'. Borrowing from Malay.
  64. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - u". Also Balinese takeh 'measure (large amount)', takeh-an 'a measure of volume'. Borrowing from Malay.
  65. ^ Odé, Cecilia (1997). Proceedings of the seventh International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Leiden 22-27 August 1994. Rodopi. p. 607. ISBN 9789042002531. OCLC 38290304. Tag tangháli? 'noon' represents *tengáq + *qaRi but is clearly a loan from Malay tengah hari.
  66. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - g". The forms cited here are conspicuous for their multiple phonological irregularities and apparent morphological reanalyses. This strongly suggests that the form has been borrowed, probably from Malay. According to Alton L. Becker (p.c.) a similar folk belief is found in Burma. If true it is tempting to hypothesize that the puntianak belief was ultimately borrowed by speakers of an early form of Malay from a mainland Southeast Asian source and subsequently disseminated through much of island Southeast Asia.
  67. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff's (1934-38) inclusion of Fijian vosa 'speak, talk' under a reconstruction *ucap 'speak, converse with' appears unjustified.
  68. ^ Haspelmath, Martin (2009). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 724. ISBN 978-3110218435.
  69. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. pp. 73, 191. ISBN 9781326615796.
  70. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. pp. 285-286. ISBN 9781291457261.
  71. ^ Donoso, Isaac J. (2010). "The Hispanic Moros y Cristianos and the Philippine Komedya". Philippine Humanities Review. 11: 87-120. ISSN 0031-7802. Thus, Arabic words became integrated into Philippine languages through Spanish (e.g., alahas (alhaja, al- haja), alkalde (alcalde, al-qadi), alkampor (alcanfor, al-kafiir), alkansiya (alcancia, al-kanziyya), aldaba (aldaba, al-dabba), almires (almirez, al-mihras), baryo (barrio, al-barri), kapre (cafre, kafir), kisame (zaquizami, saqf fassami), etc.);
  72. ^ Donoso Jiménez, Isaac (2017). "Relaciones culturales filipino-persas (II): La lingua franca islámica en el Índico y algunos persianismos en tagalo". Revista Filipina. ISSN 1496-4538. El préstamo más reseñable es anakura, cuya etimología procede incuestionablemente del persa n?j?d? / .
  73. ^ a b Donoso Jiménez, Isaac (2017). "Relaciones culturales filipino-persas (II): La lingua franca islámica en el Índico y algunos persianismos en tagalo". Revista Filipina. ISSN 1496-4538. Igualmente persas son las palabras tagalas pingan, "plato" (desde pinggaan / ) y salawal, "pantalones" (desde sirvaal / ).
  74. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. p. 152. ISBN 9781291457261.
  75. ^ a b POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. p. 334. ISBN 9781326615796.
  76. ^ Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 217. ISBN 9780313376269. Pancit (also spelled pansit), or noodles, is a main-stay ingredient that has undergone significant adaptations in the preparation process. Filipinos use different types of noodles, such as those made from rice, egg, wheat, and mung beans, to make various pancit dishes. Introduced by the Chinese during the Spanish period, the dish has been Filipinized, and various regions have come up with their own versions as well.
  77. ^ Pacho, Arturo (1986). "The Chinese Community in the Philippines: Status and Conditions". Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. 1 (1): 76-91. doi:10.1355/SJ1-1E. JSTOR 41056696.
  78. ^ Wickberg, Edgar (1962). "Early Chinese Economic Influence in the Philippines, 1850-1898". Pacific Affairs. 35 (3): 275-285. JSTOR 2753187. It is known that the arrival of the Spanish in the late sixteenth century provided attractive economic opportunities which stimulated Chinese immigration to the Philippines in much greater volume than ever before. By the beginning of the seventeenth century there were over 20,000 Chinese in the Manila area - a number many times that of the Spanish settler.
  79. ^ Sánchez de Mora, Antonio (2016). Sabores que cruzaron los océanos = Flavors that sail across the seas. AECID Biblioteca Digital AECID. p. 64. OCLC 973021471.
  80. ^ Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 5. ISBN 9780858832251. The number of loanwords in the domain of cookery is rather large, and they are, by far, the most homogeneous of the loanwords.
  81. ^ Joaquin, Nick (2004). Culture and history. Pasig City. p. 42. ISBN 978-9712714269. OCLC 976189040.
  82. ^ a b Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 130. ISBN 9780858832251.
  83. ^ Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 133. ISBN 9780858832251.
  84. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay sixteenth-century Philippine culture and society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-9715501354. OCLC 433091144.
  85. ^ Chee-Beng, Tan (2012). Chinese Food and Foodways in Southeast Asia and Beyond. NUS Press. p. 129. ISBN 9789971695484.
  86. ^ Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 136. ISBN 9780858832251.
  87. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - a". Borrowing of Hokkien pú-thâu 'axe'. This comparison was pointed out by Daniel Kaufman.
  88. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. Raleigh, NC: Lulu Press, Inc. p. 343. ISBN 9781326615796.
  89. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (August 9, 2013). "Making useless information useful". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 19, 2018. The trade and cultural exchange between the Philippines and Japan runs deep. In prewar Manila, Tansan was a popular brand of fizzy water ("tansan" in Japanese refers to carbonated mineral water). It was sold with the distinct metal bottle caps that have since been called tansan by Filipinos.
  90. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul (2016). Tagalog borrowings and cognates. Jean-Paul G. Potet. p. 346. ISBN 9781326615796. OCLC 962269309.
  91. ^ "TRANSLATIONS | Tagalog Interpreter and Translator - Caroline Carrera". Bonsay, weng-weng - Bansot, pandak
  92. ^ Cordero-Fernando, Gilda. "Our native 'slanguage'". "bonsai" means "dwarfed" or "short"
  93. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (June 27, 2014). "Japan under our skin". Philippine Daily Inquirer. The childhood game "jak en poy," with a nonsense rhyme in Filipino that accompanies the hand gestures of rock, scissors, and paper, traces its origin to the Japanese "janken pon."
  94. ^ a b Albalá, Paloma (2003). "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies. 51 (1): 125-146. JSTOR 42633639.
  95. ^ Panganiban, José Villa (1964). "Influencia hispanomexicana en el idioma tagalo". Historia Mexicana. 14 (2): 264. JSTOR 25135261. ATOLE (MLP), en México, bebida preparada con sustancias harinosas y no-alcohólica. En Filipinas atole significa actualmente una pasta de harina, empleada como adhesivo, no comestible.
  96. ^ a b León-Portilla, Miguel (1960). "Algunos nahuatlismos en el castellano de Filipinas". Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl (in Spanish) (2): 135-138. ISSN 0071-1675.
  97. ^ Panganiban, José Villa (1964). "Influencia hispanomexicana en el idioma tagalo". Historia Mexicana. 14 (2): 268. ISSN 0185-0172. JSTOR 25135261. NANA (MLP), azteca "nantli" (madre), en tagalo nanay significa "madre" o "abuela".
  98. ^ Casado-Fresnillo, Antonio Quilis, Celia; Casado Fresnillo, Celia (2008). La lengua española en Filipinas : historia, situación actual, el chabacano, antología de textos (1st ed.). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. p. 410. ISBN 978-8400086350.
  99. ^ Albalá, Paloma (March 1, 2003). "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints. 51 (1): 133. ISSN 2244-1638. petate "woven palm-matting" > Ceb. petate, Tag. petate;
  100. ^ Albalá, Paloma (March 1, 2003). "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints. 51 (1): 133. ISSN 2244-1638. tapanco "raised platform for storing lumber" > Kap. tapanko, Tag. tapangko;
  101. ^ Panganiban, José Villa (1964). "Influencia hispanomexicana en el idioma tagalo". Historia Mexicana. 14 (2): 270. ISSN 0185-0172. JSTOR 25135261. TATA (MLP), azteca "tahtli" (padre). Tata, tatay y tatang son denominaciones comunes de "padre" en diversos idiomas de Filipinas

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