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List of Guitar Tunings
A FuniChar D-616 guitar with a Drop D tuning. It has an unusual additional fretboard that extends onto the headstock. Most guitarists obtain a Drop D tuning by detuning the low E string a tone down.
This list of guitar tunings supplements the article guitar tunings. In particular, this list contains more examples of open and regular tunings, which are discussed in the article on guitar tunings. In addition, this list also notes dropped tunings.
This open-C tuning gives the initial harmonic series when a C-string is struck.
The C-C-G-C-E-G tuning uses the harmonic sequence (overtones) of the note C. When an open-note C-string is struck, its harmonic sequence begins with the notes (C,C,G,C,E,G,B?,C).
This overtone-series tuning was modified by Mick Ralphs, who used a high C rather than the high G for "Can't Get Enough" on Bad Company. Ralphs said, "It needs the open C to have that ring," and "it never really sounds right in standard tuning".
The following open-tunings use a minor third, and give a minor chord with open strings. To avoid the relatively cumbersome designation "open D minor", "open C minor", such tunings are sometimes called "cross-note tunings". The term also expresses the fact that, compared to Major chord open tunings, by fretting the lowered string at the first fret, it is possible to produce a major chord very easily.
Alternative Cross A: E-A-E-A-E-A. «Sitar A» - an alternative low guitar system. Recalls the sound of Indian sitar.
D modal tuning.
In modal tunings, the strings are tuned to form a chord which is not definitively minor or major. These tunings may facilitate very easy chords and unique sounds when the open strings are used as drones. Often these tunings form a suspended chord on the open strings. A well known user of modal tunings is Sonic Youth.
For every major-thirds tuning, the consecutive open-notes are separated by four semitones, and so three strings cover the twelve notes of the octave.
C-D-E-F♯-G♯-A♯ or C♯-D♯-F-G-A-B
A compact tuning that fits within one octave and covers the chromatic scale between open strings and the first fret.
In the minor-thirds tuning, every interval between successive strings is a minor third. In the minor-thirds tuning beginning with C, the open strings contain the notes (C, D♯, F♯) of the diminished C chord.
Major-thirds tuning is a regular tuning in which the musical intervals between successive strings are each major thirds. Unlike all-fourths and all-fifths tuning, major-thirds tuning repeats its octave after three strings, which again simplifies the learning of chords and improvisation.
Neighboring the standard tuning is the major-thirds tuning that has the open strings
which "contains two octaves of a C augmented chord".
Stanley Jordan plays guitar using all-fourths tuning.
This tuning is like that of the lowest four strings in standard tuning. Jazz musician Stanley Jordan plays guitar in all-fourths tuning; he has stated that all-fourths tuning "simplifies the fingerboard, making it logical".
C-F♯-c-f♯-c'-f♯' or B-F-b-f-b'-f'
Between the all-fifths and all-fourths tunings are augmented-fourth tunings, which are also called "diminished-fifths" or "tritone" tunings.
All fifths: "Mandoguitar"
New standard tuning.
New Standard Tuning's open strings.
C-G-D-A-E'-B' or G'-D-A-E'-B-F♯'
All-fifths tuning is a tuning in intervals of perfect fifths like that of a mandolin, cello or violin; other names include "perfect fifths" and "fifths". It has a wide range, thus it requires an appropriate range of string gauges. A high b' string is particularly thin and taut, which can be avoided by shifting the scale down by several steps or by a fifth.
Ostrich tuning is a tuning where all strings are tuned to the same note over two or three octaves, creating an intense, choruseddrone and interesting fingering potential.
Used by Soundgarden (E-E-e-e-e'-e') on the song "Mind Riot", and by Lou Reed in the Velvet Underground.
Drop D tuning.
Drop tunings lower the sixth string, dropping the lowest E string of the standard tuning. Some drop tunings also lower the fifth string (A note in standard tuning). A drop one tuning lowers the pitch by one full step.
Some of these may require a baritone guitar due to the string tension required for extremely low notes. Others can be achieved using a capo and/or a partial capo.
Drop A in standard variation - A-a-D-G-B-E: The 6th string is dropped to A while the other strings retain their standard tuning. Used by Helmet on "Biscuits for Smut", Foo Fighters on "Stacked Actors", Opeth on the song "Sorceress", and the Melvins on "Boris". A 7-string version of this tuning is used by Muse on their song "Citizen Erased, tuned A-a-D-d-G-B-E
Drop A in D standard variation - A-G-C-F-a-D: Used by Mastodon on most of their first album (Remission) and on some songs on other albums. Also utilized by Periphery on the song "Zyglrox" as well as "Alpha" and "The Bad Thing." Also used on occasion by Black Label Society, who previously tuned it a half-step up, which Alter Bridge also utilizes on some of their songs such as "Broken Wings", "Come to Life", "I Know it Hurts", "Still Remains", "Breath Again", and "All Hope is Gone." Creed, Architects, and Sevendust all use this tuning tuned a half-step down on their songs "Bread of Shame", "Early Grave", and "Home" and "Chop" respectively, with the latter also tuning down a full step for the songs "Death Dance" and "Not Today". Danish industrial metal band Raunchy used this tuning tuned one and a half-step down (F#-E-A-D-f#-B) on the song "Dim the Lights and Run" from the album A Discord Electric. Wage War also utilize this tuning one whole step down for songs like "The River" and "Spineless" off their album Blueprints.
Drop F♯/Drop G♭ - F♯-C♯-f♯-B-D♯-G♯ / G♭-D♭-g♭-B-E♭-A♭ Four full steps down from Drop D, or two full steps up from Drop D1. Used by Disfiguring the Goddess. In the recording of Limp Bizkit's song "Nookie", Wes Borland used a custom 4 string baritone guitar tuned F#-F#-B-E. Also Slipknot recorded their song "Scissors" from their debut album in F#-F#-B-E-G#-C#.
Drop F - F-C-f-A♯-D-G / F-C-f-B♭-D-G Four and one half steps down from Drop D, or one and a half steps up from Drop D1. Used by Attack Attack! on "The Wretched" off "This Means War" and Northlane.
Drop E - E-B-e-A-C♯-F♯ / E-B-e-A-D♭-G♭/ Five full steps down from Drop D, or one full step up from Drop D1. Another Variation can be mixed with a Drop A as follows: E-A-e-a-D-G-B-e modeled on an 8 string or E-A-e-a-D-F#-B/E-A-e-a-D-Gb-Cb on a 7 string.
Drop D♯/Drop E♭ - D♯-A♯-d♯-G♯-C-F / E♭-B♭-e♭-A♭-C-F Five and one half steps down from Drop D, or one half step up from Drop D1. This can also be a Drop D# standard octave variant tuning modeled on an 8 string D#-G#-d#-g#-C#-F#-A#-d#
Drop D1 - D-A-d-G-B-E Six full steps (one octave) down from Drop D. 8 string example; D-A-d-a-d-G-B-E. Black Tongue uses this tuning.
Drop C♯1/Drop D♭1 Six full steps (one octave) down from Drop C♯/Drop D♭. Used on some After The Burial songs.
Drop C1 Six full steps (one octave) down from Drop C. Used by Within the Ruins on the album Phenomena with the variation C-F-c-f-A#-D-G.
Drop C♯/Drop D♭ in standard variation - C♯-A-D-G-B-E Standard tuning but with the 6th string lowered one and a half steps. Used by Sevendust tuned one and one half-step down on some songs from "Home" through "Alpha", though their version of the tuning also features the A string dropped another half-step. Therefore, A#-F-B-E-G#-C#.
Drop C in standard variation - C-A-D-G-B-E Standard tuning but with the 6th string lowered two whole steps. Used by Alter Bridge on the song "My Champion" (tuned down a half-step) as well as Sevendust on the song "Mountain" (tuned down one and a half steps). Also used by John Mayer on the song "Neon", and by Chino Moreno of Deftones on some songs such as "Swerve City" and "Hearts/Wires", tuned down a full step.
Drop B-E - B-E-D-G-b-e Standard tuning with the 6th and 5th string lowered two and a half steps down. Used by Tool in the song "Parabola".
These tunings are derived by systematic increases or decreases to standard tuning.
Derived from standard EADGBE, all the strings are tuned lower by the same interval, thus providing the same chord positions transposed to a lower key. Lower tunings are popular among rock and heavy metal bands. The reason for tuning down below standard pitch is usually either to accommodate a singer's vocal range or to get a deeper/heavier sound.
G♯/A♭ tuning - G♯-C♯-F♯-B-D♯-G♯ / A♭-D♭-G♭-B-E♭-A♭ Four full steps down from standard tuning. Utilized by Cannibal Corpse on some songs. Used by death/doom metal band Encoffination.
G tuning - G-C-F-A♯-D-G / G-C-F-B♭-D-G Four and a half steps down from standard tuning. Used by the Doom Metal band Warhorse and the Brutal Death Metal band Mortician.
F♯/G♭ tuning - F♯-B-E-A-C♯-F♯ / G♭-B-E-A-D♭-G♭ Five full steps from standard tuning. Used by the Death Metal band Disfiguring The Goddess
F tuning - F-A♯-D♯-G♯-C-F / F-B♭-E♭-A♭-C-F Five and one half steps down from standard tuning. Used by the deathgrind band Maruta, the instrumental doom metal band Bongripper, and the progressive metal band "Meshuggah" (however the band uses eight-stringed guitars).
From standard EADGBE, all the strings are tuned up by the same interval. String tension will be higher. Typically requires thinner gauge strings, particularly the first string which could be as thin as six thousandths of an inch (about the thickness of a single human hair). A capo is typically preferred over these tunings, as they do not increase neck strain, etc. The advantage of these tunings is that they allow an extended upper note range versus a capo used with standard tuning which limits the number of notes that can be played; in some cases, instruo B♭ or E♭ (such as saxophones, which were frequently encountered in early rock and roll music) are more easily played when the accompanying guitar plays chords in the higher tuning. If standard gauge strings are used, the result is often a "brighter" or "tighter" sound; this was a common practice for some bluegrass bands in the 1950s, notably Flatt & Scruggs.
F♯/G♭ tuning - F♯-B-E-A-C♯-F♯ / G♭-B-E-A-D♭-G♭ One full step up from standard. Primary tuning for the band The Chameleons. Johnny Marr also used this tuning extensively with The Smiths; bassist Andy Rourke remained in standard, however, even when Marr was playing in F#. British singer-songwriter Dave Mason also plays in F#.
G tuning also known as Terz tuning (sometimes spelled "Tierce", "Third", or "Tertz", all of which are acceptable) - G-C-F-A♯-D-G / G-C-F-B♭-D-G One and one half steps up from standard.
G♯/A♭ tuning - G♯-C♯-F♯-B-D♯-G♯ / A♭-D♭-G♭-B-E♭-A♭ Two full steps up from standard.
A tuning - A-D-G-C-E-A Two and one half steps up from standard. This is the standard tuning for the Lapstick travel guitar.
A♯/B♭ - A♯-D♯-G♯-C♯-F-A♯ / B♭-E♭-A♭-D♭-F-B♭ Three full steps up from standard.
Double drop D tuning.
Double drop D tuning (listen)
Similar to the dropped tunings, except that both the 1st and 6th strings are dropped one full step.
Double Drop D - D-A-D-G-B-D Standard tuning but with the 1st and 6th strings dropped one full step. Favored by Neil Young. Has also been used by Lamb of God on some of their earlier songs.
Double Drop C♯/Drop D♭ - C♯-G♯-C♯-F♯-A♯-C♯ / D♭-A♭-D♭-G♭-B♭-D♭/ Same as [Double] Drop D, but every string is dropped one half step. Used by the acoustic rock band Days of the New. Also used by Our Lady Peace on the song "Starseed", as well as Los Angeles based Alternative band Failure, for the track "Sergeant Politeness".
Double Drop C - C-G-C-F-A-C One full step down from Drop D. Used by Sevendust on the song "Seasons".
Double Drop B - B-F♯-B-E-G♯-B / B-G♭-B-E-A♭-B/ One and one half steps down from Drop D. Used by Aaron Turner of Isis.
Double Drop A♯/Drop B♭ - A♯-F-A♯-D♯-G-A♯ / B♭-F-B♭-E♭-G-B♭ Two full steps down from Drop D.
Double Drop A - A-E-A-D-F♯-A / A-E-A-D-G♭-A Two and one half steps down from Drop D.
Double Drop G♯/Drop A♭ - G♯-D♯-G♯-C♯-F-G♯ / A♭-E♭-A♭-D♭-F-A♭ Three full steps down from Drop D.
Double Drop G - G-D-G-C-E-G Three and one half steps down from Drop D.
Double Drop F♯/Drop G♭ - F♯-C♯-F♯-B-D♯-F♯ / G♭-D♭-G♭-B-E♭-G♭ Four full steps down from Drop D, or two full steps up from Drop D1.
Double Drop F - F-C-F-A♯-D-F / F-C-F-B♭-D-F Four and one half steps down from Drop D, or one and a half steps up from Drop D1.
Double Drop E - E-B-E-A-C♯-E / E-B-E-A-D♭-E Five full steps down from Drop D, or one full step up from Drop D1.
Double Drop D♯/Double Drop E♭ - D♯-A♯-D♯-G♯-C-D♯ / E♭-B♭-E♭-A♭-C-E♭ Five and one half steps down from Drop D, or one half step up from Drop D1.
Double Drop D1 Tuning - D-A-D-G-B-D Six full steps (one octave) down from Double Drop D.
DADGAD tuning (listen)
DADGAD was developed by Davey Graham in the early 1960s when he was travelling in Morocco, to more easily play along with Oud music Among the first to use this tuning were the folk-blues guitarists of the 60s like Bert Jansch, John Rebourn, Martin Carthy, and John Martyn. It was many years later in the 1970s that it became established for accompanists of traditional music, predominantly Scottish and Irish. Due to this popularity it is sometimes referred to as "Celtic" tuning, although this is misleading given it's origin and it's primary early use in a quite different field of music. Often vocalized as "Dad-Gad", DADGAD it is now common in Celtic music. In rock music, has been used in Led Zeppelin's "Kashmir".Pierre Bensusan is another noted exponent of this tuning. The post-metal group Russian Circles also employ this tuning, and also plays it in the form of all the notes becoming a half-step down: D♭-A♭-d♭-g♭-a♭-d♭'. Three down-tuned variations are used by the band Sevendust: A Drop C variation, or C-G-c-f-g-c'. (used on the song "Unraveling"), a Drop B variation, or B'-F♯-B-e-f♯-b, and a Drop A# variation, or A♯'-F-A♯-d♯-f-a♯. Neighboring tunings D-A-d-e-a-e' and C-G-c-d-g-a have been used by Martin Carthy. Also D-A-d-a-a-d', was used by Dave Wakeling on the English Beat's 1983 "Save It For Later".
DADDAD tuning (listen)
Nicknamed - "Papa-Papa". DADDAD is common in folk music (Irish, Scottish), and for the execution of a rhythm guitar in "heavy" (alternative music) on 6th on the third string at the same time. To reach the tuning from DADGAD, Open D or Open D Minor, the G string is dropped to D so that the 3rd and 4th strings are tuned to the same pitch. DADDAD tuning is sometimes used on Dobro guitars for rock and blues. Notable users of this tuning include Billy McLaughlin and John Butler.
Essentially a cello tuning with the deeper four strings in fifths and the two highest strings in standard guitar tuning. Used on numerous Pavement songs and by Foo Fighters on the song "Weenie Beenie"
Hybrid tuning between drop B-tuning and E-standard. Used by the band Karnivool for many of their songs.
Mi-composé is a tuning commonly used for rhythm guitar in African popular music forms such as soukous and makossa. It is similar to the standard guitar tuning, except that the d string is raised an entire octave. This is accomplished by replacing the d string with an e' string and tuning it to d'.
This is a guitar tuning and style of playing on the Classical Guitar that has been developed by Ian Low. It was recently publicized in the form of a series of videos posted onto his YouTube channel on 14 July 2016. The 6 strings are tuned to F, G, C, E, C# and C using the standard guitar strings EADGBE strings to allow a different style of harmonic playing.
The open strings of a guitar can be tuned to microtonal intervals, however microtonal scales cannot easily be played on a conventional guitar because the frets only allow for a chromatic scale of twelve equally spaced pitches, each a semitone apart. (Certain microtonal scales, particularly quarter tones, can be played on a standard guitar solely by adjusting tunings, but the distance between notes on the scale makes it somewhat impractical.) It is possible to play microtonal scales on a fretless guitar, to convert a fretted guitar into a fretless, or to make a custom neck with a specific microtonal fret spacing.
Guitars can also be refretted to a microtonal scale. On many refretted microtonal guitars, the frets are split, so that the tuning of each string is independent from the others. To enable an adjustable microtonal tuning, there exist guitars with frets that can be moved across the fingerboard.
Extended techniques such as the 3rd bridge technique, slide guitar and prepared guitar techniques can be used to produce microtonality without severe modification to the instrument.
Guitar tunings inspired by other Instruments
In his on-line guide to alternative tunings for six-string guitars, William Sethares mentions several that are inspired by instruments other than guitars, for example, balalaika (E-A-D-E-E-A), cittern C-G-C-G-C-G, and Dobro G-B-D-G-B-D.
Extended range and other guitar tunings
Five string guitars are common in Brazil, where they are known as guitarra baiana and are typically tuned in 5ths. Schecter Guitar Research produced a production model 5 string guitar called the Celloblaster in 1998. A five-string tuning may be necessary in a pinch when a string breaks on a standard six-string (usually the high E) and no replacement is immediately available.
Some basic five-string tunings include:
Standard - E-A-d-g-b The standard tuning, without the top E string attached. Alternative variants are easy from this tuning, but because several chords inherently omit the lowest string, it may leave some chords relatively thin or incomplete with the top string missing (the D chord, for instance, must be fretted 5-4-3-2-3 to include F#, the tone a major third above D).
High C - E-A-d-g-c' Standard tuning with the B tuned a half step higher to C to emulate a 6 string bass guitar, minus the low B. This is an all fourths tuning.
Baritone - E-A-d-f♯-b In this tuning, the fourth (G) string is lowered a half-step, thus recreating the intervals between the top five strings, lowered a perfect fourth. Though chords can easily and more fully be played from this tuning, it sometimes results in awkward inversions, a relatively minor problem if the five-string is played in an ensemble with a bass guitar.
E-A-c♯-f♯-b Simulates the top four strings, followed by the second-from-bottom string on top, raised a whole step (the F♯ representing both the top and bottom E). It makes playing in the key of A major easier, though chord fingerings have to be altered unless the strings are rearranged to F♯-B-E-A-C♯.
Open G tuning - G-d-g-b-d' Some slide/bottleneck guitarists omit the bottom E string when playing in open G to have the root note as the tonic. This tuning is used by Keith Richards.
Open E♭5 tuning - E♭-B♭-e♭-b♭-e♭' This is achieved by removing the fourth (G) string, tuning both Es and the B down a half step, and the A and D strings up a half-step. This creates a five-string power chord.
Similar to five-string bass guitar tuning, seven-string tuning allows for the extra string a fourth lower than the original sixth string. This allows for the note range of B standard tuning without transposing E standard guitar chords down two and a half steps down. Baritone 7-string guitars are available which features a longer scale-length allowing it to be tuned to a lower range.
Standard Tuning - B'-E-A-d-g-b-e' This is the Standard seven-string tuning.
Drop A 7-String Tuning - A'-E-A-d-g-b-e' This is the Standard seven-string tuning with low B dropped to A.
Standard Choro Tuning - C-E-A-d-g-b-e' Standard seven-string tuning for Brazilian choro.
Drop D 7-String Tuning - B'-D-A-d-g-b-e' Standard seven-string tuning with the low E dropped to D, which results in a minor 3rd interval between the two lowest strings of B and D. Used by Ed Sloan of Crossfade. Also used by Animals as Leaders on the song "CAFO". A flat variation of this tuning is used by Periphery on the song "Racecar".
Drop D & A 7-String Tuning - A'-D-A-d-g-b-e' Standard seven-string tuning with a Dropped D and A from E and B. Used extensively by Dir En Grey since the album "Dum Spiro Spero" as well as the song "Obscure" from the album Vulgar. Also used by Stam1na.
Thirds Tuning - E-G♯-c-e-g♯-c'-e' Same range as standard six-string. Allows over two full chromatic octaves without changing position, slides or bends.
All Fourths Tuning - B'-E-A-d-g-c'-f' Expands the major third between the second and third strings, extending range a half step higher.
Russian Tuning - D-G-B-D-g-b-d 6-string Open G tuning with additional 5th B-string. Was a standard tuning for classic 7-string guitars in Russia in the 19th to 20th centuries.
G♯/A♭ tuning - G♯'-C♯-F♯-B-e-g♯-c♯' / A♭'-D♭-G♭-B-e-a♭-d♭' One and one half steps down from standard. Used by bands such as Deftones (on their self-titled album) and Korn (on the song "Alone I Break", but on 14-string guitars). Also used by Mark Tremonti on the song "Show Me A Leader" (Myles uses a 6-String guitar tuned to Drop C#)
G tuning - G'-C-F-A♯-d♯-g-c' / G'-C-F-B♭-e♭-g-c' Two full steps down from standard tuning. Used by Luc Lemay of Gorguts
High A - E-A-d-g-b-e'-a' - Standard tuning with a high 'A' instead of a low 'B'. Because of the high pitch of the 'A' string, it usually requires a multi-scale fingerboard (fanned frets) to provide enough tension.
C tuning - C-F-A♯-d♯-g-c'-f' / C-F-B♭-e♭-g-c'-f' Half a step up from standard, used by Eddie Rendini during his time in Cold.
C♯ tuning - C♯-F♯-B-e-a-c♯-f♯ The whole step up from standard. This tuning was used by Wes Borland with high E-string being lowered to C♯ (C♯-F♯-B-e-a-c♯-c♯) on the first two Limp Bizkit records.
These tunings have the added low 7th string tuned one full step lower allowing for chord structures similar to six-string drop tunings.
Drop B - B-F♯-B-E-A-C♯-F♯ / B-F♯-B-E-G♯-C♯-F♯ / B-G♭-B-E-A-D♭-G♭ a tuning which combines the standard drop B tuning of a 6 string electric guitar, but with a high F♯ for soloing. Used by bands such as All Shall Perish and Assemble the Chariots
Drop A - alternatively, A-E-A-D-F#-B-E The same as drop A tuning for a 6-string on the low strings while retaining a high E. In effect converts a 7-string into a drop A baritone guitar, but with standard tuning's soloing capability.
Drop F♯/Drop G♭ - F♯-C♯-F♯-B-E-G♯-C♯ / G♭-D♭-G♭-B-E-A♭-D♭ One and one half steps down from standard Drop A. Used by Deftones (on their Saturday Night Wrist album).
Drop F - F-C-F-A♯-D♯-G-C / F-C-F-B♭-E♭-G-C / Two full steps down from standard Drop A. This tuning is used on three tracks on Attack Attack!'s album This Means War: "The Hopeless," "The Abduction," and "The Wretched." The bands DVSR, Northlane, The Acacia Strain, Reflections and "Conan" use this tuning as well. Triumphant Return uses a variation of this tuning (F-C-G-C-F-A-D).
Drop E1 - E-B-E-A-D-F♯-B / E-B-E-A-D-G♭-B Two and one half steps down from standard Drop A.
Drop D1♯/Drop E1♭ - D♯-A♯-D♯-G♯-C♯-F-A♯ / E♭-B♭-E♭-A♭-D♭-F-B♭ Three full steps down from standard Drop A.
Drop D1 - D-A-D-G-C-E-A Three and one half steps down from standard Drop A. Used by Black Tongue.
Drop C1♯/Drop D1♭ - D♭-A♭-D♭-G♭-B-E♭-A♭ / C♯-G♯-C♯-F♯-B-D♯-G♯ Four full steps down from standard Drop A.
Drop C1 - C-G-C-F-A♯-D-G / C-G-C-F-B♭-D-G Four and one half steps down from standard Drop A.
Drop B0 - B-F♯-B-E-A-C♯-F♯ / B-G♭-B-E-A-D♭-G♭ Five full steps down from standard Drop A. Six full steps (one octave) down from a baritone Drop B guitar
Drop A♯/Drop B♭ - A♯-F-A♯-D♯-G♯-C-F / B♭-F-B♭-E♭-A♭-C-F Five and one half steps down from standard Drop A.
Drop A0 Tuning - A-E-A-D-G-B-E Six full steps (one octave) down from standard Drop A.
Drop G#0 tuning -G?-D?-G?-C?-F?-A?-D? (One octave below drop G#). Used by American deathcore band Anzu.
A continuation of the 7-string, adding another string a perfect fourth lower than the seven strings low B. The eight string guitars additional low F♯ string is just a whole step up from a bass guitars low E string. While luthiers have been building these instruments previously, mass-produced Eight-string electric guitars are a relatively recent innovation. Ibanez was first to offer a production eight-string guitar in March 2007. Many other companies now produce mass-market eight-string models, yet these guitars remain relatively uncommon.
E tuning - E'-A'-D-G-c-f-a-d' One full step down from standard tuning. Used by Meshuggah and Korn on their "Untitled" album and on songs "Illuminati" and "Way Too Far" from their The Path of Totality album.
E♭ tuning- E♭'-A♭'-D♭-G♭-B-e-a♭-d♭' One and a half steps down from standard tuning. Used by Meshuggah on "Nebulous" and Dissipate on their Tectonics EP.
D tuning - D'-G'-C-F-a♯-d♯-g-c' Two full steps down from standard tuning.
A tuning - A"-D'-G'-C-F-A-d-g Three and one half steps down from standard tuning.
High A tuning - B'-E-A-d-g-b-e'-a' Standard seven string tuning with a 'high a' Used by Rusty Cooley.
All fourths tuning - F♯'-B'-E-A-d-g-c'-f' Regular tuning which extends range a half step higher.
Drop E/F♭ - E-B-E-A-D-G-B-E A combination of standard 7-string tuning and an 8th string dropped one full step. Allows to play in the range of a standard electric bass, as well as power chords. Used by Animals as Leaders and Whitechapel (on the songs "Devolver" and "Breeding Violence" from A New Era of Corruption). Also used by Deftones on Koi No Yokan and Gore, Allegaeon, and Emmure on the song "N.I.A. (News in Arizona)". A variation of this tuining is used by Hacktivist with 3rd and 4th strings tuned a whole step up to A and E respectively.
Drop E, A - E-A-E-A-D-G-B-E A combination of 7-string drop A tuning and an 8th string dropped one full step, allowing both power chords rooted on A, and easy fingering with the E a fourth below. This is the tuning of the lowest two strings of a bass, along with all 6 strings of a standard-tuned guitar. It is used by Rings Of Saturn on the album Lugal Ki En.
Drop E, A (Variation) - E-A-E-A-D-F♯-B-E A variation on Drop E, A with the G flattened one half step to F♯; this tuning is identical to 6-string Drop A, with two E strings added: one above, and one below. Like Drop E, A; this tuning allows easy fingering on the E since it is a standard fourth interval below the A. It also provides three high strings a fourth apart instead of the usual two. The tuning is used by Infant Annihilator on their album The Elysian Grandeval Galèriarch. A 7-string variation of the tuning without the high E (E-A-E-A-D-F♯-B) was used on their previous album The Palpable Leprosy of Pollution and is used by Enterprise Earth/Delusions of Grandeur guitarist Gabe Mangold.
On table steel guitar and pedal steel guitar, the most common tunings are the extended-chord C6 tuning and E9 tuning, sometimes known as the Texas and Nashville tunings respectively. On a multiple-neck instrument, the near neck will normally be some form of C6, and the next closest neck E9.
Necks with 12 or more strings can be used with universal tunings which combine the features of C6 and E9. On a 12 string pedal steel guitar, all 12 strings are tuned and played individually, not as 6 double courses as on the 12 string guitar.
On lap steel guitar there is often only one six-string neck. C6 tuning is popular for these instruments, as are open G, E6, and E7 tuning.
This tuning may also be used with a capo at the third fret to match the common lute pitch: G-c-f-a-d'-g'. This tuning also matches standard vihuela tuning and is often employed in classical guitar transcriptions of music written for those instruments, such as, for instance, "La Canción Del Emperador" and "Diferencias Sobre Guardame Las Vacas" by Renaissance composer Luis de Narváez.
^Hannu Annala, Heiki Mätlik (2007). "Composers for other plucked instruments: Rudolf Straube (1717-1785)". Handbook of Guitar and Lute Composers (Translated by Katarina Backman ed.). Mel Bay. p. 30. ISBN9780786658442. ISBN0786658444.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^Timofeyev (1999): Timofeyev, Oleg V. (1999). The golden age of the Russian guitar: Repertoire, performance practice, and social function of the Russian seven-string guitar music, 1800-1850. Duke University, Department of Music. pp. 1-584. University Microfilms (UMI), Ann Arbor, Michigan, number 9928880.
Denyer, Ralph (1992). "Playing the guitar ('How the guitar is tuned', pp. 68-69, and 'Alternative tunings', pp. 158-159)". The guitar handbook. Robert Fripp (foreword); Special contributors Isaac Guillory and Alastair M. Crawford (Fully revised and updated ed.). London and Sydney: Pan Books. pp. 65-160. ISBN0-330-32750-X.