List of Gravitational Wave Observations
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List of Gravitational Wave Observations
The first measurement of a gravitational wave event

This is a list of observed gravitational wave events. Direct observation of gravitational waves,[n 1] which commenced with the detection of an event by LIGO in 2015, constitutes part of gravitational wave astronomy. LIGO has played a role in all subsequent detections to date, with Virgo joining in August 2017. A third observing run, O3/2019, began on April 1, 2019.

Nomenclature

Gravitational wave events are named starting with the prefix GW. The next two numbers indicate the year the event was observed, the middle two numbers are the month of observation and the final two numbers are the day of the month on which the event was observed. This is similar to the systematic naming for other kinds of astronomical event observations, such as those of gamma-ray bursts. Probable detections that are not confidently identified as gravitational wave events are designated LVT ("LIGO-Virgo trigger"). Known gravitational wave events come from the merger of black holes (BH), neutron stars (NS), or the merger of a BH with a NS.[2][3]

List of gravitational wave events

Events from LIGO & Virgo
O1 & O2/2015-2017 events
O3/2019 Superevents

Observations from O1 and O2/2015-2017

List of binary merger events[4][5]
GW event
and time (UTC)[n 2]
Date
published
Location
area[n 3]
(deg2)
Luminosity
distance

(Mpc)[n 4]
Energy
radiated
(c2M?)
[n 5]
Chirp mass (M?)
[n 6]
Effective spin[n 7] Primary Secondary Remnant Notes Ref.
Type Mass (M?) Type Mass (M?) Type Mass (M?) Spin[n 8]
GW150914
09:50:45
2016-02-11
; mostly to the south
BH
[n 9]
BH
[n 10]
BH
First GW detection;
first BH merger observed
[11][12][10]
GW151012 [fr]
09:54:43
2016-06-15
BH
BH
BH
Formerly candidate LVT151012;
accepted as astrophysical since February 2019
[13][5][4]
GW151226
03:38:53
2016-06-15
BH
BH
BH
[14][15]
GW170104
10:11:58
2017-06-01
BH
BH
BH
[6][16]
GW170608
02:01:16
2017-11-16
; to the north
BH
BH
BH
Smallest BH progenitor
masses to date
[17]
GW170729
18:56:29
2018-11-30
1033
BH
BH
BH
Largest progenitor masses to date [5]
GW170809
08:28:21
2018-11-30
340; towards Cetus
BH
BH
BH
[5]
GW170814
10:30:43
2017-09-27
; towards Eridanus
BH
BH
BH
First announced detection by
three observatories; first polarization measurement
[18][19]
GW170817
12:41:04
2017-10-16
; NGC 4993
>= 0.04
NS
NS
NS
[n 11]
[n 12]
First NS merger observed in
GW; first detection of EM counterpart (GRB 170817A; AT 2017gfo); nearest event to date
[9][22][23]
GW170818
02:25:09
2018-11-30
39; towards Pegasus
BH
BH
BH
[5]
GW170823
13:13:58
2018-11-30
1651
BH
BH
BH
[5]
Gravitational Wave Transient Catalog 1. Credit:LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration/Georgia Tech/S. Ghonge & K. Jani

Observation candidates from O3/2019

From the observation run O3/2019 on, observations are published as Open Public Alerts to facilitate multi-messenger observations of events.[24][25][26] Candidate event records can be directly accessed at the Gravitational Wave Candidate Event Database.[27] On 1 April 2019, the start of the third observation run was announced with a circular published in the public alerts tracker.[28] The first O3/2019 binary black hole detection alert was broadcast on 8 April 2019. A significant percentage of O3 candidate events detected by LIGO are accompanied by corresponding triggers at Virgo. False alarm rates are mixed, with more than half of events assigned false alarm rates greater than 1 per 20 years, contingent on presence of glitches around signal, foreground electromagnetic instability, seismic activity, and operational status of any one of the three LIGO-Virgo instruments. For instance, events S190421ar and S190425z weren't detected by Virgo and LIGO's Hanford site, respectively.

The detection rates and signal qualities of gravitational waves will improve when KAGRA (The Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector) in Japan becomes operational, projected to be in late 2019.[29]

List of O3 event alerts[4][5]
GW event  Detection
time (UTC)
Location
area
[n 13]
(deg2)
Luminosity
distance

(Mpc)
[n 14]
Detector
[n 15]
False Alarm
Rate (Hz)
Classification Notes Ref
NS / NS
[n 16]
NS / BH
[n 17]
BH / BH
[n 18]
Mass gap
[n 19]
Terrestrial
[n 20]
S190408an 2019-04-08
18:18:02
387; towards Pegasus or Lacerta
H,L,V 2.8 10-18 0.0 0.0 ~1.0 0.0 9.8 10-12 [30][31]
S190412m 2019-04-12
05:30:44
156; towards Virgo or Boötes
H,L,V 1.7 10-27 0.0 0.0 ~1.0 0.0 1.7 10-20 [32]
S190421ar 2019-04-21
21:38:56
1444
H,L 1.5 10-8 0.0 0.0 0.967 0.0 0.033 Initially marked with 96% chance of being terrestrial noise, but later upgraded to 97% chance of being a binary black hole merger. [33]
S190425z 2019-04-25
08:18:05
7461
L,V 4.5 10-13 0.9994 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00060 [34][35]
S190426c 2019-04-26
15:21:55
1131
H,L,V 1.9 10-8 0.244 0.064 0.0 0.117 0.575 Initially marked with 49% chance of being binary neutron star merger, 13% neutron star-black hole merger, 24% mass gap merger.
Later marked with a 52% chance of NS-BH, 22% mass gap, 13% BNS, and 14% terrestrial, before being revised to the current solution
[36][37]

[38]

S190503bf 2019-05-03
18:54:04
448; towards Columba, Pictor, or Puppis
H,L,V 1.6 10-9 0.0 0.0047 0.963 0.032 0.00012 [39]
S190510g 2019-05-10
02:59:39
1166; towards Columba or Canis Major
H,L,V 8.8 10-9 0.42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.58 Initially reported with a 2% chance of being noise, later downgraded to a ~58% chance of being noise. [40]
S190512at 2019-05-12
18:07:14
399; towards Scorpius or Ophiuchus
H,L,V 1.9 10-9 0.0 0.0 0.990 0.0 0.010 [41]
S190513bm 2019-05-13
20:54:28
691; towards Sagittarius, Capricornus, Perseus, or Camelopardalis
H,L,V 3.7 10-13 0.0 0.0052 0.943 0.052 6.0 10-8 [42]
S190517h 2019-05-17
05:51:01
939
H,L,V 2.4 10-9 0.0 0.00077 0.983 0.017 0.000043 [43]
S190519bj 2019-05-19
15:35:44
967
H,L,V 5.8 10-9 0.0 0.0 0.956 0.0 0.044 [44]
S190521g 2019-05-21
03:02:29
765; towards Coma, Canes Venatici, or Phoenix
H,L,V 3.8 10-9 0.0 0.0 0.966 0.0 0.034 [45]
S190521r 2019-05-21
07:43:59
488
H,L 3.2 10-10 0.0 0.0 0.9993 0.0 0.00067 [46]
S190602aq 2019-06-02
17:59:27
1172
H,L,V 1.9 10-9 0.0 0.0 0.990 0.0 0.0097 [47]
S190630ag 2019-06-30
18:52:05
8493
L,V 1.3 10-13 0.0 0.0052 0.943 0.052 1.8 10-7 [48]
S190701ah 2019-07-01 20:33:45
67; towards Eridanus or Cetus
H,L,V 1.9 10-8 0.0 0.0 0.934 0.0 0.066 [49]
S190706ai 2019-07-06 22:26:57
1100
H,L,V 1.9 10-9 0.0 0.0 0.990 0.0 0.010 [50]
S190707q 2019-07-07 09:33:44
1375
H,L 5.3 10-12 0.0 0.0 0.999989 0.0 0.000011 [51]
S190720a 2019-07-20 00:08:53
1461
H,L 3.8 10-9 0.0 0.0 0.989 0.0 0.011 Initially reported with a 71% chance of being noise, upgraded to 1% after a signal from the Virgo detector was found to be erroneous. [52]
S190727h 2019-07-27 06:03:51
151; towards Cassiopeia,Andromeda or Carina
H,L,V 1.4 10-10 0.0 0.0018 0.922 0.028 0.048 [53]
S190728q 2019-07-28 06:45:27
104; towards Delphinus, Pegasus, or Equuleus
H,L,V 2.5 10-23 0.0 0.144 0.340 0.516 3.6 10-13 Updated from an initial estimate which gave: 14.4% NS/BH, 34.0% BH/BH, 51.6% Mass gap, and a later estimate which gave a virtually certain BH/BH merger. [54]
S190814bv 2019-08-14 21:11:18
23; towards Cetus or Sculptor
H,L,V 2.0 10-33 0.0 0.998 0 0.0021 0 Updated from earlier estimate which predicted nearly 100% mass gap. [55][56][57]
S190828j 2019-08-28 06:34:05
587
H,L,V 8.5 10-22 0.0 0.0 ~1.0 0.0 3.8 10-14 [58]
S190828l 2019-08-28 06:55:09
948
H,L,V 4.6 10-11 0.0 0.0 0.9996 0.0 0.00041 [59]
S190901ap 2019-09-01
23:31:01
14753
L,V 7.0 10-9 0.861 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.139 [60]
S190910d 2019-09-10
01:26:19
2482
H,L 3.7 10-9 0.0 0.976 0.0 0.0 0.024 [61]
S190910h 2019-09-10
08:29:58
24226
L 3.6 10-8 0.612 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.388 Only detected by the Livingston detector, resulting in a bad sky localization. [62]
S190915ak 2019-09-15 23:57:25
528
H,L,V 9.7 10-10 0.0 0.0 0.995 0.0 0.0053 [63]
S190923y 2019-09-23 12:55:59
2107
H,L 4.8 10-8 0.0 0.677 0.0 0.0 0.322 [64]
S190924h 2019-09-24 02:18:46
303; towards Hydra or Cancer
H,L,V 8.9 10-19 0.0 0.0 0.0 ~1.0 4.7 10-11 [65]
S190930s 2019-09-30 13:35:41
1748
H,L 3.0 10-9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.951 0.049 [66]
S190930t 2019-09-30 14:34:07
24220
L 1.5 10-8 0.0 0.743 0.0 0.0 0.257 Only detected by the Livingston detector, resulting in a bad sky localization. [67]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Indirect evidence for gravitational waves was obtained by 1978 from observations of orbital decay in the neutron star binary PSR B1913+16.[1]
  2. ^ The detection date of a GW event is indicated by its designation; i.e., event GW150914 was detected on 2015-09-14.
  3. ^ The area of the sky within which it was possible to localize the source.
  4. ^ 1 Mpc is approximately 3.26 Mly.
  5. ^ c2M? is about 1.8×103 foe; 1.8×1047 J; 1.8×1054 erg; 4.3×1046 cal; 1.7×1044 BTU; 5.0×1040 kWh, or 4.3×1037tonnes of TNT.
  6. ^ The chirp mass is the binary parameter most relevant to the evolution of the inspiral gravitational waveform, and thus is the mass that can be measured most accurately. It is related to, but less than, the geometric mean of the binary masses, according to , thus ranging from ~87% of when the masses are the same to ~78% when they differ by an order of magnitude.
  7. ^ The dimensionless effective inspiral spin parameter is: [6] where is the mass of a black hole, is its spin, and is the angle between the orbital angular momentum and a merging black hole's spin (ranging from when aligned to when antialigned). It is the mass-weighted linear combination of the components of the black holes' spins aligned with the orbital axis[6][5] and has values ranging from -1 to 1 (the extremes correspond to situations with both black hole spins exactly antialigned and aligned, respectively, with orbital angular momentum).[7] This is the spin parameter most relevant to the evolution of the inspiral gravitational waveform, and it can be measured more accurately than those of the premerger BHs.[8]
  8. ^ Values of the dimensionless spin parameter cJ/GM2 for a black hole range from zero to a maximum of one. The macroscopic properties of an isolated astrophysical (uncharged) black hole are fully determined by its mass and spin. Values for other objects can potentially exceed one. The largest value known for a neutron star is [9]
  9. ^ Spin estimate is .[10]
  10. ^ Spin estimate is .[10]
  11. ^ Based on a descending spin-down chirp observed in GW post-merger, a magnetar was produced that survived at least 5 seconds.[20]
  12. ^ Besides the loss of mass due to GW emission that occurred during the merger, the event is thought to have ejected of material.[21]
  13. ^ The area of the sky within which it was possible to localize the source.
  14. ^ 1 Mpc is approximately 3.26 Mly.
  15. ^ Which instruments observed the event. (H = LIGO Hanford, L=LIGO Livingston, V=Virgo)
  16. ^ Probability that both components have mass < 3 M?
  17. ^ Probability that one component has mass < 3 M? and the other has mass > 5 M?
  18. ^ Probability that both components have mass > 5 M?
  19. ^ Probability that at least one component has a mass in the range 3-5 M?, between those of known neutron stars and black holes
  20. ^ Probability that the source is terrestrial (i.e., background noise or a glitch)

References

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  31. ^ XML file with preliminary information
  32. ^ "Superevent info - S190412m". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  33. ^ "Superevent info - S190421ar". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  34. ^ "Superevent info - S190425z". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
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  39. ^ "Superevent info - S190503bf". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  40. ^ "Superevent info - S190510g". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  41. ^ "Superevent info - S190512at". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  42. ^ "Superevent info - S190513bm". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  43. ^ "Superevent info - S190517h". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  44. ^ "Superevent info - S190519bj". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  45. ^ "Superevent info - S190521g". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  46. ^ "Superevent info - S190521r". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  47. ^ "Superevent info - S190602aq". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  48. ^ "Superevent info - S190630ag". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  49. ^ "Superevent info - S190701ah". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  50. ^ "Superevent info - S190706ai". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  51. ^ "Superevent info - S190707q". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  52. ^ "Superevent info - S190720a". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  53. ^ "Superevent info - S190727h". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  54. ^ "Superevent info - S190728q". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  55. ^ "Superevent info - S190814bv". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  56. ^ Starr, Michelle (16 August 2019). "Early Reports Indicate We May Have Detected a Black Hole And Neutron Star Collision". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 2019.
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  58. ^ "Superevent info - S190818j". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  59. ^ "Superevent info - S190818l". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  60. ^ "Superevent info - S190901ap". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  61. ^ "Superevent info - S190910d". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  62. ^ "Superevent info - S190910h". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  63. ^ "Superevent info - S190919ak". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  64. ^ "Superevent info - S190923y". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  65. ^ "Superevent info - S190924h". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  66. ^ "Superevent info - S190930s". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.
  67. ^ "Superevent info - S190930t". LIGO. Retrieved 2019.

External links


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