List of Defense of Marriage Amendments to U.S. State Constitutions by Type
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List of Defense of Marriage Amendments to U.S. State Constitutions by Type

U.S. state constitutional amendments banning same-sex unions
  Constitutional amendment banned same-sex marriage, civil unions, and any marriage-like contract between unmarried persons
  Constitutional amendment banned same-sex marriage and civil unions
  Constitutional amendment banned same-sex marriage
  No state constitutional amendment banning legal recognition of same-sex unions
Adoption of marriage amendments over time

Prior to the Supreme Court's decision in Obergefell v. Hodges (2015), U.S. state constitutional amendments banning same-sex unions of several different types passed, banning legal recognition of same-sex unions in U.S. state constitutions, referred to by proponents as "defense of marriage amendments" or "marriage protection amendments."[1] These state amendments are different from the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment, which would ban same-sex marriage in every U.S. state, and Section 2 of the Defense of Marriage Act, more commonly known as DOMA, which allowed the states not to recognize same-sex marriages from other states. The amendments define marriage as a union between one man and one woman and prevent civil unions or same-sex marriages from being legalized, though some of the amendments bar only the latter. The Obergefell decision in June 2015 invalidated these state constitutional amendments insofar as they prevented same-sex couples from marrying, even though the actual text of these amendments remain written into the state constitutions.

Thirty-one U.S. state constitutional amendments banning legal recognition of same-sex unions have been adopted. Of these, ten make only same-sex marriage unconstitutional; sixteen make both same-sex marriage and civil unions unconstitutional; two make same-sex marriage, civil unions, and other contracts unconstitutional; and one is unique. Hawaii's amendment is unique in that it does not make same-sex marriage unconstitutional; rather, it allows the state to limit marriage to opposite-sex couples. Virginia's amendment prevents the state from recognizing private contracts that "approximate" marriage. Observers have pointed out that such language encompasses private contracts and medical directives.[2][3] Furthermore, the Michigan Supreme Court has held that the state's amendment bans not only same-sex marriage and civil unions, but also domestic partnership benefits such as health insurance.[4]

State constitutional amendments are typically approved first by the legislature or special constitutional convention and then by the voters in a referendum.[a] In some states, one or both of these steps is repeated.[b] The percentages shown in the list are results from the referendum stage, not the legislative stage.

History

The idea of extending marriage rights to same-sex couples did not become a political issue in the United States until the 1990s. During that decade, several Western European countries legalized civil unions, and in 1993 the Supreme Court of Hawaii ruled in Baehr v. Lewin, 852 P.2d 44 (Haw. 1993), that refusing to grant marriage licenses to same-sex couples was sex-discrimination under that state's constitution.[7] In response, voters passed Hawaii Constitutional Amendment 2.[8] This amendment differed from future marriage amendments in other states as it did not ban same-sex marriage itself, but merely empowered the state legislature to enact such a ban.[9] In November 1998, 69% of Hawaii voters approved the amendment, and the state legislature exercised its power to ban same-sex marriage.[9][10] Only three constitutional bans on same-sex unions (in Alaska, Nebraska, and Nevada) were proposed between 1998 and 2003.[11] All three amendments passed.[12][13][14] In Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court's November 2003 decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, the court legalized same-sex marriage in Massachusetts. Social and religious conservatives feared that their own state supreme courts would issue such rulings at some point in the future; in order to prevent this, they proposed additional constitutional bans on same-sex marriage.[15] The following year, eleven constitutional referenda banning same-sex unions were placed on state ballots.[16]

Purpose and motivation

Constitutional bans on same-sex unions were advocated in response to the legalization of same-sex marriage in other jurisdictions, notably Canada and Massachusetts.

Some amendments and some proposed amendments forbade a state from recognizing even non-marital civil unions and domestic partnerships, while others explicitly allowed for same-sex unions that were not called "marriages".

Such amendments had two main purposes:

  • Preventing a state's courts interpreting their state's constitution to permit or require legalization of same-sex marriage.
  • Preventing a state's courts recognizing same-sex marriages that were legally performed in other jurisdictions.

Some proponents of such amendments feared that states would be forced to recognize same-sex marriages celebrated in other jurisdictions. They pointed to the full faith and credit clause, which requires each state to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of each other state. On the other hand, opponents argued that state constitutional amendments would do nothing to resolve this perceived problem. Traditionally, courts have held that a state is free to decline to recognize a marriage celebrated elsewhere if the marriage violates the state's strong public policy. (§134 of the First Restatement of Conflicts, on Marriage and Legitimacy (1934)). That tradition was broken in 1967 with the Loving v Virginia case decided by a unanimous Supreme Court, which confirmed that the full faith and credit clause did require recognition of all legal marriages. Similarly, in Obergefell v. Hodges the Supreme Court ruled that the federal constitution required state recognition of same-sex marriages. All state constitutions are trumped by the federal constitution due to the supremacy clause.

Conservative mobilization

State referenda on constitutional bans of same-sex unions have at times been accused of having been used as a "get-out-the-vote" tactic by some Republicans and social conservatives.[17][18] When voters see that a particular legislative initiative appears on the ballot, they are thought to feel more motivated to turn out to vote, enhancing ballot numbers for other candidates and issues of their party. The presence of these amendments on state ballots has been credited by some as supposedly providing a boost to Republicans in the 2004 election, and the 2004 Ohio amendment in particular has been cited as aiding President George W. Bush's reelection campaign by motivating evangelical social conservatives in the state to go to the polls.[17][19] President George W. Bush's close political consultant, Karl Rove, has been an enthusiastic proponent and organizer of legislation banning same-sex unions.

After the 2006 elections some activists argued that such referenda were starting to lose their potential to mobilize conservative voters. Kevin Cathcart, director of Lambda Legal pointed to the narrow defeat of Arizona's Proposition 107, which would have rendered civil unions as well as same-sex marriage unconstitutional.[20] Nevertheless, that same election saw seven such amendments pass; these seven included an amendment in Virginia which banned civil unions as well as same-sex marriages.[21]

Variants

Most of these amendments banned civil unions as well as same-sex marriage.[22]

Two marriage amendments differed greatly from all others: Hawaii's and Virginia's. The former gave the Hawaii state legislature the authority to ban same-sex marriages but did not explicitly make such unions unconstitutional. Virginia's amendment not only banned same-sex marriage and civil unions, but arguably rendered any state recognition of private contracts entered into by unmarried couples unconstitutional.[23]

States that have voted on amendments

Amendments that grant legislative authority to ban same-sex marriage

Hawaii's constitutional ban on same-sex unions.svg
State Year Support vote % Title Amendment
Hawaii 1998 69%[24][25] Constitutional Amendment 2[24] The legislature shall have the power to reserve marriage to opposite-sex couples.[26]

Amendments that ban same-sex marriage

Type I constitutional ban on same-sex unions US.svg
State Year Support vote % Title Amendment (in relevant part)
Alaska 1998 68%[27] Ballot Measure 2, Joint Resolution 42[27] To be valid or recognized in this State, a marriage may exist only between one man and one woman.[28]
Nevada 2000, 2002N-[2] 69.6%; 67.1%N-[2] Nevada Question No. 2[6] Only a marriage between a male and female person shall be recognized and given effect in this state.[29]
Mississippi 2004 86%[30] Mississippi Amendment 1[30] Marriage may take place and may be valid under the laws of this state only between a man and a woman.[31]
Missouri 2004 72%[32] Constitutional Amendment 2[33] To be valid and recognized in this state, a marriage shall exist only between a man and a woman.[34]
Montana 2004 67%[30] Montana Initiative 96[30] Only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in this state.[35]
Oregon 2004 57%[30] Oregon Ballot Measure 36[36] Only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or legally recognized as a marriage.[37]
Colorado 2006 56%[38] Colorado Amendment 43[39] Only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in this state.[39]
Tennessee 2006 81%[38] Tennessee Amendment 1[40] The historical institution and legal contract solemnizing the relationship of one man and one woman shall be the only legally recognized marital contract in this state.[40]
Arizona 2008 56%[41] Arizona Proposition 102[42] Only a union of one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in this state.[42]
California 2008 52%[41] California Proposition 8[43] Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California.[43]

Amendments that ban same-sex marriage and civil unions, but not other contracts

Type II constitutional ban on same-sex unions US.svg
State Year Support vote % Title Amendment (in relevant part)
Nebraska 2000 70%[44] Initiative Measure 416[44] Only marriage between a man and a woman shall be valid or recognized in Nebraska. The uniting of two persons of the same sex in a civil union, domestic partnership, or other similar same-sex relationship shall not be valid or recognized in Nebraska.[45]
Arkansas 2004 75%[30] Constitutional Amendment 3[46] (1) Marriage consists only of the union of one man and one woman. (2) Legal status for unmarried persons which is identical or substantially similar to marital status shall not be valid or recognized in Arkansas.[47]
Georgia 2004 76%[30] Constitutional Amendment 1[48] (a) This state shall recognize as marriage only the union of man and woman. Marriages between persons of the same sex are prohibited in this state. (b) No union between persons of the same sex shall be recognized by this state as entitled to the benefits of marriage.[49]
Kentucky 2004 75%[30] Constitutional Amendment 1[50] Only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in Kentucky. A legal status identical or substantially similar to that of marriage for unmarried individuals shall not be valid or recognized.[51]
Louisiana 2004 78%[30] Constitutional Amendment 1[52] Marriage in the state of Louisiana shall consist only of the union of one man and one woman. No official or court of the state of Louisiana shall construe this constitution or any state law to require that marriage or the legal incidents thereof be conferred upon any member of a union other than the union of one man and one woman. A legal status identical or substantially similar to that of marriage for unmarried individuals shall not be valid or recognized.[53]
North Dakota 2004 73%[30] North Dakota Constitutional Measure 1[54] Marriage consists only of the legal union between a man and a woman. No other domestic union, however denominated, may be recognized as a marriage or given the same or substantially equivalent legal effect.[55]
Ohio 2004 62%[30] State Issue 1[56] Only a union between one man and one woman may be a marriage valid in or recognized by this state. This state and shall not create or recognize a legal status for relationships of unmarried individuals that intends to approximate the design, qualities, significance or effect of marriage.[57]
Oklahoma 2004 76%[30] State Question 711[58] A. Marriage in this state shall consist only of the union of one man and one woman. Neither this Constitution nor any other provision of law shall be construed to require that marital status or the legal incidents thereof be conferred upon unmarried couples or groups. C. Any person knowingly issuing a marriage license in violation of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.[59]
Utah 2004 66%[30] Constitutional Amendment 3[60] Marriage consists only of the legal union between a man and a woman. No other domestic union, however denominated, may be recognized as a marriage or given the same or substantially equivalent legal effect.[61]
Kansas 2005 70%[62] Proposed Amendment 1[63] (a) Marriage shall be constituted by one man and one woman only. All other marriages are declared to be contrary to the public policy of this state and are void. (b) No relationship, other than a marriage, shall be recognized by the state as entitling the parties to the rights or incidents of marriage.[64]
Texas 2005 76%[65] Proposition 2[65] (a) Marriage in this state shall consist only of the union of one man and one woman. (b) This state or a political subdivision of this state may not create or recognize any legal status identical or similar to marriage.[66]
Alabama 2006 81%[67] Sanctity of Marriage Amendment (Amendment 774)[68] No marriage license shall be issued in the State of Alabama to parties of the same sex...

A union replicating marriage of or between persons of the same sex in the State of Alabama or in any other jurisdiction shall be considered and treated in all respects as having no legal force or effect in this state and shall not be recognized by this state as a marriage or other union replicating marriage.[68]

Idaho 2006 63%[38] Idaho Amendment 2[38] A marriage between a man and a woman is the only domestic legal union that shall be valid or recognized in this state.[69]
South CarolinaN-[3] 2006 78%[38] South Carolina Amendment 1[38] A marriage between one man and one woman is the only lawful domestic union that shall be valid or recognized in this State. This State...shall not recognize...any other domestic union, however denominated.[70]
South Dakota 2006 52%[38] South Dakota Amendment C[38] Only marriage between a man and a woman shall be valid or recognized in South Dakota. The uniting of two or more persons in a civil union, domestic partnership, or other quasi-marital relationship shall not be valid or recognized in South Dakota.[71]
Wisconsin 2006 59%[38] Wisconsin Referendum 1[38] Only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or recognized as a marriage in this state. A legal status identical or substantially similar to that of marriage for unmarried individuals shall not be valid or recognized in this state.[72]
Florida 2008 62%[41] Florida Amendment 2[73] Inasmuch as marriage is the legal union of one man and one woman as husband and wife, no other legal union that is treated as marriage or the substantial equivalent thereof shall be valid or recognized.[73]
North Carolina 2012 61%[74] Amendment 1 Marriage between one man and one woman is the only domestic legal union that shall be valid or recognized in this State. This section does not prohibit a private party from entering into contracts with another private party; nor does this section prohibit courts from adjudicating the rights of private parties pursuant to such contracts.[75]

Amendments that ban same-sex marriage, civil unions, and other contracts

Virginia and Michigan's constitutional bans on same-sex unions.svg
State Year Support vote % Title Amendment
Michigan 2004 59%[30] State Proposal - 04-2[76] To secure and preserve the benefits of marriage for our society and for future generations of children, the union of one man and one woman in marriage shall be the only agreement recognized as a marriage or similar union for any purpose.[77][78]
Virginia 2006 57%[79] Marshall-Newman Amendment[79] That only a union between one man and one woman may be a marriage valid in or recognized by this Commonwealth and its political subdivisions. This Commonwealth and its political subdivisions shall not create or recognize a legal status for relationships of unmarried individuals that intends to approximate the design, qualities, significance, or effects of marriage. Nor shall this Commonwealth or its political subdivisions create or recognize another union, partnership, or other legal status to which is assigned the rights, benefits, obligations, qualities, or effects of marriage.[80]

Failed amendments

  • Arizona Proposition 107 - On November 7, 2006, Arizona rejected a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and civil unions by 51.8% of the vote. Two years later Arizona voters approved a more narrow amendment banning only same-sex marriage.
  • Minnesota Amendment 1 - On November 6, 2012, Minnesota rejected a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage with 51.90% of the electorate opposed. A majority of all votes cast would be required to amend the state constitution.

Notes

n-[1] a The mechanics differ: 17 states allow constitutional amendments to be proposed by popular initiative, all allow the legislature to start the process, and five allow special conventions to start the process. In all states, though, the amendment is approved by elected members of a constitutional convention or elected legislators at least once, with varying standards for approval of the measure. Voters then vote directly on the resulting referendum.[5]

n-[2] a b c Amendments to the Nevada state constitution must be approved by the voters in two consecutive elections.[6]

n-[3] a South Carolina's Amendment explicitly disavows a Virginia-type regime that would affect private contracts: "This section shall not prohibit or limit parties, other than the State or its political subdivisions, from entering into contracts or other legal instruments."[70]

Obergefell v. Hodges

On June 26, 2015 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell that state laws banning same-sex marriage violate the Fourteenth Amendment, rendering such laws unconstitutional and invalidating the remaining 14 same-sex marriage bans still being fully or partially enforced.[81]

As of 2016, bills have been introduced in Virginia and other states to legislatively repeal the null-and-void amendments.[82]2020 Nevada Question 2 is a ballot measure scheduled for November 3, 2020 to repeal the amendment passed in 2002.[83]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The mechanics differ: 17 states allow constitutional amendments to be proposed by popular initiative, all allow the legislature to start the process, and five allow special conventions to start the process. In all states, though, the amendment is approved by elected members of a constitutional convention or elected legislators at least once, with varying standards for approval of the measure. Voters then vote directly on the resulting referendum, except in Delaware, where constitutional amendments are voted on and ratified only by the state legislature.[5]
  2. ^ Amendments to the Nevada state constitution must be approved by the voters in two consecutive elections.[6]

References

  1. ^ Walden, Michael; Thoms, Peg, eds. (2007). Battleground: business. 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 468. ISBN 978-0-313-34065-9.
  2. ^ Freehling, Bill (November 21, 2006). "Test case is urged by ACLU". The Free Lance-Star. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013. Retrieved 2006.
  3. ^ Glidden, Melissa; Jackson-Cooper, Brenda; Nickel, Leslie (August 11, 2006). "Potential Impact of the Proposed Marshall/Newman Amendment to the Virginia Constitution" (PDF). Arnold & Porter, LLP. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 20, 2017. Retrieved 2006.
  4. ^ National Pride At Work, Inc. et al. v. Governor of Michigan et al., 748 N.W.2d 524 (Mich 2008).
  5. ^ a b Lutz, Donald S. (June 1994). "Toward a Theory of Constitutional Amendment". American Political Science Review. 88 (2): 355-370. Page 360. Table 3. Covers State Constitutions active from 1970-9. doi:10.2307/2944709. JSTOR 2944709.Cite error: The named reference "Lutz7" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  6. ^ a b c "Gay rights ballot initiatives". Gaydemographics.org. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2006.Cite error: The named reference "Gaydemo" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ "Special Report: 'I do'" Honolulu Star-Bulletin January 22, 1997
  8. ^ "Gay Marriage Timeline". Pew Forum. April 1, 2008. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ a b "Homosexual (same-sex) marriages in Hawaii" Robinson, B.A. Religious Tolerance. 1997-JUL-11, updated 2001-DEC-2
  10. ^ "Same-sex marriage ballot measures: Hawaii gives legislature power to ban same-sex marriage" AllPolitics. CNN. November 3, 1998
  11. ^ In Alaska, a same-sex couple had sued for marriage rights, and had seen several rulings in their favor; the Alaska ban arose in an effort to prevent the ruling from taking effect. See "Homosexual (same-sex) marriage in Alaska" Robinson, B.A. Religioustolerance.org. 2002. (last update 2005-APR-21). accessed November 3, 2006.
  12. ^ "Same-sex marriage in Alaska". Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 2012.
  13. ^ Jody Brown and Bill Fancher, AgapePress (May 15, 2005). "Family Advocates: Judicial Activism Runs Amok in Nebraska - Jody Brown and Bill Fancher". Crosswalk. Retrieved 2012.
  14. ^ Vogel, Ed (February 23, 2011). "Legal challenge to Nevada's anti-gay marriage amendment not expected". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
  15. ^ Masci, David (April 10, 2008). "An Overview of the Same-Sex Marriage Debate - Pew Research Center". Pew Research. Retrieved 2012.
  16. ^ "Election 2004 - Ballot Measures". CNN. April 13, 1970. Retrieved 2012.
  17. ^ a b Andrea Stone, Drives to ban gay adoption heat up in 16 states, USA Today, February 20, 2006
  18. ^ Pauline J. Chang, Wisconsin Conservatives Gear Up For Marriage Vote with 'Celebration', The Christian Post, October 25, 2006
  19. ^ Joe Hanel, Elite donors fuel ballot initiatives, The Durango Herald, October 29, 2006
  20. ^ "Ban on Same-Sex Unions Added to Va. Constitution". The Washington Post. November 8, 2006. Retrieved 2012.
  21. ^ "Ban on Same-Sex Unions Added to Va. Constitution", by Chris L. Jenkins, The Washington Post, November 8, 2006
  22. ^ "Marriage Measure Is an Amendment Too Far", by David Boaz, Cato Institute, November 3, 2006. property rights text of va ballot question no. 1
  23. ^ a b Same-sex marriage ballot measures: Hawaii gives legislature power to ban same-sex marriage AllPolitics. CNN.com. November 3, 1998. (Accessed November 30, 2006)
  24. ^ General Election 1998, Hawaii Office of Elections, November 3, 1998, retrieved 2010
  25. ^ Hawai`i State Constitution, Article I, section 23, Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. (Accessed November 30, 2006). This amendment does not ban same sex marriage; rather, it grants the power to do so to the state.
  26. ^ a b Homosexual (same-sex) marriages in Alaska Robinson, B.A. ReligiousTolerance.org. Accessed November 30, 2006)
  27. ^ Alaska Sate Constitution Hosted on the Alaska Legislature's website. Accessed November 30, 2006.
  28. ^ "The Constitution of the State of Nevada" Hosted on the Nevada Legislature's website. Accessed November 30, 2006.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n CNN.com Election 2004 - Ballot Measures Accessed November 30, 2006.
  30. ^ "DOMAwatch.org - Mississippi" Alliance Defense Fund. 2006. Accessed December 14, 2006.
  31. ^ Gay Marriage Ban in Mo. May Resonate Nationwide Cooperman, Alan Washington Post August 5, 2004. Accessed December 14, 2006. Missouri's Amendment was the first such referendum voted on since same-sex marriage was legalized in Massachusetts.
  32. ^ "Elections: 2004 Ballot Measures" Missouri Secretary of State.
  33. ^ "Article I, Bill of Rights, Section 33" Missouri Constitution. Missouri General Assembly. Accessed December 14, 2006.
  34. ^ The Montana Constitution" Hosted on the Montana Legislature's website. Accessed November 30, 2006.
  35. ^ Oregon Voter's Guide page for Measure 36. Oregon Secretary of State. 2004. Accessed December 14, 2006.
  36. ^ The Constitution of the State of Oregon Article XV (Miscellaneous) Section 5a. Hosted on the Oregon Legislature's website. Accessed December 14, 2006.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j CNN.com Election 2006 - Ballot Measures Accessed December 14, 2006.
  38. ^ a b Analysis of the 2006 Ballot Proposals (Research Publication No. 554) Legislative Council of the Colorado General Assembly. p.13 Accessed December 14, 2006.
  39. ^ a b Constitutional Amendment Issues Tennessee Secretary of State. No date, author given. Accessed December 14, 2006.
  40. ^ a b c CNN.com Election 2008 - Ballot Measures Accessed November 10, 2008.
  41. ^ a b 2008 Ballot Proposition Guide, Arizona Secretary of State Jan Brewer, September 2008. Accessed November 11, 2008.
  42. ^ a b Text of Proposed Laws, California Secretary of State, p. 128. Accessed November 10, 2008.
  43. ^ a b Statewide General Election 2000 Results, Constitutional Amendments and Initiative Measures, Nebraska Secretary of State, p. 21-22. Accessed December 17, 2006.
  44. ^ Nebraska State Constitution, Article I, section 29, Nebraska Legislative Documents Legislature. Accessed December 15, 2006.
  45. ^ Arkansas Initiatives & Amendments, 1938-2004, p. 20, Arkansas Secretary of State. Accessed December 18, 2006.
  46. ^ Arkansas State Constitution, 83rd Amendment, Arkansas Legislature. Accessed December 18, 2006.
  47. ^ Official Results of the November 2, 2004 General Election, Georgia Secretary of State. Accessed December 18, 2006.
  48. ^ Constitution of the State of Georgia, Article I, section IV, Georgia Secretary of State. Accessed December 18, 2006.
  49. ^ 2004 Election Night Tally Results, Kentucky State Board of Elections. Accessed December 18, 2006.
  50. ^ Kentucky Constitution, Section 233A, Kentucky Legislature. Accessed December 18, 2006.
  51. ^ Results for Election Date: 9/18/04, Louisiana Secretary of State. Accessed December 19, 2006.
  52. ^ Louisiana Constitution, Article 12, section 15, Louisiana State Senate. Accessed December 19, 2006.
  53. ^ Election Results, 2004 General Election, North Dakota Secretary of State Election Management System. Accessed December 20, 2006.
  54. ^ North Dakota Constitution, Article XI, section 28. Accessed December 20, 2006.
  55. ^ Official Ballot Language, Ohio Secretary of State. Accessed December 21, 2006.
  56. ^ Ohio Constitution, Article XV, section 11. Accessed December 21, 2006.
  57. ^ General Election, November 2, 2004, Summary Results, Oklahoma State Election Board. Accessed December 22, 2006.
  58. ^ Oklahoma Constitution, Article II, section 35, at domawatch.org. Accessed December 22, 2006.
  59. ^ Utah 2004 canvass amendments, 2004 General Election Results, State of Utah Elections Office. Accessed December 15, 2006.
  60. ^ Utah State Constitution, Article I, section 29, Utah Legislature. Accessed December 15, 2006.
  61. ^ Election Statistics, Kansas Secretary of State. Accessed December 22, 2006.
  62. ^ Gay marriage ban in public's hands, by Scott Rothschild, Lawrence Journal-World, February 3, 2005. Accessed December 22, 2006.
  63. ^ Kansas Constitution, Article XV, section 16. Accessed December 22, 2006.
  64. ^ a b 2005 Constitutional Amendment Election, Texas Secretary of State, Elections Division. Accessed December 22, 2006.
  65. ^ Texas Constitution, Article I, section 32. Accessed December 22, 2006.
  66. ^ DOMAwatch.org - Alabama Alliance Defense Fund. 2006. Accessed January 6, 2007.
  67. ^ a b "AMENDMENT 774 RATIFIED", Alabama State Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2006.
  68. ^ Article III, Section 28. Idaho Constitution. Idaho State Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2007.
  69. ^ a b p.24 No.54 edition of the Journal of the Senate of the State of South Carolina. State of South Carolina. April 2005. Accessed January 6, 2007.
  70. ^ House Joint Resolution 1001 South Dakota Legislature 2005. Accessed January 6, 2007.
  71. ^ "DOMAwatch.org - Wisconsin" Alliance Defense Fund. 2006. Accessed January 6, 2007.
  72. ^ a b Initiative Information - Florida Marriage Protection Amendment, Florida Department of State, Division of Elections. Accessed November 11, 2008.
  73. ^ Waggoner, Martha (May 8, 2012). "NC approves amendment on gay marriage". Associated Press. Retrieved 2012.
  74. ^ "Session Law 2011-409, Senate Bill 514" (PDF). North Carolina General Assembly. 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  75. ^ 2004 General Election Results, Michigan Department of State. Accessed December 19, 2006.
  76. ^ Michigan State Constitution, Article I, section 25, Michigan Legislature. Accessed December 19, 2006.
  77. ^ Opinion of the Supreme Court of Michigan, Michigan Supreme Court. Accessed May 10, 2009.
  78. ^ a b Official Results, 2006 election, Virginia State Board of Elections. Accessed December 30, 2006.
  79. ^ Proposed Constitutional Amendment, Article I, Section 15-A, from "November 2006 Proposed Amendments", Virginia State Board of Elections. Accessed December 30, 2006.
  80. ^ Prior to Obergefell Alabama and Kansas had one or more court ruling invalidating the state's same-sex marriage bans but were not fully complying with the rulings.
  81. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (July 29, 2016). "Virginia still has laws banning gay marriage. Should that matter?". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016.
  82. ^ "Assembly Joint Resolution No. 2 of the 79th Session". Nevada Legislative Counsel Bureau. May 23, 2019. Retrieved 2020.

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