List of Courts of the United States
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List of Courts of the United States

The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels. The federal courts form the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law. The state and territorial courts of the individual U.S. states and territories operate under the authority of the state and territorial constitutions and state and territorial law.

Federal statutes that refer to the "courts of the United States" are referring only to the courts of the federal government, and not the courts of the individual states and counties. Because of the federalist underpinnings of the division between sovereign federal and state governments, the various state court systems are free to operate in ways that vary widely from those of the federal government, and from one another. In practice, however, every state has adopted a division of its judiciary into at least two levels, and almost every state has three levels, with trial courts hearing cases which may be reviewed by appellate courts, and finally by a state supreme court. A few states have two separate supreme courts, with one having authority over civil matters and the other reviewing criminal cases. 47 states and the federal government allow at least one appeal of right from a final judgment on the merits, meaning that the court receiving the appeal must decide the appeal after it is briefed and argued properly. Three states do not provide a right to a first appeal. Rather, they give litigants only a right to petition for the right to have an appeal heard.

State courts often have diverse names and structures, as illustrated below. State courts hear about 98% of litigation; most states have courts of special jurisdiction, which typically handle minor disputes such as traffic citations, and courts of general jurisdiction responsible for more serious disputes.[1]

The U.S. federal court system hears cases involving litigants from two or more states, violations of federal laws, treaties, and the Constitution, admiralty, bankruptcy, and related issues.[2] In practice, about 80% of the cases are civil and 20% criminal.[1] The civil cases often involve civil rights, patents, and Social Security while the criminal cases involve tax fraud, robbery, counterfeiting, and drug crimes.[1] The trial courts are U.S. district courts, followed by United States courts of appeals and then the Supreme Court of the United States. The judicial system, whether state or federal, begins with a court of first instance, whose work may be reviewed by an appellate court, and then ends at the court of last resort, which may review the work of the lower courts.[3]

Institutions which may be considered courts of the United States are listed below.

United States Federal Courts

The geographical boundary of the 12 United States Courts of Appeals

Geographic based jurisdiction

Specific subject-matter jurisdiction

Former United States Courts

Courts by state of the United States


Alabama

State courts of Alabama

Federal courts located in Alabama

(All United States District Courts in Alabama may be appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia)

Former federal courts of Alabama


Alaska

State courts of Alaska

Federal courts located in Alaska


Arizona

State courts of Arizona

Federal courts located in Arizona


Arkansas

State courts of Arkansas

Federal courts located in Arkansas

Former federal courts of Arkansas


California

State courts of California

Federal courts located in California

Former federal courts of California


Colorado

State courts of Colorado

Federal courts located in Colorado


Connecticut

State courts of Connecticut

Federal court located in Connecticut:


Delaware

State courts of Delaware

Federal courts located in Delaware


Florida

Headquarters of the Florida Supreme Court in Tallahassee.
State courts of Florida

Federal courts located in Florida

Former federal courts of Florida


Georgia

State courts of Georgia

Federal courts located in Georgia

Former federal courts of Georgia


Hawaii

Aliʻi?lani Hale, in Honolulu, the building where the Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court meets
State courts of Hawaii

Federal courts located in Hawaii


Idaho

State courts of Idaho

Federal courts located in Idaho


Illinois

State courts of Illinois

Federal courts located in Illinois

Former federal courts of Illinois


Indiana

State courts of Indiana
The E. Ross Adair Federal Building, seat of the Fort Wayne division of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Indiana

Federal courts located in Indiana

Former federal courts of Indiana


Iowa

State courts of Iowa

Federal courts located in Iowa

Former federal courts of Iowa


Kansas

State courts of Kansas

Federal courts located in Kansas


Kentucky

Kentucky Court of Justice

Under an amendment to the Kentucky Constitution passed by the state's voters in 1975,[127] judicial power in Kentucky is "vested exclusively in one Court of Justice", divided into the following:[128]

Federal courts located in this state
Former federal courts of Kentucky

Louisiana

State courts of Louisiana
Louisiana judicial districts map
Federal courts located in Louisiana
Former federal courts of Louisiana

Maine

State courts of Maine

Federal courts located in Maine


Maryland

Maryland judicial circuit map
State courts of Maryland

Federal courts located in Maryland

Former federal courts of Maryland


Massachusetts

State courts of Massachusetts
Judicial courts
Administrative courts

Federal courts located in Massachusetts


Michigan

Judicial circuits map
State courts of Michigan

Federal courts located in Michigan

Former federal courts of Michigan


Minnesota

Supreme Court Chamber of the Minnesota Supreme Court in the Minnesota State Capitol in Saint Paul.
State courts of Minnesota

Federal courts located in Minnesota


Mississippi

State courts of Mississippi

Federal courts located in Mississippi

Former federal courts of Mississippi


Missouri

State courts of Missouri
Missouri State Supreme Court building across from state capitol in Jefferson City.

Federal courts located in Missouri

Former federal courts of Missouri


Montana

State courts of Montana

Federal courts located in Montana


Nebraska

State courts of Nebraska

Federal courts located in Nebraska


Nevada

State courts of Nevada
The headquarters of the Supreme Court of Nevada in Carson City.

Federal courts located in Nevada


New Hampshire

State courts of New Hampshire

Federal courts located in New Hampshire


New Jersey

State courts of New Jersey
Richard J. Hughes Justice Complex, Trenton, New Jersey: The seat of the New Jersey Supreme Court and the central administrative offices of all statewide courts in New Jersey.

Federal courts located in New Jersey

Former federal courts of New Jersey


New Mexico

State courts of New Mexico

Federal courts located in New Mexico


New York

State courts of New York
The 1842 courthouse of the New York Court of Appeals in Albany

Federal courts located in New York

Former federal courts of New York


North Carolina

State courts of North Carolina

Federal courts located in North Carolina

Former federal courts of North Carolina


North Dakota

State courts of North Dakota

Federal courts located in North Dakota


Ohio

State courts of Ohio
The Thomas J. Moyer Ohio Judicial Center, current headquarters of the Supreme Court of Ohio.

Federal courts located in this state

Former federal courts of Ohio


Oklahoma

State courts of Oklahoma

Federal courts located in Oklahoma


Oregon

State courts of Oregon
Courtroom of the Oregon Supreme Court.

Federal courts located in Oregon


Pennsylvania

State courts of Pennsylvania

Federal courts located in Pennsylvania

Former federal courts of Pennsylvania


Rhode Island

State courts of Rhode Island

Federal courts located in Rhode Island


South Carolina

State courts of South Carolina

Federal courts located in South Carolina


South Dakota

State courts of South Dakota

Federal courts located in South Dakota


Tennessee

State courts of Tennessee

Federal courts located in Tennessee

Former federal courts of Tennessee


Texas

State courts of Texas

Federal courts located in Texas

Former federal courts of Texas


Utah

The Utah Supreme Court meets in the Scott M. Matheson Courthouse.
State courts of Utah

Federal courts located in Utah


Vermont

State courts of Vermont

Federal courts located in Vermont


Virginia

State courts of Virginia

Federal courts located in Virginia

Former federal courts of Virginia


Washington

State courts of Washington

The headquarters of the Washington Supreme Court in Olympia.

Federal courts located in Washington

Former federal courts of Washington


West Virginia

State courts of West Virginia

Federal courts located in West Virginia

Former federal courts of West Virginia


Wisconsin

State courts of Wisconsin

Federal courts located in Wisconsin

Former federal courts of Wisconsin


Wyoming

State courts of Wyoming

Federal courts located in Wyoming


Courts in the District of Columbia

Federal courts located in the District of Columbia

Former federal courts in the District of Columbia


Courts of the Territories of the United States

American Samoa

Guam

United States territorial court

Northern Mariana Islands

United States territorial court

Panama Canal Zone

Puerto Rico

Federal courts located in Puerto Rico:

United States Virgin Islands

United States territorial court


Extraterritorial courts of the United States

U.S. judicial system in popular culture

Due to its involvement in the resolution of crimes and conflicts, which are an intricate part of drama, the U.S. judicial system is often portrayed in American literature and films.

Several Hollywood films such as A Few Good Men (1992) and Runaway Jury (2003) are set around its courts.

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