List of Countries by GDP (PPP) Per Capita
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List of Countries by GDP PPP Per Capita

Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2019 according to the IMF
  >50,000
  35,000-50,000
  20,000-35,000
  10,000-20,000
  5,000-10,000
  2,000-5,000
  <2,000
  Data unavailable

This page is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is Int$18,381.[n 1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2020 estimates)[5] World Bank (2019)[6] Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2017)[7]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1  Luxembourg 112,875
2  Singapore 95,603
3  Qatar 91,897
4  Ireland 89,383
5   Switzerland 68,340
6  Norway 64,856
7  United States 63,051
8  Brunei 61,816
--  Macau 58,931
9  United Arab Emirates 58,466
--  Hong Kong 58,165
10  Denmark 57,781
11  Netherlands 57,101
12  San Marino 56,690
13  Austria 55,406
14  Iceland 54,482
--  Taiwan 54,020
15  Germany 53,571
16  Sweden 52,477
17  Australia 50,845
18  Belgium 50,114
19  Finland 49,334
20  Bahrain 49,057
21  Canada 47,569
22  Saudi Arabia 46,273
23  France 45,454
24  South Korea 44,292
25  United Kingdom 44,288
26  Malta 43,087
27  Kuwait 41,735
28  Japan 41,637
29  New Zealand 41,072
30  Czech Republic 40,293
31  Italy 40,066
32  Israel 39,126
33  Cyprus 39,079
34  Lithuania 38,605
35  Slovenia 38,506
36  Spain 38,143
37  Estonia 37,033
--  Puerto Rico 34,998
38  The Bahamas 33,808
39  Poland 33,739
40  Portugal 33,131
41  Hungary 32,434
42  Slovakia 32,184
43  Latvia 30,579
44  Romania 30,141
45  Panama 30,034
46  Oman 29,908
47  Greece 29,045
48  Turkey 28,294
49  Croatia 27,681
50  Russia 27,394
51  Malaysia 27,287
52  Aruba 27,169
53  Kazakhstan 26,589
54  Seychelles 26,388
55  Trinidad and Tobago 25,964
56  Bulgaria 23,741
57  Chile 23,455
58  Maldives 22,965
59  Uruguay 21,338
60  Saint Kitts and Nevis 21,028
61  Mauritius 20,719
62  Argentina 20,370
63  Montenegro 19,931
64  Belarus 19,759
65  Costa Rica 19,309
66  Serbia 18,840
67  Mexico 18,804
68  Dominican Republic 18,783
69  Antigua and Barbuda 18,655
70  Thailand 18,073
71  Equatorial Guinea 17,782
72  Guyana 17,360
73  China 17,206
74  Turkmenistan 16,711
75  North Macedonia 16,609
76  Grenada 16,454
77  Botswana 16,153
78  Gabon 15,854
79  Georgia 15,142
80  Bosnia and Herzegovina 14,895
81  Suriname 14,605
82  Barbados 14,568
83  Brazil 14,563
84  Azerbaijan 14,499
85  Palau 14,159
86  Colombia 14,137
87  Armenia 13,735
88  Saint Lucia 13,708
89  Albania 13,651
90  Moldova 13,253
91  Sri Lanka 13,114
92  Egypt 12,719
93  Ukraine 12,710
94  Paraguay 12,503
95  Indonesia 12,345
96  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12,268
97  Mongolia 12,259
98  Dominica 12,083
99  Bhutan 12,058
100  Iran 11,963
101  South Africa 11,911
102  Lebanon 11,562
103  Peru 11,516
104  Fiji 11,175
105  Algeria 11,041
--  Kosovo 11,017
106  Vietnam 10,755
107  Ecuador 10,617
108  Tunisia 10,382
109  Jamaica 10,221
110  Jordan 10,007
111  Iraq 9,952
112  Nauru 9,875
113  Namibia 9,537
114  Eswatini 8,955
115  Philippines 8,574
116  El Salvador 8,401
117  Bolivia 8,342
118  Guatemala 8,267
119  Laos 8,221
120  Morocco 7,609
121  Uzbekistan 7,378
122  Cape Verde 6,980
123  Angola 6,978
124  India 6,284
125  Tonga 6,074
126  Mauritania 5,797
127  Ghana 5,707
128  Belize 5,695
129  Samoa 5,547
130  Honduras 5,538
131  Nicaragua 5,439
132  Côte d'Ivoire 5,360
133  Myanmar 5,179
134  Pakistan 5,160
135  Bangladesh 5,139
136  Djibouti 5,074
137  Nigeria 5,066
138  Kenya 4,993
139  Kyrgyzstan 4,824
140  Libya 4,746
141  Tuvalu 4,480
142  Cambodia 4,441
143  Republic of the Congo 4,233
144  Timor-Leste 4,031
145  Papua New Guinea 3,861
146  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,837
147  Marshall Islands 3,786
148  Sudan 3,749
149  Cameroon 3,710
150    Nepal 3,586
151  Tajikistan 3,560
152  Senegal 3,463
153  Federated States of Micronesia 3,447
154  Benin 3,443
155  Zambia 3,302
156  Comoros 3,014
157  Lesotho 2,886
158  Tanzania 2,851
159  Ethiopia 2,772
160  Vanuatu 2,649
161  Uganda 2,585
162  Zimbabwe 2,583
163  Guinea 2,516
164  Solomon Islands 2,442
165  Mali 2,421
166  Rwanda 2,393
167  Guinea-Bissau 2,340
168  The Gambia 2,239
169  Burkina Faso 2,203
170  Kiribati 2,126
171  Afghanistan 2,073
172  Yemen 1,931
173  Eritrea 1,824
174  Haiti 1,728
175  Sierra Leone 1,711
176  Madagascar 1,647
177  Togo 1,640
178  Chad 1,618
179  Liberia 1,536
180  Mozambique 1,279
181  Niger 1,253
182  Malawi 995
183  Democratic Republic of the Congo 978
184  Central African Republic 972
185  South Sudan 884
186  Burundi 783
Rank Country/Territory Int$
--  Macau 129,103
1  Luxembourg 121,293
2  Singapore 101,376
3  Qatar 96,491
4  Ireland 88,241
--  Cayman Islands (2018) 72,481
5   Switzerland 70,989
6  United Arab Emirates 69,901
7  Norway 66,832
8  United States 65,281
9  Brunei 64,673
--  Hong Kong 62,375
10  San Marino (2018) 60,750
11  Iceland 60,061
12  Denmark 59,830
13  Netherlands 59,687
--  Bermuda (2013) 59,483
14  Austria 59,111
15  Germany 56,052
16  Sweden 55,815
--  Taiwan 55,078
17  Belgium 54,545
18  Australia 53,320
19  Kuwait 51,912
20  Canada 51,342
21  Finland 51,324
22  France 49,435
23  Saudi Arabia 48,909
24  United Kingdom 48,710
25  Bahrain 46,892
--  European Union 46,468
26  Malta 45,652
27  Italy 44,197
28  New Zealand 43,953
29  Japan 43,236
30  South Korea 43,029
31  Czech Republic 42,576
32  Spain 42,214
33  Israel 42,194
34  Cyprus 41,254
35  Slovenia 40,657
36  Estonia 38,811
--  Aruba (2017) 38,442
37  Lithuania 38,214
38  The Bahamas 37,266
39  Portugal 36,471
--  Puerto Rico 35,948
41  Poland 34,218
42  Slovakia 34,178
43  Hungary 33,979
44  Panama 32,763
45  Romania 32,297
--  Sint Maarten (2017) 32,256
46  Latvia 32,205
47  Greece 31,399
48  Seychelles 30,260
49  Croatia 29,973
50  Malaysia 29,526
51  Russia 29,181
52  Oman 29,053
53  Turkey 27,875
54  Saint Kitts and Nevis 27,449
55  Kazakhstan 27,444
56  Trinidad and Tobago 27,261
--  Turks and Caicos Islands 27,055
--  Curaçao 25,572
57  Chile 25,155
58  Bulgaria 24,561
59  Mauritius 23,942
60  Montenegro 22,989
61  Argentina 22,947
62  Antigua and Barbuda 22,817
63  Uruguay 22,455
64  Costa Rica 20,434
65  Mexico 20,411
66  Belarus 19,943
67  Maldives 19,698
68  Equatorial Guinea 19,327
69  Thailand 19,228
70  Dominican Republic 19,182
71  Serbia 18,989
72  Botswana 18,503
73  Palau 18,496
74  Grenada 17,956
75  North Macedonia 17,815
-- World 17,680
76  Venezuela (2011) 17,527
77  Suriname 17,005
78  China 16,785
79  Barbados 16,287
80  Saint Lucia 16,089
81  Libya 15,803
82  Bosnia and Herzegovina 15,792
83  Colombia 15,644
84  Georgia 15,637
85  Gabon 15,486
86  Lebanon 15,327
87  Brazil 15,259
88  Turkmenistan 15,196
89  Azerbaijan 15,001
90  Iran (2017) 14,536
91  Albania 14,495
92  Fiji 14,428
93  Armenia 14,220
94  Sri Lanka 13,620
95  Moldova 13,620
96  Peru 13,380
97  Ukraine 13,341
98  Paraguay 13,210
99  South Africa 12,999
100  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12,983
101  Mongolia 12,820
102  Dominica 12,659
103  Indonesia 12,302
104  Egypt 12,251
105  Nauru 12,080
106  Ecuador 11,847
--  Kosovo 11,839
107  Algeria 11,820
108  Bhutan 11,613
109  Iraq 11,332
110  Tunisia 11,201
111  Jordan 10,316
112  Jamaica 10,166
113  Guyana 10,105
114  Namibia 10,037
115  Philippines 9,277
116  El Salvador 9,139
117  Bolivia 9,086
118  Eswatini 9,048
119  Guatemala 8,995
120  Vietnam 8,374
121  Laos 8,150
122  Morocco 7,826
123  Cape Verde 7,469
124  Belize 7,295
125  Uzbekistan 7,288
126  India 7,034
127  Angola 6,929
128  Samoa 6,787
129  Tonga 6,414
130  Honduras 5,965
--  West Bank and Gaza (2018) 5,795
131  Djibouti 5,748
132  Ghana 5,637
133  Nicaragua 5,631
134  Kyrgyzstan 5,470
135  Côte d'Ivoire 5,455
136  Mauritania 5,412
137  Myanmar 5,355
138  Nigeria 5,348
139  Bangladesh 4,950
140  Pakistan 4,884
141  Cambodia 4,570
142  Papua New Guinea 4,569
143  Kenya 4,509
144  Tuvalu 4,465
145  São Tomé and Príncipe 4,128
146  Sudan 4,122
147  Marshall Islands 3,986
148  Cameroon 3,804
149  Yemen (2013) 3,688
150  Zambia 3,623
151    Nepal 3,558
152  Federated States of Micronesia 3,550
153  Senegal 3,535
154  Tajikistan 3,519
155  Republic of the Congo 3,434
156  Benin 3,423
157  Vanuatu 3,273
158  Timor-Leste 3,252
159  Comoros 3,209
160  Zimbabwe 2,953
161  Lesotho 2,882
162  Tanzania 2,770
163  Guinea 2,670
164  Solomon Islands 2,465
165  Mali 2,423
166  Kiribati 2,369
167  Rwanda 2,318
168  Ethiopia 2,311
169  The Gambia 2,298
170  Afghanistan 2,293
171  Burkina Faso 2,280
172  Uganda 2,271
173  Guinea-Bissau 2,071
174  Haiti 1,800
175  Sierra Leone 1,789
176  Madagascar 1,714
177  Togo 1,662
178  Chad 1,645
179  Eritrea (2011) 1,625
180  South Sudan (2014) 1,495
181  Liberia 1,533
182  Mozambique 1,333
183  Niger 1,269
184  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,143
185  Malawi 1,143
186  Central African Republic 984
187  Burundi 782
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1  Liechtenstein 139,100 2009 est.
2  Qatar 124,900 2017 est.
3  Monaco 115,700 2015 est.
--  Macau 114,400 2017 est.
4  Luxembourg 109,100 2017 est.
--  Falkland Islands 96,200 2012 est.
5  Singapore 90,500 2017 est.
--  Bermuda 85,700 2013 est.
--  Isle of Man 84,600 2014 est.
6  Brunei 76,700 2017 est.
7  Ireland 72,600 2017 est.
8  Norway 70,600 2017 est.
9  Kuwait 69,700 2017 est.
10  United Arab Emirates 68,200 2017 est.
--  Sint Maarten 66,800 2014 est.
--  Gibraltar 61,700 2014 est.
11   Switzerland 61,400 2017 est.
--  Hong Kong 61,000 2017 est.
12  San Marino 59,500 2017 est.
13  United States 59,500 2017 est.
14  Saudi Arabia 55,300 2017 est.
15  Netherlands 53,600 2017 est.
--  Guernsey 52,500 2014 est.
16  Iceland 52,100 2017 est.
17  Bahrain 51,800 2017 est.
18  Sweden 51,300 2017 est.
19  Germany 50,200 2017 est.
20  Australia 49,900 2017 est.
21  Andorra 49,900 2015 est.
--  Taiwan 49,800 2017 est.
22  Denmark 49,600 2017 est.
--  Jersey 49,500 2015 est.
23  Austria 49,200 2017 est.
24  Canada 48,100 2017 est.
25  Belgium 46,300 2017 est.
26  Oman 45,500 2017 est.
27  Finland 44,000 2017 est.
--  Cayman Islands 43,800 2004 est.
28  France 43,600 2017 est.
29  United Kingdom 43,600 2017 est.
30  Japan 42,700 2017 est.
31  Malta 42,500 2017 est.
--  British Virgin Islands 42,300 2010 est.
--  European Union 40,900 2017 est.
--  Faroe Islands 40,000 2014 est.
32  South Korea 39,400 2017 est.
33  New Zealand 38,900 2017 est.
34  Spain 38,300 2017 est.
35  Italy 38,100 2017 est.
--  Greenland 37,600 2015 est.
--  Puerto Rico 37,300 2017 est.
36  Cyprus 36,600 2017 est.
37  Israel 36,200 2017 est.
--  U.S. Virgin Islands 36,100 2013 est.
38  Czech Republic 35,200 2017 est.
39  Equatorial Guinea 34,900 2017 est.
--  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 34,900 2006 est.
40  Slovenia 34,100 2017 est.
41  Slovakia 32,900 2017 est.
42  Lithuania 31,900 2017 est.
43  Estonia 31,500 2017 est.
44  Trinidad and Tobago 31,200 2017 est.
--  New Caledonia 31,100 2015 est.
--  Guam 30,500 2013 est.
45  Portugal 30,300 2017 est.
46  Poland 29,300 2017 est.
--  Turks and Caicos Islands 29,100 2007 est.
47  Seychelles 28,900 2017 est.
48  Hungary 28,900 2017 est.
49  Malaysia 28,900 2017 est.
50  Russia 27,900 2017 est.
51  Greece 27,800 2017 est.
52  Latvia 27,300 2017 est.
53  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,800 2017 est.
54  Turkey 26,500 2017 est.
55  Antigua and Barbuda 26,300 2017 est.
56  Kazakhstan 26,100 2017 est.
--  Aruba 25,300 2011 est.
57  The Bahamas 25,100 2017 est.
58  Chile 24,600 2017 est.
59  Panama 24,300 2017 est.
60  Croatia 24,100 2017 est.
61  Romania 24,000 2017 est.
62  Uruguay 22,400 2017 est.
63  Bulgaria 21,600 2017 est.
64  Mauritius 21,600 2017 est.
65  Argentina 20,700 2017 est.
66  Iran 20,000 2017 est.
67  Mexico 19,500 2017 est.
68  Lebanon 19,500 2017 est.
69  Gabon 19,300 2017 est.
--  Saint Martin 19,300 2005 est.
70  Maldives 19,200 2017 est.
71  Turkmenistan 18,700 2017 est.
72  Belarus 18,600 2017 est.
73  Botswana 18,100 2017 est.
74  Thailand 17,800 2017 est.
75  Barbados 17,500 2017 est.
76  Azerbaijan 17,400 2017 est.
77  Montenegro 17,400 2017 est.
78  Costa Rica 17,200 2017 est.
79  Iraq 17,000 2017 est.
--  French Polynesia 17,000 2015 est.
80  Dominican Republic 17,000 2017 est.
81  Palau 16,700 2017 est.
82  China 16,600 2017 est.
83  Brazil 15,500 2017 est.
84  Serbia 15,200 2017 est.
85  North Macedonia 15,200 2017 est.
86  Algeria 15,100 2017 est.
--  Curaçao 15,000 2004 est.
87  Grenada 14,700 2017 est.
88  Colombia 14,500 2017 est.
89  Suriname 13,900 2017 est.
90  Saint Lucia 13,500 2017 est.
91  South Africa 13,400 2017 est.
--  Northern Mariana Islands 13,300 2013 est.
92  Peru 13,300 2017 est.
93  Egypt 13,000 2017 est.
--  American Samoa 13,000 2013 est.
94  Sri Lanka 13,000 2017 est.
95  Mongolia 12,600 2017 est.
96  Jordan 12,500 2017 est.
97  Albania 12,500 2017 est.
98  Indonesia 12,400 2017 est.
99  Venezuela 12,400 2017 est.
--  Cook Islands 12,300 2010 est.
100  Nauru 12,200 2017 est.
--  Anguilla 12,200 2008 est.
101  Dominica 12,000 2017 est.
102  Tunisia 12,000 2017 est.
103  Cuba 11,900 2016 est.
104  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,600 2017 est.
105  Namibia 11,500 2017 est.
106  Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,400 2017 est.
107  Ecuador 11,200 2017 est.
108  Georgia 10,600 2017 est.
--  Kosovo 10,400 2017 est.
109  Fiji 9,900 2017 est.
110  Eswatini 9,900 2017 est.
111  Paraguay 9,800 2017 est.
112  Libya 9,800 2017 est.
113  Jamaica 9,200 2017 est.
114  Armenia 9,100 2017 est.
115  El Salvador 8,900 2017 est.
116  Ukraine 8,700 2017 est.
117  Bhutan 8,700 2017 est.
118  Morocco 8,600 2017 est.
--  Montserrat 8,500 2006 est.
119  Guyana 8,300 2017 est.
120  Belize 8,300 2017 est.
121  Guatemala 8,200 2017 est.
122  Philippines 8,200 2017 est.
--  Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010 est.
123  Bolivia 7,500 2017 est.
124  Laos 7,400 2017 est.
125  India 7,200 2017 est.
126  Uzbekistan 7,000 2017 est.
127  Vietnam 6,900 2017 est.
128  Cape Verde 6,900 2017 est.
129  Angola 6,800 2017 est.
130  Republic of the Congo 6,700 2017 est.
131  Myanmar 6,300 2017 est.
132  Nigeria 5,900 2017 est.
133  Nicaragua 5,800 2015 est.
--  Niue 5,800 2003 est.
134  Moldova 5,700 2017 est.
135  Samoa 5,700 2017 est.
136  Tonga 5,600 2017 est.
137  Honduras 5,500 2017 est.
138  Pakistan 5,400 2017 est.
139  Timor-Leste 5,000 2017 est.
140  Ghana 4,600 2017 est.
141  Sudan 4,600 2017 est.
142  Mauritania 4,500 2017 est.
--  West Bank 4,300 2014 est.
143  Bangladesh 4,200 2017 est.
144  Cambodia 4,000 2017 est.
145  Zambia 4,000 2017 est.
146  Lesotho 3,900 2017 est.
147  Côte d'Ivoire 3,900 2017 est.
148  Tuvalu 3,800 2017 est.
149  Papua New Guinea 3,800 2017 est.
--  Wallis and Futuna 3,800 2004 est.
150  Kyrgyzstan 3,700 2017 est.
151  Djibouti 3,600 2017 est.
152  Kenya 3,500 2017 est.
153  Cameroon 3,400 2017 est.
154  Marshall Islands 3,400 2017 est.
155  Federated States of Micronesia 3,400 2017 est.
156  Tanzania 3,300 2017 est.
157  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,200 2017 est.
158  Tajikistan 3,100 2017 est.
159  Syria 2,900 2015 est.
160  Vanuatu 2,800 2017 est.
161    Nepal 2,700 2017 est.
162  Senegal 2,700 2017 est.
--  Western Sahara 2,500 2007 est.
163  Chad 2,400 2017 est.
164  Uganda 2,400 2017 est.
165  Zimbabwe 2,300 2017 est.
166  Yemen 2,300 2017 est.
167  Mali 2,200 2017 est.
168  Benin 2,200 2017 est.
169  Rwanda 2,100 2017 est.
170  Ethiopia 2,100 2017 est.
171  Solomon Islands 2,100 2017 est.
172  Guinea 2,000 2017 est.
173  Burkina Faso 1,900 2017 est.
174  Kiribati 1,900 2017 est.
175  Afghanistan 1,900 2017 est.
176  Sierra Leone 1,800 2017 est.
177  Guinea-Bissau 1,800 2017 est.
178  Haiti 1,800 2017 est.
179  North Korea 1,700 2015 est.
180  The Gambia 1,700 2017 est.
181  Togo 1,600 2017 est.
182  Madagascar 1,600 2017 est.
183  Comoros 1,600 2017 est.
184  South Sudan 1,500 2017 est.
185  Eritrea 1,400 2017 est.
186  Mozambique 1,300 2017 est.
187  Niger 1,200 2017 est.
188  Malawi 1,200 2017 est.
--  Tokelau 1,000 1993 est.
189  Liberia 900 2017 est.
190  Democratic Republic of the Congo 800 2017 est.
191  Burundi 800 2017 est.
192  Central African Republic 700 2017 est.
193  Somalia N/A 2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]

A stunning $12 trillion--almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally--is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies--the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore--host more than 85 percent of the world's investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

-- "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

-- Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

-- Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016-2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[6][13]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
--  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
--  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
--  Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
--  Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

References

  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ ""Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
  5. ^ "World Economic Outlook - GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. October 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ a b "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ GDP - per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  9. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9-10): 1058-1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  11. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  12. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
  13. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 2018.

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