List of World Heritage in Danger
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List of World Heritage in Danger

Countries with World Heritage Sites in danger. Number of sites indicated by colour:
  Six or more sites
  Five sites
  Four sites
  Three sites
  Two sites
  One site
A photograph of a fourteen-pointed, silver star with a hole in the middle all attached to a floor above which is draped a purple cloth
The Church of the Nativity, traditionally considered the birthplace of Jesus, is one of several sites to have been designated as World Heritage Sites and World Heritage in Danger in the same year.

The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention,[nb 1] which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites. Entries in the list are threatened World Heritage Sites for the conservation of which major operations are required and for which "assistance has been requested".[1] The list is intended to increase international awareness of the threats and to encourage counteractive measures.[2] Threats to a site can be either proven imminent threats or potential dangers that could have adverse effects on a site.

In the case of natural sites, ascertained dangers include the serious decline in the population of an endangered or other valuable species or the deterioration of natural beauty or scientific value of a property caused by human activities such as logging, pollution, settlement, mining, agriculture and major public works. Ascertained dangers for cultural properties include serious deterioration of materials, structure, ornaments or architectural coherence and the loss of historical authenticity or cultural significance. Potential dangers for both cultural and natural sites include development projects, armed conflicts, insufficient management systems or changes in the legal protective status of the properties. In the case of cultural sites, gradual changes due to geology, climate or environment can also be potential dangers.[3]

Before a property is inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, its condition is assessed and a potential programme for corrective measures is developed in cooperation with the State Party involved. The final decision about inscription is made by the committee. Financial support from the World Heritage Fund may be allocated by the committee for listed properties. The state of conservation is reviewed on a yearly basis, after which the committee may request additional measures, delete the property from the list if the threats have ceased or consider deletion from both the List of World Heritage in Danger and the World Heritage List.[3] Of the two Former UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Dresden Elbe Valley was delisted after placement on the List of World Heritage in Danger while the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was directly delisted.[4][5] Some sites have been designated as World Heritage Sites and World Heritage in Danger in the same year, such as the Church of the Nativity, traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Jesus.

In some cases, danger listing has sparked conservation efforts and prompted the release of funds, resulting in a positive development for sites such as the Galápagos Islands and Yellowstone National Park, both of which have subsequently been removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Despite this, the list itself and UNESCO's implementation of it have been the focus of criticism.[6][7] In particular, States Parties and other stakeholders of World Heritage Sites have questioned the authority of the Committee to declare a site in danger without their consent.[8] Until 1992, when UNESCO set a precedent by placing several sites on the danger list against their wishes, States Parties would have submitted a programme of corrective measures before a site could be listed.[9] Instead of being used as intended, the List of World Heritage in Danger is perceived by some states as a black list and according to Christina Cameron, Professor at the School of Architecture, Canada Research Chair on Built Heritage, University of Montreal, has been used as political tool to get the attention of States Parties.[10][11] The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) notes that UNESCO has referenced the List of World Heritage in Danger (without actually listing the site) in a number of cases where the threat could be easily addressed by the State Party.[12] The Union also argues that keeping a site listed as endangered over a long period is questionable and that other mechanisms for conservation should be sought in these cases.[13]

As of July 2019, there are 53 entries (17 natural, 36 cultural) on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Arranged by the UNESCO regions, 21 of the listed sites are located in the Arab States (of which 6 are located in Syria and 5 in Libya), 16 in Africa (of which 5 are in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), 6 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 6 in Asia and the Pacific, and 4 in Europe and North America. The majority of the endangered natural sites (12) are located in Africa.[14][15]

Currently listed sites

Map this section's coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
Table legend
Name: as listed by the World Heritage Committee[16]
Location: at city or provincial level and country name, with coordinates; column sorts by state[nb 2]
Criteria: the site was listed under
Area: in hectares and acres if provided by UNESCO
Year (WHS): the year the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List
Endangered: the year the site appeared on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Reason: threats to the site which prompted UNESCO to list it as in danger
  * Trans-border site
Name Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year (WHS) Endangered Reason Refs
Abu Mena Abu Mena Ancient Monastery 04.JPG EgyAbusir,
30°50?30?N 29°39?50?E / 30.84167°N 29.66389°E / 30.84167; 29.66389 (Abu Mena)
182 (450) 1979 2001- Cave-ins in the area caused by the clay at the surface, which becomes semi-liquid when met with "excess water" [17][18]
Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves Sand dunes in the desert, offroad vehicles and mountains in the distance. Niger1Arlit Department,
18°17?N 8°0?E / 18.283°N 8.000°E / 18.283; 8.000 (Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves)
(vii), (ix), (x)
7,736,000 (19,120,000) 1991 1992- Military conflict and civil disturbance in the region as well as a reduction of wildlife population and degradation of the vegetation cover [20][21]
Ancient City of Aleppo City view with a wall and a mosque. Aleppo Governorate,  Syria
36°14?N 37°10?E / 36.233°N 37.167°E / 36.233; 37.167 (Ancient City of Aleppo)
350 (860) 1986 2013- Syrian Civil War, currently held by the government. Bombings continue threatening the site. [22]
Ancient City of Bosra An old amphitheatre. Daraa Governorate,  Syria
32°31?5?N 36°28?54?E / 32.51806°N 36.48167°E / 32.51806; 36.48167 (Ancient City of Bosra)
-- 1980 2013- Syrian Civil War, held by the government. [23]
Ancient City of Damascus Ruins of a stone building with columns and without roof. Damascus Governorate,  Syria
33°30?41?N 36°18?23?E / 33.51139°N 36.30639°E / 33.51139; 36.30639 (Ancient City of Damascus)
86 (210) 1979 2013- Syrian Civil War, rebel gunfire and mortar shelling, mainly from adjacent Jobar suburb endangers foundations. [24]
Ancient Villages of Northern Syria Ruins of a stone church without roof.  Syria
36°20?3?N 36°50?39?E / 36.33417°N 36.84417°E / 36.33417; 36.84417 (Ancient Villages of Northern Syria)
12,290 (30,400) 2011 2013- Syrian Civil War, some held by rebels. Reports of looting and demolitions by Islamist groups. [25]
Archaeological Site of Cyrene LibJebel Akhdar,
32°49?30?N 21°51?30?E / 32.82500°N 21.85833°E / 32.82500; 21.85833 (Archaeological Site of Cyrene)
(ii), (iii), (vi)
-- 1982 2016- Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [26][27]
Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna LibKhoms,
32°38?18?N 14°17?35?E / 32.63833°N 14.29306°E / 32.63833; 14.29306 (Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna)
(i), (ii), (iii)
-- 1982 2016- Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [27][28]
Archaeological Site of Sabratha LibSabratha,
32°48?19?N 12°29?6?E / 32.80528°N 12.48500°E / 32.80528; 12.48500 (Archaeological Site of Sabratha)
-- 1982 2016- Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [27][29]
Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) A series of three arched gates made of simple stones. They appear to be the only part that has survived from a larger building. IraqSalah ad Din,
35°27?24?N 43°15?45?E / 35.45667°N 43.26250°E / 35.45667; 43.26250 (Ashur)
(iii), (iv)
70 (170) 2003 2003- A planned reservoir that would have partially flooded the site was suspended in the wake of the Iraq War by the new administration; lack of adequate protection. [30][31]
Chan Chan Archaeological Zone Ruins of former buildings in a desert setting consisting of low walls with a fishnet pattern. PerLa Libertad,
8°6?40?S 79°4?30?W / 8.11111°S 79.07500°W / -8.11111; -79.07500 (Chan Chan Archaeological Zone)
(i), (iii)
600 (1,500) 1986 1986- Natural erosion [32][33]
City of Potosí Potosi Zentrum.JPG Potosí,  Bolivia

19°35?1?S 65°45?11?W / 19.58361°S 65.75306°W / -19.58361; -65.75306


(ii), (iv), (vi)

1987 2014- Continued mining has left the mountain porous and unstable, causing portions of the summit to collapse, also the target of future mining by the Bolivian Mining Corp. Recommendations to preserve the site have not been followed through. [34]
Coro and its Port A street with single-storied colorful houses VenFalcón,
11°25?N 69°40?W / 11.417°N 69.667°W / 11.417; -69.667 (Coro and its Port)
(iv), (v)
107 (260) 1993 2005- Damage to a great number of structures due to heavy rain between November 2004 and February 2005 as well as the construction of a new monument, a beach walkway and an entrance gate to the city in the buffer zone which could have considerable impact on the value of the site [35][36]
Crac des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din A fortress of grey stone. Homs and Latakia Governorates,  Syria
34°46?54?N 36°15?47?E / 34.78167°N 36.26306°E / 34.78167; 36.26306 (Crac des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din)
9 (22) 2006 2013- Syrian Civil War, once held by Al-Nusra Front and other Islamist groups, reclaimed by Syrian Arab Army and Hezbollah fighters. Reports of damages and looting caused by Islamist groups was released by the government. [37]
Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley
A large niche in a rock with the outline of a human figure.
34°49?55?N 67°49?36?E / 34.83194°N 67.82667°E / 34.83194; 67.82667 (Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley)
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
159 (390) 2003 2003- Fragile conservation state due to abandonment, military action and dynamite explosions; causing dangers such as risk of collapse of Buddha niches, further deterioration of cave murals, looting and illicit excavations. Destruction during the rule of Taliban due to their teachings that the statues are abominations to Islam. [38][39]
East Rennell Dugout Canoe in the Rennell Island lagoon, Solomon Islands. Solomon IslandRennell and Bellona Province,
 Solomon Islands
11°40?59?S 160°10?59?E / 11.68306°S 160.18306°E / -11.68306; 160.18306 (East Rennell)
37,000 (91,000) 1998 2013- Damage to the site due to logging and its effect on the local ecoystem [40]
Everglades National Park A large white bird with black wingtips and a long slightly curved beak is perched on a branch above grassland. United StatesFlorida,
 United States
25°19?N 80°56?W / 25.317°N 80.933°W / 25.317; -80.933 (Everglades National Park)
(viii), (ix), (x)
592,920 (1,465,100) 1979 1993-2007, 2010- Damage due to Hurricane Andrew and deterioration of water flow and quality due to agricultural and urban development (1993); continued degradation of the site resulting in a loss of marine habitat and decline in marine species (2010) [41][42]
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo Ruins of stone fortifications near water. PanColón Province,
9°33?14?N 79°39?21?W / 9.55389°N 79.65583°W / 9.55389; -79.65583 (Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo)
(i), (iv)
-- 1980 2012- Environmental factors, lack of maintenance and urban development [44][45]
Garamba National Park Bird's eye view of a river running through grassland interspersed by trees. DemOrientale,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
4°0?N 29°15?E / 4.000°N 29.250°E / 4.000; 29.250 (Garamba National Park)
(vii), (x)
500,000 (1,200,000) 1980 1984-1992, 1996- Reduction of Northern White Rhinoceros population (1984); poaching of two white rhinos, killing of three rangers and no plan for corrective measures by the authorities (1996) [46][47]
Temple ruins at Hattra, Iraq.
IrqNineveh Governorate,
35°35?17?N 42°43?6?E / 35.58806°N 42.71833°E / 35.58806; 42.71833 (Hatra)
(ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
324 (800) 1985 2015- Damage inflicted to the property by armed groups [49]
Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town Hebron172.JPG PalHebron Governorate,
31°31?27?N 35°6?32?E / 31.52417°N 35.10889°E / 31.52417; 35.10889 (Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town)
(ii), (iv), (vi)
20.6 (51) 2017 2017- [50]
Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz UzbQashqadaryo Region,
39°3?0?N 66°50?0?E / 39.05000°N 66.83333°E / 39.05000; 66.83333 (Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz)
(iii), (iv)
240 (590) 2000 2016- Destruction of buildings in its medieval neighbourhoods and continuing urban development. [51][52]
Historic Centre of Vienna Vienna.JPG. Aut
Vienna,  Austria
48°12?N 16°22?E / 48.200°N 16.367°E / 48.200; 16.367 (Vienna)
371 (920) 2001 2017- New high-rise projects [53]
Historic Town of Zab?d
White minaret and mosque.
YemAl Hudaydah,
14°12?N 43°19?E / 14.200°N 43.317°E / 14.200; 43.317 (Historic Town of Zab?d)
(ii), (iv), (vi)
-- 1993 2000- Deteriorating state of historic buildings, inscribed on request of the State Party [54][55]
Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California
Gulf of California
MexicoBaja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa and Nayarit,
27°38?N 112°33?W / 27.633°N 112.550°W / 27.633; -112.550 (Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California)
(vii), (ix), (x)
688,558 (1,701,460) 2005 2019- Imminent extinction of the vaquita, an endemic porpoise in the gulf [56][57]
Kahuzi-Biega National Park
A gorilla in a shrub.
DemSouth Kivu
and Maniema,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°30?S 28°45?E / 2.500°S 28.750°E / -2.500; 28.750 (Kahuzi-Biega National Park)
600,000 (1,500,000) 1980 1997- Deforestation, hunting as well as war and civil strife [58][59]
Lake Turkana National Parks
A lake with land in the foreground and background.
Ken Kenya
3°3?8?N 36°30?13?E / 3.05222°N 36.50361°E / 3.05222; 36.50361 (Lake Turkana National Parks)
161,485 (399,040) 1997 2018- Impact of Ethiopia's Gilgel Gibe III Dam on the lake's flow and ecosystem [60][61]
Liverpool - Maritime Mercantile City
A montage of several pictures showing a western city near water.
United KingdomLiverpool
 United Kingdom
53°24?24?N 2°50?40?W / 53.40667°N 2.84444°W / 53.40667; -2.84444 (Liverpool - Maritime Mercantile City)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
136 (340) 2004 2012- Due to the proposed redevelopment of historic docklands known as Liverpool Waters [62][63]
Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park A blank map of a rectangular-looking country with several rivers running through it. A location is marked in the north with a red dot. CenBamingui-Bangoran,
 Central African Republic
9°0?N 21°30?E / 9.000°N 21.500°E / 9.000; 21.500 (Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park)
(ix), (x)
1,740,000 (4,300,000) 1988 1997- Illegal grazing and poaching, deteriorating security situation [64][65]
Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam A tall minaret in a river valley. At the top of the nearby mountains there are other, smaller structures. AfgGh?r,
34°23?48?N 64°30?58?E / 34.39667°N 64.51611°E / 34.39667; 64.51611 (Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
70 (170) 2002 2002- Lack of legal protection, lack of protection measure or management plan, poor condition of the site [66][67]
Medieval Monuments in Kosovo Stone church with various towers. Kosovo[a]
42°39?40?N 20°15?56?E / 42.66111°N 20.26556°E / 42.66111; 20.26556 (Medieval Monuments in Kosovo)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
2.88 (7.1) 2004 2006- Lack of legal protection and management; political instability and security [68][69]
Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve A chimpanzee in a tree. CotLola Prefecture,
 Côte d'Ivoire*
7°36?N 8°23?W / 7.600°N 8.383°W / 7.600; -8.383 (Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve)
(ix), (x)
18,000 (44,000) 1981 1992- Iron ore mining concession on part of the World Heritage Site and influx of large number of refugees on the Guinean part of the site [70][71]
Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia MicronesiaTemwen Island,
6°50?23?N 158°19?51?E / 6.83972°N 158.33083°E / 6.83972; 158.33083 (Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia)
(i), (iii), (iv), (vi)
76.7 (190) 2016 2016- Continuing siltation of waterways contributing to overgrowth and undermining existing structures. [72][73]
Niokolo-Koba National Park Bird's eye view of a river running through a forested plain. SenTambacounda Region
and Kédougou Region,
13°0?N 12°40?W / 13.000°N 12.667°W / 13.000; -12.667 (Niokolo-Koba National Park)
913,000 (2,260,000) 1981 2007- Degradation of property, low mammal population, management problems and impact of a proposed dam on the Gambia River [74][75]
Okapi Wildlife Reserve River lined by tropical vegetation. Many stones are found in the river. Dem Orientale,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°0?N 28°30?E / 2.000°N 28.500°E / 2.000; 28.500 (Okapi Wildlife Reserve)
1,372,625 (3,391,830) 1996 1997- Looting of park facilities and killing of elephants as a result of an armed conflict in the area [76][77]
Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls View over a city. A large building with a golden cuppola is located in the background. JerJerusalem District
(no nation named by UNESCO)[nb 3]
31°46?36?N 35°14?3?E / 31.77667°N 35.23417°E / 31.77667; 35.23417 (Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls)
(ii), (iii), (vi)
-- 1981 1982- Uncontrolled urban development, general deterioration of the state of conservation due to tourism and lack of maintenance. [78][79][80]
Old City of Sana'a
View of Old Sana'a.
YemSana'a Governorate,
15°21?20?N 44°12?29?E / 15.35556°N 44.20806°E / 15.35556; 44.20806 (Sana'a)
(iv), (v), (vi)
-- 1986 2015- Yemeni Civil War [81]
Old Town of Ghadamès Libya Ghadames Old Town Rooftop View.JPG LibGhadames,
30°08?00?N 9°30?00?E / 30.13333°N 9.50000°E / 30.13333; 9.50000 (Old Town of Ghadamès)
-- 1986 2016- Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [27][82]
Old Towns of Djenné MalDjenné,
13°54?23?N 4°33?18?W / 13.90639°N 4.55500°W / 13.90639; -4.55500 (Old Towns of Djenné)
(iii), (iv)
-- 1988 2016- Regional insecurity, deteriorating state of the historic town, urbanization and erosion. [83][84]
Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines - Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir Batir.JPG. Pal
Battir,  Palestine
31°43?11?N 35°7?50?E / 31.71972°N 35.13056°E / 31.71972; 35.13056 (Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines - Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir)
349 (860) 2014 2014- The Israeli West Bank barrier "may isolate farmers from fields they have cultivated for centuries". [85][86]
Old Walled City of Shibam
The high-rise architectures at Shibam.
YemHadhramaut Governorate,
15°55?37?N 48°37?36?E / 15.92694°N 48.62667°E / 15.92694; 48.62667 (Shibam)
(iii), (iv), (v)
-- 1982 2015- Potential threat from the armed conflict, compounding safeguarding and management problems already observed at the site [81]
Rainforests of the Atsinanana
A river in a forested mountain area.
MadEastern Madagascar,
14°28?S 49°42?E / 14.467°S 49.700°E / -14.467; 49.700 (Rainforests of the Atsinanana)
(ix), (x)
479,660 (1,185,300) 2007 2010- Illegal logging and hunting of endangered lemurs [87][88]
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve A river lined by tropical vegetation. Parts of trees are lying in the water. HonLa Mosquitia,
15°44?40?N 84°40?30?W / 15.74444°N 84.67500°W / 15.74444; -84.67500 (Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve)
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
-- 1982 1996-2007, 2011- Logging, fishing and land occupation; poaching and the reduced capacity of the state to manage the site; largely due to the deterioration of law and to the presence of drug traffickers [89][90]
Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus LibFezzan,
24°50?N 10°20?E / 24.833°N 10.333°E / 24.833; 10.333 (Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus)
-- 1985 2016- Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [27][91]
Salonga National Park River meandering through a wooded plain. DemÉquateur
and Bandundu Province,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°S 21°E / 2°S 21°E / -2; 21 (Salonga National Park)
(vii), (ix)
3,600,000 (8,900,000) 1984 1999- Breakdown of civil order [92][93]
Samarra Archaeological City A photograph of a spiral minaret in an open plain with a large number of buildings in the background and a swerving road to the left IraqSalah ad Din,
34°12?N 43°52?E / 34.200°N 43.867°E / 34.200; 43.867 (Samarra Archaeological City)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
15,058 (37,210) 2007 2007- Security situation following the Iraq War and lack of state control for protection or management of the site [95][96]
Selous Game Reserve TZ Selous Game Reserve Aeroview.JPG TanzaniaCoast, Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara and Ruvuma Regions,

 Tanzania, 9°0?0?S 37°24?0?E / 9.00000°S 37.40000°E / -9.00000; 37.40000


(ix), (x)

5,120,000 1982 2014- Exploration and extraction of minerals, large infrastructure projects [97]
Site of Palmyra Ruins of stone buildigns with columns. Homs Governorate,  Syria
34°33?15?N 38°16?0?E / 34.55417°N 38.26667°E / 34.55417; 38.26667 (Site of Palmyra)
0.36 (0.89) 1980 2013- Syrian Civil War, captured by the notoriously iconoclastic Islamic State terrorist organization (ISIS). [98]
Timbuktu A street with a mud wall and a pyramid shaped mud building with sticks protruding from its wall. MaliTimbuktu,
Timbuktu Region,
16°46?24?N 2°59?58?W / 16.77333°N 2.99944°W / 16.77333; -2.99944 (Timbuktu)
(ii), (iv), (v)
-- 1988 2012- Threat of destruction by the Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb, Ansar Dine and Boko Haram. Some monuments are now pillaged and destroyed. [99][100]
Tomb of Askia A mud structure with sticks protruding from the wall. MaliGao,
Gao Region,
16°17?23?N 0°02?40?W / 16.28972°N 0.04444°W / 16.28972; -0.04444 (Tomb of Askia)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
4.24 (10.5) 2004 2012- Damaged by Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb and Ansar Dine. Reported destroyed by Ansar Dine when they captured Timbuktu. [100][101]
Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi Dome shaped house made of natural materials. UgandaKampala District,
0°19?45?N 32°33?12?E / 0.32917°N 32.55333°E / 0.32917; 32.55333 (Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi)
(i), (iii),
(iv), (vi)
27 (67) 2001 2010- Destruction of the Muzibu Azaala Mpanga, the main building of the site, by fire in March 2010 [102][103]
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra Man of the woods.JPG IndonesiaSumatra,
02°30?S 101°30?E / 2.500°S 101.500°E / -2.500; 101.500 (Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra)
(vii), (ix), (x)
2,595,124 (6,412,690) 2004 2011- Poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads through the site [104][105]
Virunga National Park Mountain landscape with trunks of trees or shrubs that appear to have burned. DemNorth Kivu
and Orientale,
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
0°55?N 29°10?E / 0.917°N 29.167°E / 0.917; 29.167 (Virunga National Park)
(vii), (viii), (x)
800,000 (2,000,000) 1979 1994- Deforestation and poaching as a result of the influx of refugees due to the Rwandan Civil War [106][107]

Previously listed sites

Map this section's coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

There are a number of sites that were previously listed as being in danger, but they were later removed from the list after improvements in management and conservation. The Everglades National Park was listed from 1993 to 2007 and again since 2010; the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve was listed from 1996 to 2007 and again since 2011. Both are therefore included in the list of currently listed sites (above).

  Delisted as a World Heritage Site
  Partial de-listing off the World Heritage List
Name Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year (WHS) Endangered Reason Refs
Angkor Ruins of a large structure with five large towers at the top. Siem Reap Province,  Cambodia
13°26?N 103°50?E / 13.433°N 103.833°E / 13.433; 103.833 (Angkor)
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
1992 1992-2004 Inscription initially limited to a three-year period (1993-1995) during which effective legal protection, boundary and buffer zones were to be established and international conservation efforts were to be monitored and coordinated; at the time of inscription, Cambodia was UN-controlled following the civil war in the 1980s. [108][109]
Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery Ruins of a stone church with the highest point located at the apsis. GeorImereti,
42°15?44?N 42°42?59?E / 42.26222°N 42.71639°E / 42.26222; 42.71639 (Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery)
7.87 (19.4) 1994 2010-2017 Major reconstruction project that will lead to irreversible interventions. The boundaries of the site was modified in 2017.[nb 4] Bagrati Cathedral was removed from the list of World Heritage Sites after its reconstruction however Gelati Monastery remained on the list [111][112][113]
Bahla Fort Walls of a stone fort and a tower. Bahla,  Oman
22°58?N 57°18?E / 22.967°N 57.300°E / 22.967; 57.300 (Bahla Fort)
1987 1988-2004 Degradation of earth structures of the fort and of the oasis of Bahla [114][115]
Bam and its Cultural Landscape View over a large ruined city colored uniformly in a grey-brown tone. In the background there is a castle in overlooking the surrounding city. IranKerman,
29°07?01?N 58°22?07?E / 29.11694°N 58.36861°E / 29.11694; 58.36861 (Bam and its Cultural Landscape)
(ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
-- 2004 2004-2013 Following the damage due to the 2003 Bam earthquake [118][119][120]
Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System Underwater image of a green stone like object with patterns on the surface resembling a brain. BelBelize, Stann Creek and Toledo
17°19?N 87°32?W / 17.317°N 87.533°W / 17.317; -87.533 (Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System)
(vii), (ix), (x)
96,300 (238,000) 1996 2009-2018 Mangrove cutting and excessive development [121][122][123]
Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem Birthplace of Jesus. Pal
Bethlehem,  Palestine
31°42?16?N 35°12?27?E / 31.70444°N 35.20750°E / 31.70444; 35.20750 (Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem)
(iv), (vi)
2.98 (7.4) 2012 2012-2019 Damage due to water leaks [124][125][126]
Butrint Ruins of an amphitheatre and other structures. Sarandë District,  Albania
39°45?N 20°1?E / 39.750°N 20.017°E / 39.750; 20.017 (Butrint)
3,980 (9,800) 1992 1997-2005 Damages due to management and conservation [127][128]
Cologne Cathedral
A large gothic style cathedral of grey to black colored stone.
North Rhine-Westphalia,  Germany
50°56?29?N 6°57?29?E / 50.94139°N 6.95806°E / 50.94139; 6.95806 (Cologne Cathedral)
(i), (ii), (iv)
1996 2004-2006 High-rise building plan near the cathedral threatening to inflict damage to the integrity of the property; delisted[nb 4] after the building plan was halted and a buffer zone introduced [130][131]
Comoé National Park A photograph of a white vehicle with luggage on top driving across a river with green trees in the background all under a clear blue sky. CotZanzan,
 Côte d'Ivoire
9°10?N 3°40?W / 9.167°N 3.667°W / 9.167; -3.667 (Comoé National Park)
(ix), (x)
1,150,000 (2,800,000) 1983 2003-2017 Civil unrest, poaching and lack of effective management mechanisms [133][134]
Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary Cormorants on a tree without leaves above some water. Biffeche,  Senegal
16°30?N 16°10?W / 16.500°N 16.167°W / 16.500; -16.167 (Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary)
(vii), (x)
16,000 (40,000) 1981 1984-1988, 2000-2006 Long term threat by construction plan for a down-stream dam (1984); delisted[nb 4] (1988) as water supply to the park was insured by the construction of a sluice and a management plan was being prepared; relisted[nb 5] (2000) due to environmental and economical threats posed by the introduced species Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes as well as issues with water management in the park [47][135]
Dresden Elbe Valley Dresden skyline in the Elbe Valley. Saxony,  Germany
51°3?N 13°49?E / 51.050°N 13.817°E / 51.050; 13.817 (Dresden Elbe Valley)
(ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
1,930 (4,800) 2004 2006-2009 Construction plans for the Waldschlösschen Bridge in the core area of the cultural landscape; removed from the list of World Heritage Sites in 2009 after construction commenced at the end of 2007 [140][141]
Dubrovnik Marina in a city with churches and a fort. Dubrovnik-Neretva County,  Croatia
42°38?25?N 18°06?30?E / 42.64028°N 18.10833°E / 42.64028; 18.10833 (Dubrovnik)
(i), (iii), (iv)
97 (240) 1979 1991-1998 Croatian War of Independence [142][143]
Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore Entrance gate to a fort flanked by two large towers. PakPunjab,
31°35?25?N 74°18?35?E / 31.59028°N 74.30972°E / 31.59028; 74.30972 (Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore)
(i), (ii), (iii)
-- 1981 2000-2012 Destruction of historic water tanks in 1999 to widen a road and deteriorating perimeter walls of the Garden, listed on request of the Pakistan government [145][146]
Galápagos Islands Landscape with little vegetation, rocks and an isthmus. Galápagos Province,  Ecuador
0°40?S 90°30?W / 0.667°S 90.500°W / -0.667; -90.500 (Galápagos Islands)
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
14,066,514 (34,759,110) 1978 2007-2010 Various threats including insufficient prevention of possibilities for the introduction of alien species, insufficient resource allocation for conservation agencies and park management, presence of a large number of illegal immigrants, rapid uncontrolled growth of tourism, fishing over-capacity and sports fishing [147][148]
Group of Monuments at Hampi
Very high gate-like structure decorated with many niches.
Bellary district,  India
15°20?6?N 76°27?43?E / 15.33500°N 76.46194°E / 15.33500; 76.46194 (Group of Monuments at Hampi)
(i), (iii), (iv)
1986 1999-2006 Partial construction of two cable-suspended bridges within the protected archaeological areas of Hampi threatening the integrity and authenticity of the site [151][152]
Historical Monuments of Mtskheta A compact tall stone church with a circular tower above the apsis. GeorMtskheta-Mtianeti,
41°50?32?N 44°43?16?E / 41.84222°N 44.72111°E / 41.84222; 44.72111 (Historical Monuments of Mtskheta)
(iii), (iv)
-- 1994 2009-2016 Deterioration of stonework and frescoes, mismanagement and urban development [154][155]
Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works Industrial structure in a desert setting. ChilTarapacá,
20°12?30?S 69°47?40?W / 20.20833°S 69.79444°W / -20.20833; -69.79444 (Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
-- 2005 2005-2019 Fragile nature of structures due to lack of maintenance for 40 years; also damage, vandalism and some dismantling; looting [156][157][158]
Ichkeul National Park Forested coastal mountains. Bizerta,  Tunisia
37°10?N 9°40?E / 37.167°N 9.667°E / 37.167; 9.667 (Ichkeul National Park)
12,600 (31,000) 1980 1996-2006 Construction of dams limiting the freshwater flow to the area and causing an increased salinity of the lake and the marshes as well as a decrease in the number of migrating bird populations [159][160]
Iguaçu National Park A large waterfall falling into a horseshoe shaped gorge. Paraná State,  Brazil
25°41?S 54°26?W / 25.683°S 54.433°W / -25.683; -54.433 (Iguaçu National Park)
(vii), (x)
170,086 (420,290) 1986 1999-2001 Illegally opened road ("Estrada do Colono", Portuguese for "Settler's Road") through the park, dams on the Iguazu River and helicopter flights. [94][162]
Kathmandu Valley Red-colored multi-storied building and tower like structure. Kathmandu Valley,    Nepal
27°42?14?N 85°18?31?E / 27.70389°N 85.30861°E / 27.70389; 85.30861 (Kathmandu Valley)
(iii), (iv), (vi)
167 (410) 1979 2003-2007 Partial or substantial loss of the traditional elements of six out of seven monument zones and resulting general loss of authenticity and integrity of the whole property. [164][165]
Los Katíos National Park The giant anteater, one of the inhabitants of Los Katíos.. Antioquia and Chocó,  Colombia
7°40?0?N 77°0?0?W / 7.66667°N 77.00000°W / 7.66667; -77.00000 (Los Katíos National Park)
(ix), (x)
72,000 (180,000) 1994 2009-2015 Deforestation, illegal fishing and hunting. Removed following significant improvements to Park management [167]
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
Hanging bridge over a river lined with tropical vegetation in a mountainous landscape.
Assam,  India
26°30?N 91°51?E / 26.500°N 91.850°E / 26.500; 91.850 (Manas Wildlife Sanctuary)
(vii), (ix), (x)
39,100 (97,000) 1985 1992-2011 Poaching, damage to the park's infrastructure and decrease in the population of some species particularly the Greater One Horned Rhino following an invasion by militants of the Bodo tribe in 1992 [168][169]
Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor A town in rocky mountains next to a bay or lake. Bay of Kotor, Kotor and surrounding territory,  Montenegro
42°29?N 18°42?E / 42.483°N 18.700°E / 42.483; 18.700 (Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor)
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
1979 1979-2003 Damage following the earthquake from 15 April 1979 [171][172]
Ngorongoro Conservation Area Bird's eye view over a largely unvegetated plain with a lake. In the distance a mountain range is visible. Arusha Region,  Tanzania
3°11?S 35°32?E / 3.183°S 35.533°E / -3.183; 35.533 (Ngorongoro Conservation Area)
(iv), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
1978 1984-1989 Declining conservation status [174][175]
Plitvice Lakes National Park Turqois colored lakes among white rocks. Lika-Senj County,  Croatia
44°53?N 15°37?E / 44.883°N 15.617°E / 44.883; 15.617 (Plitvice Lakes National Park)
(vii), (viii), (ix)
19,200 (47,000) 1979 1992-1997 Potential threat due to the Croatian War of Independence [177][178]
Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras A village in the Batad rice terraces PhiIfugao,
16°55?N 121°3?E / 16.917°N 121.050°E / 16.917; 121.050 (Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras)
(iii), (iv), (v)
500,000 (1,200,000) 1995 2001-2012 Absence of systematic monitoring programme or a comprehensive management plan [180][181]
Royal Palaces of Abomey Stone wall and a simple hut with decorations of animals and plants in colored relief. Zou Department,  Benin
7°11?26?N 1°59?36?E / 7.19056°N 1.99333°E / 7.19056; 1.99333 (Royal Palaces of Abomey)
(iii), (iv)
48 (120) 1985 1985-2007 General state of deterioration due to the elements and inappropriate restoration which are in conflict with the authenticity of the site [182][183]
Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara
Vault of a ramshackled possibly ruined building.
TanKilwa District,
8°57?28?S 39°31?22?E / 8.95778°S 39.52278°E / -8.95778; 39.52278 (Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara)
-- 1981 2004-2014 Continuing deterioration of the site due to various agents such as erosion or plants [186][187]
Rwenzori Mountains National Park Hills with grassland, trees and farmland in front of a mountain range. Bundibugyo, Kabarole and Kasese District,  Uganda
0°13?N 29°55?E / 0.217°N 29.917°E / 0.217; 29.917 (Rwenzori Mountains National Park)
(vii), (ix)
99,600 (246,000) 1994 1999-2004 Security situation and lack of monitoring of a major part of the park [94][188]
Sangay National Park Forested mountain landscape. Chimborazo, Morona-Santiago and Tungurahua Province,  Ecuador
1°50?S 78°20?W / 1.833°S 78.333°W / -1.833; -78.333 (Sangay National Park)
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
271,925 (671,940) 1983 1992-2005 Heavy poaching, illegal livestock grazing, encroachment and potential threat through a road construction project [190][191]
Simien National Park Mountain landscape with deep precipices. EthAmhara Region,
13°11?N 38°4?E / 13.183°N 38.067°E / 13.183; 38.067 (Simien National Park)
(vii), (x)
22,000 (54,000) 1978 1996-2017 Deterioration of population of Walia ibex [193][194]
Srebarna Nature Reserve Lake in a landscape with low vegetation. Srebarna, Silistra Province,  Bulgaria
44°06?50?N 27°04?40?E / 44.11389°N 27.07778°E / 44.11389; 27.07778 (Srebarna Nature Reserve)
638 (1,580) 1983 1992-2003 Prevention of seasonal flooding and agricultural use causing a decline or disappearance of the water and passerine bird populations [195][196]
Timbuktu Pyramid shaped structure with many sticks sticking out of its walls. Circle and Region of Tombouctou,  Mali
16°46?24?N 2°59?58?W / 16.77333°N 2.99944°W / 16.77333; -2.99944 (Timbuktu)
(ii), (iv), (v)
1988 1990-2005 Threat of sand encroachment [198][199]
Tipasa Several arches of a ruined building. Tipaza Province,  Algeria
36°35?39?N 2°26?36?E / 36.59417°N 2.44333°E / 36.59417; 2.44333 (Tipasa)
(iii), (iv)
52 (130) 1982 2002-2006 Inadequate maintenance affecting the integrity of the site and its buffer zone [201][202]
Walled City of Baku with Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower Q?z qalas? 2013.JPG Baku,  Azerbaijan
40°21?59?N 49°50?7?E / 40.36639°N 49.83528°E / 40.36639; 49.83528 (Baku)
2000 2003-2009 Damage sustained during the 2000 Baku earthquake, urban development and inadequate conservation efforts [204]
Wieliczka Salt Mine Large room with lamps hanging from the ceiling and sculptures or reliefs along the walls. Wieliczka, Wieliczka County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship,  Poland
49°58?45?N 20°03?50?E / 49.97917°N 20.06389°E / 49.97917; 20.06389 (Wieliczka Salt Mine)
969 (2,390) 1978 1989-1998 Humidity problem [176][205]
Yellowstone National Park
Large waterfall in a rocky mountain landscape.
Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho,  United States
44°30?N 110°50?W / 44.500°N 110.833°W / 44.500; -110.833 (Yellowstone National Park)
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
898,349 (2,219,870) 1978 1995-2003 Ascertained dangers to Yellowstone cutthroat trout as well as sewage leakage and waste contamination in parts of the park; potential threats to water quantity and quality, past and proposed mining activities, a proposed control programme to eradicate brucellosis in the bison herds [207][208]


  1. ^ Full title: Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
  2. ^ The Jerusalem site is not associated with a state by UNESCO and sorts as "Jerusalem".
  3. ^ Site proposed by Jordan. UNESCO has stated that "In line with relevant UN resolutions, East Jerusalem remains part of the occupied Palestinian territory, and the status of Jerusalem must be resolved in permanent status negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians."
  4. ^ a b c From the List of World Heritage in Danger
  5. ^ On the List of World Heritage in Danger
  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 99 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 13 later withdrew their recognition.


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