The Royal Belum State Park, Perak Malaysia originally, was gazetted as Hutan Simpan Belum (Belum Forest Reserve) in 1971 and subsequently in 2007 it was regazetted in accordance with the Enakmen Perbadanan Taman Negeri Perak 2001 Sek. 6 (Section 6, Perak State Park Corporation Enactment 2001) as a State Park, stately called as the Crowning Glory of the Peninsula. In 2012, it was also gazzeted under the Enakmen Perhutanan Negeri Perak (Perak State Forestry Enactment) as well as National Heritage site which is the highest recognition accorded by the Government of Malaysia.
In the 1970s the importance of the Belum Forest Reserve was recognised for biodiversity conservation by the Colombo Plan Report and further recommendations for biodiversity conservation was made under the Third Malaysia Plan (1976-1980) and in 1988 by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia (PERHILITAN). The Royal Belum State Park borders the Halabala National Park, Thailand to the north, thus making the area of about 300,000 ha of a potential transfrontier park and the Peninsular Malaysian state of Kelantan on the east. The Royal Belum State Park was gazetted in May 2007 (Enakmen Perbadanan Taman Negeri Perak 2001 Sek. 6 No. 519) for biodiversity conservation to facilitate biodiversity education, research and ecotourism. The Royal Belum State Park is only accessible by boat via the public jetty at Pulau Banding (Banding Island) which is situated at the southern part of the State Park.
The total area of the Royal Belum State Park is 117,500 ha and straddles the northern undisturbed and pristine lowland dipterocarp, hill dipterocarp and lower montane forests (up to about 1,533 m above sea level) of northern Peninsular Malaysia forming the northern and strategic component of the Central Forest Spine (CFS). The State Park is considered as one of the oldest, protected, undisturbed and pristine land mass in Peninsular Malaysia of more than 130 millions years old, relics of the geological confluence of the southern Gondwanaland supercontinent and northern Laurasian supercontinent. Geographically, about 57% of its area is located in the range of 80-300 m above sea level and 41% in the range of 300-1,533 m above sea level. There is only one main river system, Sungai (River) Perak that originates from the Perak-Kelantan border in the north-east and flows southward to the Straits of Malacca at Bagan Datoh. Among the smaller rivers that are found in the State Park and drain most of the areas are Sungai Kenarong that originates on the west, Sungai Tiang and Sungai Kejar that originate on the east of the State Park, in addition to more than hundreds of smaller tributaries and streams that feed the Lake Temengor.
Geologically, the Royal Belum State Park is situated on the eastern side of the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia, right along the tectonic boundary of two continental plates (Sibumasu and East Malaya plates). This area consists of diverse rock formations of mostly metamorphosed marine sedimentary rocks of Early Silurian
-Devonian age (~ 440 to 400 m.y. ago) belonging to the Baling Group, and the Triassic granites. The igneous body intrusion that occurred in the Late Triassic age (ca. 220 m.y.) had lifted the area and became a land mass and physical landscape what we observed today. This intrusion and other related tectonic activities resulted from the collision of two supercontinental plates had shaped the area to what it is today as a metamorphed and uplifted Baling Group. This substratum has become the niche and habitats for the rich and diverse biodiversity in the State Park.