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List of Kyoto Protocol Signatories
Participation in the Kyoto Protocol
Annex B parties with binding targets in the second period
Annex B parties with binding targets in the first period but not the second
non-Annex B parties without binding targets
Annex B parties with binding targets in the first period but which withdrew from the Protocol
Signatories to the Protocol that have not ratified
Other UN member states and observers that are not party to the Protocol
With the Protocol's 2008-2012 commitment period expiring, the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was agreed to, which establishes new commitments for the period 2013-2020. As of January 2020, 136 states have accepted this amendment.
Signing is optional, indicating an intention to ratify the Protocol. Ratification means that a state is legally bound by the provisions of the treaty. For Annex I parties (e.g. a developed state or one with an 'economy in transition') this means that it has agreed to cap emissions in accordance with the Protocol.
Iceland was the 55th state to ratify, fulfilling the first condition for coming-into-force. With Russia's ratification the "55 percent of 1990 carbon dioxide emissions of the Parties included in Annex I" clause was satisfied and the treaty was brought into force, effective 16 February 2005. As of January 2019, 136 states have accepted the Doha amendment, but it has not entered into force.
Guernsey and Isle of Man, applied since 4 April 2005; Gibraltar, since 2 January 2007; Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Jersey, since 7 March 2007. Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Turks and Caicos Islands or the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia: not applied
^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacThe 15 member states of the European Union at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol each agreed to a reduction target of -8% under Annex B, as did the European Communities as a whole. A declaration was made upon ratifacation that an agreement had been reached by the states to jointly meet their reduction commitments under the Protocol, as permitted by Article 4 of the Protocol. Emission quotas were pooled and allocated amongst the member states by an internal EU Council Decision. The specific EU imposed targets are listed in brackets. The 13 member states that entered the union later did not participate in this joint agreement, and retained their individual Kyoto targets (if applicable).
^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacadThe 27 member states of the European Union at the time of adoption of the Doha Amendment, in addition to Croatia, which subsequently acceded to the EU, and Iceland each agreed to a reduction a target of -20% under the amended Annex B, as did the European Union as a whole. An agreement was subsequently reached by the states to jointly meet their reduction commitments under the amended Protocol. Emission quotas were pooled and allocated amongst the member states by an internal EU Council Decision.
^ abEmissions of states listed in Annex I that were not a party to the UNFCCC at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, which were thus not permitted to sign the Protocol, were not included in the totals for entry into force for the Protocol.
^ abStates listed in Annex I that were not a party to the UNFCCC at the time of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol were not eligible sign the Protocol and were not listed in Annex B.
^A proposal to amend Annex B to list Belarus as an economy in transition with an emissions reduction for the first commitment period of -8% was adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in 2006, but did not enter into force prior to the end of the commitment period in 2012 due to not being ratified by a sufficient number of states.
^Belarus was added to Annex B with the Doha Amendment.
^ abcdefAt their request, an amendment to the UNFCCC which entered into force in 1998 added Croatia, Liechtenstein, Monaco and Slovenia to Annex I, while the Czech Republic and Slovakia replaced Czechoslovakia, from which they had seceded in 1993, in Annex I.
^ abcdEmissions of Annex I parties to the UNFCCC that had not yet submitted their first national communication to the UNFCCC secretariat with an emissions inventory at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol were not included in the figure for entry into force of the protocol.
^At its request, an amendment to the UNFCCC which entered into force in 2013 added Cyprus to Annex I.
^ abcEmissions not included in the figure for entry into force of the Protocol because at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol the state was not listed in Annex I.
^ abcNot listed in Annex B because at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol the state was not listed in Annex I.
^ abAs they were not listed in Annex I when the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, Cyprus and Malta were not listed in Annex B. However, following their accession to the European Union they were obliged to participate in the EU ETS. Both took on targets under the Doha Amendment.
^ abcdeMonaco (1992), the Czech Republic (1995), Slovakia (1996), Slovenia (1998) and Kazakhstan (2000) submitted declarations under Article 4.2 (g) of the UNFCCC, which as per Article 1.7 of the Kyoto Protocol means that they are treated as Annex I states under the Kyoto Protocol. All of these states except Kazakhstan have since been added to Annex I of the UNFCCC by an amendment to the convention.
^All 28 EU member states are also members of the UNFCCC individually, in addition to their common representation through the EU.
^As per Article 25 of the Kyoto Protocol, "any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by States members of the organization."
^ abcdeNo increase allowed but no reduction required - emissions should stay at their 1990 level.
^ abcJapan, New Zealand and Russia were listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol with emission limits for the first commitment period, but were not assigned any emission reduction limits under the Doha Amendment for the second commitment period.
^Kazakhstan proposed in 1999 that Annex I be amended to include it, but the proposal was never adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC as no consensus could be reached on the matter.
^Kazakhstan proposed in 2009 that Annex B be amended to include it as an economy in transition with an emissions reduction commitment of 0%, and latter indicated it was willing to accept a -6% limit, but the proposal was never adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC.
^At its request, an amendment to the UNFCCC which entered into force in 2010 added Malta to Annex I.
^Turkey was originally listed in both Annex I and Annex II of the UNFCCC. It refused to ratify the Convention, as it objected to its listing in the annexes. In 1997 a proposal was submitted that Annex I and Annex II be amended to remove Turkey. Though no consensus could be reached on this proposal, a compromise was reached and an amendment that entered into force in 2002 removed Turkey from Annex II.
^ abCanada and the United States were listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol with emission limits for the first commitment period, but as they were not parties to the Kyoto Protocol at the time of adoption of the Doha Amendment they were removed from Annex B.
^(in Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "Kyoto'dan sonra Türkiye'yi neler bekliyor? (English translation:What's after Kyoto protocol for Turkey?)" (in Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "Türkiye, Kyoto protokolüne kat?l?yor (English translation:Turkey joins to Kyoto protocol)" (in Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "?imdi KYOTO zaman? (English translation:It's time for Kyoto)"