List of Chinese Cultural Relics Forbidden to Be Exhibited Abroad
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List of Chinese Cultural Relics Forbidden to Be Exhibited Abroad

The list of Chinese cultural relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad comprises a list of antiquities and archaeological artifacts held by various museums and other institutions in the People's Republic of China, which the Chinese government has officially prohibited, since 2003, from being taken abroad for exhibition. Many of the relics on the list symbolize the breakthrough of archaeological discoveries that were made in China since the mid-20th century, when archaeology as a modern science began to take root in China. These items are among the most important excavated treasures in China, and have a particular historical, cultural or artistic significance.

In June 2012, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage announced the second batch of 37 cultural relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad, covering paintings and works of calligraphy.[1] In August 2013, a third batch of 94 items were announced, most of which are treasures excavated at archaeological sites.[2]

Government regulations prohibiting exhibition abroad

According to Article 49 of the Regulations for the Implementation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics (State Council Decree No.377) promulgated on 18 May 2003:

The only existing or fragile relics among the grade-one relics are prohibited from being taken out of the country for exhibition. The catalogue of cultural relics prohibited from being taken out of the country for exhibition shall be made public on a regular basis by the competent cultural relics administrative department of the State Council.[3][4]

A first list of sixty-four cultural relics that are forbidden to be exhibited abroad was published by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage on 19 January 2002 (a year before the above regulation was enacted).[5]

In addition to the list of items explicitly prohibited from being exhibited abroad, cultural relics that fall within one of the following five categories are also prohibited from being exhibited outside of China:[6]

  • ancient human remains
  • the main object of reverence at a place of religious observation
  • first-grade cultural relics that are unique and easily damaged
  • objects listed in the catalogue of cultural relics that are prohibited from being exhibited abroad
  • cultural relics that are not suitable to be exhibited abroad because of their state of preservation

Furthermore, cultural relics may not be sent abroad for exhibition if they have not previously been officially exhibited within China.[3]

First batch of items prohibited from being exhibited abroad

In 2002, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage announced its first list of 64 first-grade cultural relics that are forbidden to be taken out of mainland China for exhibition.[7][8]

Name Period Where found When found Current location Image
Coloured pottery pot depicting a stork, a fish, and a stone axe
()[9]
Neolithic Ruzhou, Henan 1978 National Museum of China, Beijing Miaodigou urn,Yangshao culture.jpg
Pottery ding vessel in the form of an eagle, from the Yangshao culture
()[10]
Neolithic Hua County, Shaanxi 1958 National Museum of China, Beijing ?08723.jpg
Houmuwu ding
(?)[11]
Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) Anyang, Henan 1939 National Museum of China, Beijing HouMuWuDingFullView.jpg
Li gui, a bronze wine cup with an inscription commemorating King Wu of Zhou's defeat of the Shang Dynasty
()[12]
Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Lintong, Shaanxi 1976 National Museum of China, Beijing .jpg
Da Yu ding, a bronze ding cauldron cast by Yu, with an inscription dated the 23rd year of the reign of King Kang of Zhou
()[13]
Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Qishan, Shaanxi 1820-1850 National Museum of China, Beijing  Da Yu ding.jpg
Guoji Zibai pan, a bronze trough with an inscription commemorating the defeat of Xianyun people by Duke Xuan of Guo in the 12th year of the reign of King Xuan of Zhou
()[14]
Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Baoji, Shaanxi 1820-1850 National Museum of China, Beijing Guojizibai pan 01.jpg
Four phoenix crowns from the tomb of the Wanli Emperor
()[15]
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Changping District, Beijing 1957 National Museum of China, Beijing PhoenixCrown.jpg
Ivory cup inlaid with turquoise, from the tomb of Fu Hao
(?)[16]
Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) Anyang, Henan 1976 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology
Jin Hou Su zhong, a set of 16 ceremonial bronze bianzhong bells from the tomb of Marquis Xian of Jin
(?)[17]
Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Quwo, Shanxi Shanghai Museum Jinhousu Bianzhong.JPG
Da Ke ding, a bronze ding cauldron cast by Ke during the reign of King Xiao of Zhou
()[18]
Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1890 Shanghai Museum Da Ke ding.jpg
Taibao ding, a bronze ding cauldron cast by the Duke of Shao during the reign of King Cheng of Zhou
()[19]
Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Liangshan County, Shandong mid 19th century Tianjin Museum Taibao Ding.jpg
Red lacquered bowl from the Hemudu culture
()[20]
Neolithic Yuyao, Zhejiang 1977 Zhejiang Provincial Museum, Hangzhou Red lacquered bowl from the Hemudu culture(Neolithic) in Zhejiang Museum.JPG
Pottery stove from the Hemudu culture
(?)[21]
Neolithic Yuyao, Zhejiang 1977 Zhejiang Provincial Museum, Hangzhou Pottery stove from the Hemudu culture(Neolithic) in Zhejiang Museum.JPG
Jade cong from the Liangzhu culture
(?)[22]
Neolithic Yuhang, Zhejiang 1986 Zhejiang Institute of Archaeology Neolithic jade cong.jpg
Crystal cup
()[23]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Hangzhou, Zhejiang 1990 Zhejiang Institute of Archaeology Crystal Cup(Warring States Period) in Hangzhou Museum.JPG
Bronze stand for ceremonial vessels from the tomb of the son of King Zhuang of Chu
()[24]
Spring and Autumn period (771-403 BCE) Xichuan, Henan 1978 Henan Museum, Zhengzhou Bronze jin from Henan.jpg
Pair of square bronze jars from the tomb of the Duke of Zheng()[25] Spring and Autumn period (771-403 BCE) Xinzheng, Henan 1923 Palace Museum, Beijing
Henan Museum, Zhengzhou
?.jpg
Rectangular bronze mirror from the tomb of the Prince of Qi
(?)[26]
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Zibo, Shandong 1980 Zibo Museum Rectangle dragon-veins copper mirror.jpg
Bronze ding vessel from the tomb of the King of Chu
()[27]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Shou County, Anhui 1933 Anhui Provincial Museum, Hefei ?2.jpg
Lacquered wooden platform shoes from the tomb of Zhu Ran
()
Three Kingdoms (Eastern Wu) Ma'anshan, Anhui 1984 Zhu Ran Family Cemetery Museum Geta Unearthed from the Tomb of Zhu Ran 2012-05.JPG
Lacquered picture plate from the tomb of Zhu Ran
()[28]
Three Kingdoms (Eastern Wu) Ma'anshan, Anhui 1984 Zhu Ran Family Cemetery Museum Painted Iacquer dish unearthed from the tomb of Zhuran 02 2012-05.JPG
Painted lacquer wooden screen depicting scenes of filial sons and virtuous women in Chinese history, from the tomb of Sima Jinlong
()[29]
Northern Wei (386-534) Datong, Shanxi 1965 Datong Museum Lacquer painting over wood, Northern Wei.jpg
Mural depicting horse riders from the tomb of Lou Rui
(?)[30]
Northern Qi (550-577) Taiyuan, Shanxi 1979 Shanxi Institute of Archaeology Riders on Horseback, Northern Qi Dynasty.jpg
Memorial stone engraved with illustrations of Buddhist Stories
()
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Linyi, Shanxi Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan
Stone sculpture of a Daoist deity
()
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Yuncheng, Shanxi Shanxi Museum, Taiyuan
Jade ceremonial dagger-axe
()[31]
Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) Wuhan, Hubei 1974 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng[32] Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Sui County, Hubei 1978 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan Bianzhong.jpg
Carved and lacquered wooden outer coffin from the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
()[33]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Sui County, Hubei 1978 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan ,2014-04-06 06.jpg
Pair of intricately decorated bronze food and wine vessels cast using the lost-wax process from the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
(?)[34]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Sui County, Hubei 1978 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan ?,2015-04-06 04.jpg
Wooden screen with carved images of phoenixes and deer, decorated with polychromatic lacquer
(?)[35]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Jiangling, Hubei 1965 Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan Laquered wooden screen.jpg
Clay sculpture of the head of a goddess, inlaid with jade eyes, from the Hongshan culture temple at Niuheliang
(?)[36]
Neolithic Lingyuan, Liaoning 1983 Liaoning Institute of Archaeology
Duck-shaped glass object
()[37]
Northern Yan (407-436) Beipiao, Liaoning 1965 Liaoning Province Museum, Shenyang Northern Yan duck-shaped glass.jpg
4 metre tall bronze tree with a dragon curling up the trunk, and leaves, fruit and birds on the branches
(?)[38]
Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) Guanghan, Sichuan 1986 Sichuan Institute of Archaeology I?.jpg
Ceremonial jade object with engraved drawings of stylized human figures
()[39]
Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) Guanghan, Sichuan 1986 Sichuan Institute of Archaeology Sanxingdui Oct 2007 518.jpg
2 metre tall bronze tree with coins on its branches and a phoenix perched at the top
()[40]
Eastern Han (25-220) Mianyang, Sichuan 1990 Mianyang Museum Eastern Han money tree.jpg
Gansu Flying Horse
()[41]
Eastern Han (25-220) Wuwei, Gansu 1969 Gansu Provincial Museum, Lanzhou Gansu Museum 2007 257.jpg
The Qin bronze chariots, from the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
()[42]
Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) Lintong, Shaanxi 1980 Museum of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang, Lintong Qin dynasty bronze chariot and horses.jpg
Shi Qiang pan[43] Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1967 Baoji Bronzeware Museum Shi Qiang pan.jpg
Large bronze ding vessel with three handles and ox-head decoration
(?)[44]
Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Chunhua, Shaanxi 1979 Chunhua Museum
Bronze He zun, with an inscription recording the construction of the capital at Luoyang by King Cheng of Zhou[45] Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) Baoji, Shaanxi 1963 Baoji Bronzeware Museum He Zun.jpg
Stone sculptures from the tomb of Huo Qubing at the mausoleum of Emperor Wu of Han at Maoling
(?)[46]
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Xianyang, Shaanxi Maoling Museum, Xianyang .JPG
Nestorian Stele -- a stele recording the introduction of Christianity into China in 635
()[47]
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Shaanxi 1623 Xi'an Beilin Museum, Xi'an Nestorian stele 1.jpg
Gilt silver jug imitating the shape of a leather water bottle, with a design of prancing horses
Hejia Village hoard
(?)[48]
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Xi'an, Shaanxi 1970 Shaanxi History Museum, Xi'an Gilt silver jar with pattern of dancing horses.jpg
Zoomorphic drinking horn made from agate
Hejia Village hoard
()[49]
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Xi'an, Shaanxi 1970 Shaanxi History Museum, Xi'an ?-.jpg
Bronze bell cast in 711, weighing 6,500 kg, originally from the bell tower at the Tang capital Chang'an
(?)[50]
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Xi'an Beilin Museum, Xi'an Jingyun bell.jpg
Gilt and silvered monk's staff donated to Famen Temple by Emperor Yizong of Tang in 873
()[51]
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1987 Famen Temple Museum, Fufeng
Set of eight nested relic boxes containing a relic supposed to be a finger bone from kyamuni Buddha, from Famen Temple
(?)[52]
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1987 Famen Temple Museum, Fufeng Famen Si May 2007 052.jpg
Bronze model pagoda from Famen Temple
()[53]
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Fufeng, Shaanxi 1987 Famen Temple Museum, Fufeng
"Five stars rise in the East" arm protector
("")[54]
Eastern Han (25-220) to Jin (265-420) Minfeng, Xinjiang 1995 Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology Five stars rising east benefit China.jpg
Bronze table frame inlaid with gold and silver, decorated with figures of four dragons and four phoenixes
(?)[55]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Pingshan, Hebei 1974 Hebei Institute of Cultural Relics Bronze Square Table Stand Decorated with Dragon-and-phoenix.jpg
Bronze ding vessel with iron feet from the tomb of the King of Zhongshan
(?)[56]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Pingshan, Hebei 1977 Hebei Institute of Cultural Relics
Jade burial suit from the tomb of Liu Sheng, Prince of Zhongshan
()[57]
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Mancheng, Hebei 1968 Hebei Provincial Museum, Shijiazhuang Jade burial suit of Liu Sheng.jpg
Gilt bronze lamp in the shape of a serving girl, from the tomb of Lady Dou Wan
(?)[58]
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Mancheng, Hebei 1968 Hebei Provincial Museum, Shijiazhuang ChangXingongdeng.jpg
Five bronze pieces from an otherwise decayed folding screen, from the tomb of the King of Nanyue
(5?)[59]
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Guangzhou, Guangdong 1983 Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue King, Guangzhou Nanyue Folding Screen Ornament 2.JPG
Horn-shaped jade cup from the tomb of the King of Nanyue
(?)[60]
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Guangzhou, Guangdong 1983 Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue King, Guangzhou Jiaoxing yubei.JPG
Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon
()[61]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Changsha, Hunan 1949 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha Changshadragon.jpg
Silk painting depicting a man with a dragon and a phoenix
()[62]
Warring States period (475-221 BCE) Changsha, Hunan 1949 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha Silk Painting of a Lady, Phoenix and Dragon.jpg
Plain gauze robe from the tomb of the Marquis of Dai at Mawangdui
()[63]
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Changsha, Hunan 1972 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha Plain Unlined Silk Gauze Gown, Hunan Museum, picture1.jpg
Wooden outer coffin from the tomb of the Marquis of Dai at Mawangdui
()
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Changsha, Hunan 1972 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha Patterns on Top of the Coffin with Painted Design on Vermilion Lacquer Coating, Hunan Museum, February 2018.jpg
T-shaped silk funeral banner from the tomb of the Marquis of Dai at Mawangdui
(T)[64]
Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) Changsha, Hunan 1972 Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha Mawangdui silk banner from tomb no1.jpg
Brocade banner depicting the Sun God and hunting scenes
(?)[65]
Northern Dynasties (386-581) Dulan, Qinghai 1983 Qinghai Institute of Archaeology
Nine volumes of Buddhist texts written in the Tangut language that were printed using wooden movable type, from Baisigou Square Pagoda
()[66]
Western Xia (1038-1227) Helan, Ningxia 1991 Ningxia Institute of Archaeology ?.jpg
Red-glazed pottery model of a granary
(?)[67]
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Jingdezhen, Jiangxi 1974 Jiangxi Provincial Museum, Nanchang
Picture of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove composed from more than 300 moulded bricks
()[68]
Southern Dynasties (420-589) Nanjing, Jiangsu 1960 Nanjing Museum Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove 1.Nanjing Museum.jpg

Footnotes

  1. ^ ?(?)() (in Chinese). State Administration of Cultural Heritage. 11 June 2012. Retrieved 2015.
  2. ^ 94?"?" (in Chinese). Chinanews. 19 August 2013. Retrieved 2015.
  3. ^ a b Regulations for the Implementation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Protection of Cultural Relics, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, 29 October 2007, archived from the original on 19 March 2012
  4. ^ ?, The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, 23 May 2005
  5. ^ ?30?, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, 29 December 2008
  6. ^ ?, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, 28 October 2007
  7. ^ ?(?), The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site
  8. ^ ?(?), Beijing Global Culture Information Technology
  9. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  10. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  11. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  12. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  13. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  14. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  15. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  16. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  17. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  18. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  19. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  20. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  21. ^ "?""". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  22. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  23. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  24. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  25. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  26. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  27. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  28. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  29. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  30. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  31. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  32. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  34. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  35. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  36. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  40. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  43. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  44. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  46. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  48. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  50. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  54. ^ """". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  56. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  58. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  59. ^ "5?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
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  63. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  64. ^ "T". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  65. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  66. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  67. ^ "?". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.
  68. ^ "". The Chinese Cultural Heritage Protection Web Site.

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