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Limited overs cricket, also known as one-day cricket, is a version of the sport of cricket in which a match is generally completed in one day, which includes List A cricket and Twenty20 cricket. The name reflects the rule that in the match each team bowls a set maximum number of overs, usually between 20 and 50, although shorter and longer forms of limited overs cricket have been played.
The concept contrasts with Test and first-class matches, which can take up to five days to complete. One-day cricket is popular with spectators as it can encourage aggressive, risky, entertaining batting, often results in cliffhanger endings, and ensures that a spectator can watch an entire match without committing to five days of continuous attendance.
Each team bats only once, and each innings is limited to a set number of overs, usually fifty in a One Day International and between forty and sixty in a List A. List A is a classification of the limited-overs (one-day) form of cricket, technically as the domestic level.
Despite its name, important one-day matches, international and domestic, often have two days set aside, the second day being a "reserve" day to allow more chance of the game being completed if a result is not possible on the first day (for instance if play is prevented or interrupted by rain).
As mentioned above, in almost all competitive one-day games, a restriction is placed on the number of overs that may be bowled by any one bowler. This is to prevent a side playing two top-class bowlers with extremely good stamina who can bowl throughout their opponents' innings. The usual limitation is set so that a side must include at least five players who bowl. For example, the usual limit for twenty-over cricket is four overs per bowler, for forty-over cricket eight per bowler and for fifty-over cricket ten per bowler. There are exceptions: Pro Cricket in the United States restricted bowlers to five overs each, thus leaving a side requiring only four bowlers.
The idea for a one-day, limited 50-over cricket tournament, was first played in the inaugural match of the All India Pooja Cricket Tournament in 1951 in the small town of Thrippunithura in Kerala. It is thought to be the brain child of KV Kelappan Thampuran, a former cricketer and the first Secretary of the Kerala Cricket Association. The one day limited over cricket game was later adapted and played between English county teams for the first instance on 2 May 1962. Leicestershire beat Derbyshire and Northamptonshire beat Nottinghamshire over 65 overs in the "Midlands Knock-Out Cup", which Northamptonshire went on to win a week later. The following year, the first full-scale one-day competition between first-class teams was played, the knock-out Gillette Cup, won by Sussex. The number of overs was reduced to 60 for the 1964 season. League one-day cricket also began in England, when the John Player Sunday League was started in 1969 with forty over matches. Both these competitions have continued every season since inauguration, though the sponsorship has changed. There is now one 50 over competition, which is called the Royal London One-Day Cup.
The first Limited Overs International (LOI) or One-Day International (ODI) match was played in Melbourne in 1971, and the quadrennial cricket World Cup began in 1975. Many of the "packaging" innovations, such as coloured clothing, were as a result of World Series Cricket, a "rebel" series set up outside the cricketing establishment by Australian entrepreneur Kerry Packer. For more details, see History of cricket.
Twenty20, a curtailed form of one-day cricket with 20 overs per side, was first played in England in 2003. It has proven very popular, and several Twenty20 matches have been played between national teams. It makes several changes to the usual laws of cricket, including the addition of a "bowl-out" (similar to a penalty shoot-out in football) to decide the result of tied matches, which was subsequently dispensed in favour of a Super Over.
100-ball cricket, another form of one-day cricket with 100 deliveries per side, will launch in England in 2020. It is designed to further shorten game time and hopes to attract a new audience. It makes further changes to the usual laws of cricket, including the addition of one 10-ball over which is bowled by each side in addition to 15 traditional 6-ball overs.
One Day International matches are usually played in brightly coloured clothing often in a "day-night" format where the first innings of the day occurs in the afternoon and the second occurs under stadium lights.
Every four years, the Cricket World Cup involves all the Test-playing nations and other national sides who qualify through the ICC World Cup Qualifier. It usually consists of round-robin stages, followed by semi-finals and a final. The International Cricket Council (ICC) determines the venue far in advance.
The ICC Champions Trophy also involves all the Test-playing nations, and is held between World Cups. It usually consists of a round-robin group stage, semifinals, and a final.
Each Test-playing country often hosts triangular tournaments, between the host nation and two touring sides. There is usually a round-robin group stage, and then the leading two teams play each other in a final, or sometimes a best-of-three final. When there is only one touring side, there is still often a best-of-five or best-of-seven series of limited overs matches.
The ICC World Cricket League is an ODI competition for national teams with Associate or Affiliate status.
Domestic one-day competitions exist in almost every country where cricket is played.
List A cricket is a classification of the limited-overs (one-day) form of the sport of cricket. Much as domestic first-class cricket is the level below international Test match cricket, so List A cricket is the domestic level of one-day cricket below One Day Internationals. Twenty20 matches do not qualify for the present.
Most cricketing nations have some form of domestic List A competition. The number of overs in List A cricket ranges from forty to sixty overs per side.
The Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians created this category for the purpose of providing an equivalent to first-class cricket, to allow the generation of career records and statistics for comparable one-day matches. Only the more important one-day competitions in each country, plus matches against a touring Test team, are included. The categorisation of cricket matches as "List A" was not officially endorsed by the International Cricket Council until 2006, when the ICC announced that it and its member associations would be determining this classification in a manner similar to that done for first class matches.
The JLT One Day Cup is a 50 overs tournament held since 1969. The sides that compete are the following:
In 2006 Cricket Australia introduced the KFC Twenty20 Big Bash which was amongst the state teams (as above). In 2011 this was expanded to the KFC Twenty20 Big Bash League, consisting of teams based in the capital cities of Australia. The teams are as follows:
The Dhaka Premier Division Cricket League is sponsored by Walton. It has been Bangladesh's List A competition since the 2013-14 season. Twelve teams compete; the bottom two are relegated each year and replaced by the top two from the league below. In 2017-18 the teams were:
Bangladesh's T20 competition is the Bangladesh Premier League. It has been contested annually since the 2011-12 season. Seven teams take part:
Each county has a team representing them in each league and are as followed with their home ground:
Birmingham Bears (Edgbaston) Derbyshire Falcons (Derby County Ground) Durham Jets (Riverside Ground) Lancashire Lightning (Old Trafford) Leicestershire Foxes (Grace Road) Northamptonshire Steelbacks (Northampton County Ground) Nottinghamshire Outlaws (Trent Bridge) Worcestershire Rapids (New Road) Yorkshire Vikings (Headingley)
Essex Eagles (Chelmsford County Ground) Glamorgan Dragons (Sophia Gardens) Gloucestershire (Bristol County Ground) Hampshire Royals (Rose Bowl) Kent Spitfires (St Lawrence Ground) Middlesex (Lord's) Somerset (Taunton County Ground) Surrey (The Oval) Sussex Sharks (Hove County Ground)
The Pakistani domestic competition changes regularly, but for 2005-06 there are plans for three one-day tournaments for men:
-- a professional franchise Twenty20 men's cricket league. The league is headquartered in Lahore, consists of five franchises nominally representing cities in Pakistan . It is operated by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) and was established in 2016.Following are the teams:
The local competition in South Africa is the Standard Bank Cup (formerly Benson & Hedges Series) played between 6 teams:
The games are 45-overs, and based on a home-and-away round-robin match system (each team plays ten matches) with semi-finals and a final. The Eagles were the winners of the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 competitions.
20 teams compete in the Premier Limited-Overs Tournament, which is an expansion from 16 in the last season. Games are played over 50 overs per side, and the teams are divided into two groups, where each team meets the other once over a period of a month. The four top teams from each group qualify for the quarter-finals, and there is then a direct knock-out system until a winner is found after three knock-out stages. The competing teams are:
The NAGICO Regional Super50 is the main regional one-day competition in the West Indies. In recent years, it has been run over a week's time as a group stage followed by knock-out stages. Trinidad and Tobago have won the most titles.
The world record for the highest innings total in any List A limited overs match is 496 for 4 by Surrey against Gloucestershire in their Friends Provident Trophy 50-overs match at the Oval, London on 29 April 2007. That surpassed the 443 for nine by Sri Lanka against the Netherlands in their One Day International 50-overs match at Amstelveen on 4 July 2006, which was the record ODI score at the time. On 19 June 2018, England set a new international record, totalling 481 for 6 against Australia at Trent Bridge. The lowest ever total is 23 by Yorkshire against Middlesex at Headingley in 1974 in a 40-overs match. The record low score in ODIs was set by Zimbabwe, who managed just 35 against Sri Lanka in Harare on 25 April 2004.
The most runs scored by both sides in any List A limited overs match is 872: Australia, batting first, scored 434 for four in 50 overs, and yet were beaten by South Africa who scored 438 for nine with a ball to spare during their One Day International at Johannesburg in 2006.
The highest individual innings is 268 by Ali Brown for Surrey against Glamorgan in a 50-overs match at The Oval in 2002. The best bowling figures are eight for 15 by Rahul Sanghvi for Delhi against Himachal Pradesh in a 50-overs match at Una in 1997. The highest international individual innings is by Rohit Sharma who scored 264. The highest score in any formal limited overs match is believed to be United's 630 for five against Bay Area in a 45 overs match at Richmond, California in August 2006.
The most runs in an over was scored by Herschelle Gibbs of the South African cricket team when, in the 2007 Cricket World Cup in the West Indies, he hit 6 sixes in one over bowled by Daan van Bunge of the Netherlands.
Sachin Tendulkar holds the record of being the first male cricketer to score a double century in ODIs (200 not out). He achieved this feat against South Africa on 24 February 2010, at Gwalior, India. Virender Sehwag is the second male cricketer to score a double century, when he scored 219 before being caught out against West Indies on 8 December 2011, at Indore, India. Rohit Sharma became the third male cricketer to score a double century, when he scored 209 against Australia on 2 November 2013.