Leizhou Min
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Leizhou Min
Leizhou Min
Leizhounese
[l?i? u]
Pronunciation[l?i? u] (Lei city dialect)
Native toChina, Hong Kong & Macau, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, United States (California)
RegionLeizhou Peninsula in south-western Guangdong
Native speakers
around 2.8 million in China (2004)[1]
Language codes
None (mis)
Glottologleiz1236[2]
Linguasphere79-AAA-jj
Min dialect map.svg
  Leizhou Min
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Leizhou Min (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Léizh?u huà, [lěióu xwâ]) is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Leizhou city, Xuwen County, Mazhang District, most parts of Suixi County and also spoken inside of the linguistically diverse Xiashan District. In the classification of Yuan Jiahua, it was included in the Southern Min group, though it has low intelligibility with other Southern Min varieties. In the classification of Li Rong, used by the Language Atlas of China, it was treated as a separate Min subgroup.[3] Hou Jingyi combined it with Hainanese in a Qiong-Lei group.[4]

Phonology

Leizhou Min has 17 initials, 47 rimes and 8 tones.

Initials

The phoneme given here as /b/ is described by Li and Thompson instead as /v/.[5]

Rimes

i ? u ?
a ? ia ? ua ?
? ? i? ? u? ?
? ? i? ?
ai ? uai ?
au ? iau ?
?u ? iu ?
?i ? ui ?
m? ?
am ? iam ?
em ? im ?
? i? ? u? ?
a? ? ia? ? ua? ?
e? ? ie? ?
? i ?
ap ? iap ?
ep ? ip ?
ik ? uk ?
ak ? iak ? uak ?
ek ? iek ? uek ?
?k ? i?k ?

Tones

Leizhou has six tones, which are reduced to two in checked syllables.

Tone chart of the Leizhou dialect
Tone number Tone name Tone contour Description
1 yin ping () (24) rising
2 yin shang () (42) falling (high falling)
3 yin qu () (21) bottom (low falling)
4 yin ru () (5) high checked
5 yang ping () ? (2) low
6 yang shang () ? (3) mid
7 yang qu () ? (5) high
8 yang ru () (1) low checked

See also

References

  1. ^ ?· ·
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Leizhou". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects". Walter de Gruyter. pp. 54-55, 86. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.
  4. ^ Hou, Jingyi (2002). Xiàndài hàny? f?ngyán gàilùn [An Introduction to Modern Chinese Dialects]. Shanghai Educational Press ?. p. 238.
  5. ^ Li, Charles; Thompson, Sandra (1983). "A Grammatical description of Xuwen : A colloquial dialect of Lei-zhou Peninsula (Part I)". Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale. 13 (1): 3-21.
  • B?ij?ng dàxué zh?ngguóy?yánwénxuéxì y?yánxué jiàoyánshì. (1989) Hàny? f?ngy?n zìhuì. B?ij?ng: Wénzìg?igé ch?b?nshè.(. 1989. . )
  • Norman, Jerry. [1988] (2002). Chinese. Cambridge, England: CUP ISBN 0-521-29653-6
  • Yuán, ji?huá (1989). Hàny? f?ngyán gàiyào (An introduction to Chinese dialects). Beijing, China: Wénzì g?igé ch?b?nshè. (. 1989. . :?.)
  • Zh?, yuèmíng. (2005) "Léizh?uhuà yú P?t?nghuà b?jiàoy?nxì yánji?" (Comparative phonological studies on the Leizhou dialect and Putonghua) Yúnnán sh?fàndàxué xuébào (zhéxué shèhuìk?xué b?n) (Yunnan Normal University Journal (philosophy and social sciences)): vol.37 no. 5 p. 133-136. (. 2005. "?" (?)? 37 ? ? 5 ? ?133-136)
  • Office of Chorography of Zhanjiang City (2004). Zhan jiang shi zhi ? ["Chorography of Zhanjiang City"]. 36. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7-101-04214-7.

Further reading

  • Li, Charles; Thompson, Sandra (1983a). "A Grammatical description of Xuwen : A colloquial dialect of Lei-zhou Peninsula (Part I)". Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale. 12 (1): 3-21. doi:10.3406/clao.1983.1123.
  • Li, Charles; Thompson, Sandra (1983b). "A Grammatical description of Xuwen : A colloquial dialect of Lei-zhou Peninsula (Part II)". Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale. 12 (2): 119-148. doi:10.3406/clao.1983.1138.
  • Yue-Hashimoto, Anne O. (1985). The Suixi Dialect of Leizhou: A Study of Its Phonological, Lexical and Syntactic Structure. Chinese University of Hong Kong. OCLC 15111722.

External links



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