|Coordinator of the Political Commission||Catarina Martins|
|Founded||24 March 1999|
|Headquarters||Rua da Palma, 268|
|Youth wing||Jovens do Bloco|
|Political position||Left-wing to far-left|
|European Parliament group||European United Left/Nordic Green Left|
|Colours||Red (official) |
|Assembly of the Republic|
The Left Bloc (Portuguese: Bloco de Esquerda, pronounced ['bl?ku d? (?)?'ke?d?]; abbr. BE or O Bloco) is a left-wing democratic-socialist political party in Portugal founded in 1999. The party's current spokesperson is Catarina Martins.
The Left Bloc was formed in March 1999 by the merger of the Marxist People's Democratic Union, Trotskyist Revolutionary Socialist Party, and the democratic socialist Politics XXI. It has had full party status since its founding, yet the constituent groups have maintained their existence as individual political associations, retaining some levels of autonomy in a loose structure. In the 1999 legislative election the BE polled at 2%. In 2002 this rose to 3%.
In the 1999 election BE received 2.4% of the votes leading them to enter the Assembly of the Republic for the first time with 2 MPs for the Lisbon constituency. These representatives were Francisco Louçã and Fernando Rosas. In the 2005 election BE received 6.5% of the votes winning them 8 MPs. In the 2006 presidential elections, the Left Bloc's candidate, Francisco Louçã, received 288,224 votes (5.31%).
In the 2009 European Parliament election they received 10.73% winning them 3 MEPs. They also surpassed the CDU for the first time in an election. At the subsequent 2009 national election, the party obtained 9.81% of votes and 16 members of parliament in the 230-seat Assembly of the Republic.
The financial crisis led socialist prime minister Sócrates to agree to a bailout memorandum with the Eurogroup. In the subsequent 2011 snap election, the country saw a massive shift to the right, with the Left Bloc losing nearly half of its previous popular support, obtaining only 5.17% of the vote and 8 members of parliament. This defeat is generally attributed to the partial support certain sections of the party appeared to offer the unpopular Socialist government while the latter pursued an austerity program in response to the financial crisis.
The historical merger of ideologies that gave rise to the Portuguese Left Bloc was a process that lasted sixteen years. Its main actors aged and times changed, which led to an awareness of the need for modernization and realism. Francisco Louçã is one of the founders who most insisted on restricting theory to the basic humanistic and ethical principles common to partisans and supporters in order to conquer a wider range of constituencies. The game would necessarily be played in the framework of democracy, active participation and defence of human rights. After thirteen years of intensive labor as a leader, Louçã quit the position of party chairman in 2012 arguing that "it is time for renewal" and delegating his functions to a man and a woman.Catarina Martins, 39 years old, and João Semedo, a veteran, would be elected co-chairmen of the party on November 11, 2012. However, the renewal process would last for over one year.
In early 2014, the Left Bloc suffered a split, when elected Left Bloc MEP Rui Tavares, who already in 2011 had become an independent, founded left-ecologist LIVRE party. Left-wing intellectuals who had come together to the Manifesto 3D collective challenged the Left Bloc to converge with LIVRE towards a joined list in the upcoming 2014 European election. Two official meetings in late 2014 and early 2015 however failed with the Left Bloc referring to programmatic differences with Tavares. So while the severe austerity programs under prime minister Passos Coelho did backdrop on the Portuguese political right, the European election in May saw the Socialists and liberal Earth Party as relative winners, whereas the Left Bloc lost more than half of 2009's votes and two of its three mandates. LIVRE received 2.2% but failed to win any mandate.
On 10 November 2015, the Left Bloc signed an agreement with the Socialist Party that is aimed at identifying convergence issues, while also recognizing their differences. The Bloc supported the minority Socialist Costa Government (2015-2019) with a confidence and supply agreement.
The Left Bloc is often considered by foreign observers and conservative local commentators as a radical left-wing party. It actually occupies a flexible and moderate position to the left of the Socialist Party (PS). The Bloc proposed a number of important laws on civil rights and guarantees, including the protection of citizens from racist, xenophobic, and homophobic discrimination, support for same-sex marriage, laws for the protection of workers and anti-bullfighting legislation. These included Portugal's first law on domestic violence, which was then passed in parliament with the support of the Portuguese Communist Party and the Socialist Party. At present, together with the PS, Left Bloc aims at "building a stable, long-lasting and reliable majority at the Parliament, in order to support the formation and subsequent action of a government committed to the change demanded through the ballot box". This purpose foreshadows changes taking place not only in the Iberian Peninsula but as in all European territory.
|Election||Assembly of the Republic||Government||Size||Leader||Notes|
|2015||550,945||10.2%||5.0||11||Opposition (2015)||3rd||Catarina Martins||Confidence and supply support for the PS minority government.|
|2009||382,667||10.7%||5.8||2||3rd||Two seats since 2011 after Rui Tavares' departure.|
|1st||Francisco Louçã||24 March 1999||10 November 2012|
|2nd||João Semedo||10 November 2012||30 November 2014|
|3rd||Catarina Martins||10 November 2012||Incumbent|
The alliance between Mr Costa's Socialist Party (PS) and further left groups such as the anti-establishment Left Bloc was considered tenuous when it was forged in 2015.
Deux autres partis de « gauche » étaient en lice pour les élections. Premièrement, le Bloc de gauche, considéré par le journal The Guardian comme étant une version portugaise du parti politique grec anti-austérité Syriza, a récolté 10,2 % des suffrages (8).
BE, le Bloc des gauches (Bloco da Esquerda) : formation regroupant l'extrême gauche portugaise depuis 1999. Influente dans les milieux intellectuels de la capitale, BE a obtenu 2,7 % des voix et 3 députés en mars 2002 (soit un siège de plus qu'en 1999). BE comprend notamment l'Union démocratique populaire (União Democràtica Popular), le Parti socialiste révolutionnaire (Partido Socialista Revolucionario ) et Politica XXI..
The Left Bloc is the more socially libertarian, and bohemian of Portugal's two far-left structures.
The unlikely alliance of center-left Socialists and two far-left parties has overcome deep scepticism since it was formed in 2015, achieving stability and maintaining economic recovery at a time of political uncertainty across Europe.