He studied at Halle, and served as pastor in various places till 1847, when he withdrew from the Evangelical Church, and thenceforth was preacher of the Free Congregation at Magdeburg. In 1841, he became the leader of the Friends of the Light (also called Protestant Friends). His liberal views frequently involved him in difficulties with the authorities. He published Bekenntnisse (4th ed. 1846); Christentum und Kirche (2d ed. 1846); Die Throne im Himmel und auf Erden (1845); Handbüchlein der freien Religion (7th ed. 1889). His autobiography appeared at Gera in 1872.
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (July 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)