|? phasa lao|
|Native to||Laos, Isan|
|Lao script in Laos|
Thai script in Thailand
Thai and Lao Braille
Official language in
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (, [lá:w] 'Lao' or ?, [p:s?:lá:w] 'Lao language'), is a Kra-Dai language and the language of the ethnic Lao people. It is spoken in Laos, where it is the official language, as well as northeast Thailand, where it is usually referred to as Isan. Lao serves as a lingua franca among all citizens of Laos, who speak approximately 90 other languages, many of which are unrelated to Lao. Modern Lao (language) is heavily influenced by the Thai language. A vast number of technical terms as well as common usage are adopted directly from Thai.
Like other Tai languages, Lao is a tonal language and has a complex system of relational markers.[clarification needed] Spoken Lao is mutually intelligible with Thai and Isan, fellow Southwestern Tai languages, to such a degree that their speakers are able to effectively communicate with one another speaking their respective languages. These languages are written with slightly different scripts but are linguistically similar and effectively form a dialect continuum.
The Lao language is descended from Tai languages spoken in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam in areas believed to be the homeland of the language family and where several related languages are still spoken by scattered minority groups.
Due to Han Chinese expansion, Mongol invasion pressures, and a search for lands more suitable for wet rice cultivation, the Tai peoples moved south towards India, down the Mekong River valley, and as far south as the Malay Peninsula. The oral history of the migrations is preserved in the legends of Khun Borom. Tai speakers in what is now Laos pushed out or absorbed earlier groups of Austroasiatic and Austronesian languages.
|Dialect||Lao provinces||Thai provinces|
|Vientiane Lao||Vientiane, Vientiane Capital Prefecture, Bolikhamsai||Nong Bua Lamphu, Chaiyaphum, and parts of Nong Khai, Yasothon, Khon Kaen, and Udon Thani.|
|Northern Lao||Luang Prabang, Sainyabuli, Oudomxay.||Loei and parts of Udon Thani and Khon Kaen.|
|Northeastern Lao/Tai Phuan||Xiangkhouang and Houaphanh.||Parts of Sakon Nakhon, Udon Thani.|
|Central Lao||Savannakhet and Khammouane.||Mukdahan and parts of Sakon Nakhon and Nong Khai.|
|Southern Lao||Champasak, Salavan, Sekong, and Attapeu.||Ubon Ratchathani, Amnat Charoen, and parts of Yasothon, Buriram, Sisaket, Surin and Nakhon Ratchasima|
|Western Lao||||Kalasin, Maha Sarakham, and Roi Et.|
In addition to the dialects of Lao, numerous closely related languages (or dialects, depending on the classification) are spoken throughout the Lao-speaking areas of Laos and Thailand, such as the Nyaw people, Phu Thai, Saek, Lao Wiang, Tai Dam, and Tai Daeng. These Tai peoples are classified by the Lao government as Lao Loum (?, láo l?m) or lowland Lao. Lao and Thai are also very similar and share most of their basic vocabulary, but differences in many basic words limit inter-comprehension.
The Lao language consists primarily of native Lao words. Because of Buddhism, however, Pali has contributed numerous terms, especially relating to religion and in conversation with members of the sangha. Due to their proximity, Lao has influenced the Khmer and Thai languages and vice versa.
Formal writing has a larger number of loanwords, especially Pali and Sanskrit, much as Latin and Greek have influenced European languages. For politeness, pronouns (and more formal pronouns) are used, plus ending statements with (d? [d?:]) or ? (doe? [d:]). Negative statements are made more polite by ending with (d?k [d:k]). The following are formal register examples.
Lao has six lexical tones.
There are six phonemic tones in unchecked syllables, that is, in syllables ending in a vowel or other sonorant sound ([m], [n], [?], [w], and [j]).
|Name||Diacritic on ⟨e⟩||Tone letter||Example||Gloss|
|galangal, value resp.|
Lao syllables are of the form (C)V(C), i.e., they consist of a vowel in the syllable nucleus, optionally preceded by a single consonant in the syllable onset and optionally followed by single consonant in the syllable coda. The only consonant clusters allowed are syllable initial clusters /kw/ or /k?w/. Any consonant may appear in the onset, but the labialized consonants do not occur before rounded vowels.
One difference between Thai and Lao is that in Lao initial clusters are simplified. For example, the official name of Laos is Romanized as Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, with the Thai analogue being Satharanarat Prachathipatai Prachachon Lao (), indicating the simplification of Thai pr to Lao p.
Only /p t k ? m n ? w j/ may appear in the coda. If the vowel in the nucleus is short, it must be followed by a consonant in the coda; /?/ in the coda can be preceded only by a short vowel. Open syllables (i.e., those with no coda consonant) and syllables ending in one of the sonorants /m n ? w j/ take one of the six tones, syllables ending in /p t k/ take one of four tones, and syllables ending in /?/ take one of only two tones.
The majority of Lao words are monosyllabic, and are not inflected to reflect declension or verbal tense, making Lao an analytic language. Special particle words serve the purpose of prepositions and verb tenses in lieu of conjugations and declensions. Lao is a subject-verb-object (SVO) language, although the subject is often dropped. In contrast to Thai, Lao uses pronouns more frequently.
The Lao script, derived from the Khmer alphabet of the Khmer Empire in the 14th century, is ultimately rooted in the Pallava script of South India, one of the Brahmi scripts. Although the Lao script bears resemblance to Thai, the former contains fewer letters than Thai because by 1960 it was simplified to be fairly phonemic, whereas Thai maintains many etymological spellings that are pronounced the same.
The script is traditionally classified as an abugida, but Lao consonant letters are conceived of as simply representing the consonant sound, rather than a syllable with an inherent vowel. Vowels are written as diacritic marks and can be placed above, below, in front of, or behind consonants. The script also contains distinct symbols for numerals, although Arabic numerals are more commonly used.
Lao is traditionally not written with spaces between words, although signs of change are multiplying. Spaces are reserved for ends of clauses or sentences. Periods are not used, and questions can be determined by question words in a sentence. Traditional punctuation marks include ?, an obsolete mark indicating silenced consonants; ?, used to indicate repetition of the preceding word; ?, the Lao ellipsis that is also used to indicate omission of words; ?, a more or less obsolete symbol indicating shortened form of a phrase (such as royal names); and , used to indicate et cetera.
In more contemporary writing, punctuation marks are borrowed from French, such as exclamation point !, question mark ?, parentheses , and «» for quotation marks, although "" is also common. Hyphens (-) and the ellipsis (...) are also commonly found in modern writing.
Experts disagree on the number and nature of tones in the various dialects of Lao. According to some, most dialects of Lao and Isan have six tones, those of Luang Prabang have five. Tones are determined as follows:
|Tones||Long vowel, or vowel plus voiced consonant||Long vowel plus unvoiced consonant||Short vowel, or short vowel plus unvoiced consonant||Mai ek ()||Mai tho ()|
|High consonants||rising||low falling||high||mid||low falling|
|Mid consonants||low rising||low falling||high||mid||high falling|
|Low consonants||high||high falling||mid||mid||high falling|
A silent ? (/h/) placed before certain consonants will produce place the other proceeding consonant in the high class. This can occur before the letters ? /?/, ? /?/, ? /r/, and ? /w/ and combined in special ligatures (considered separate letters) such as /l/, ? /n/, and ? /m/. In addition to (low tone) and (falling tone), there also exists the rare (high) (rising) tone marks.