Languages of Thailand
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Languages of Thailand

Thailand is home to 71 living languages,[1] with the majority of people speaking languages of the Southwestern Tai family, and the national language being Thai. Lao is spoken along the borders with the Laos PDR, Karen languages are spoken along the border with Myanmar, Khmer is spoken near Cambodia and Malay is spoken in the south near Malaysia. Sixty-two 'domestic' languages are officially recognized, and international languages spoken in Thailand, primarily by international workers, expatriates and business people, include Burmese, Karen, English, Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese, among others.[2]

Officially recognized languages

National breakdown

The following table comprises all 62 ethnolinguistic groups recognized by the Royal Thai Government in the 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee responsible for the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice.[3]:3

Five language families of Thailand recognized by the Royal Thai Government[3]
Kra-Dai Austroasiatic Sino-Tibetan Austronesian Hmong-Mien
24 Groups 22 Groups 11 Groups 3 Groups 2 Groups
Kaleung Kasong Guong (Ugong) Malay (Malayu / Nayu / Yawi Hmong (Meo)
Northern Thai Kuy / Kuay Karen (7 subfamilies) Moken / Moklen Mien (Yao)
Tai Dam Khmu - S'gaw Karen Urak Lawoi'
Nyaw Thailand Khmer, Northern Khmer - Pwo Karen
Khün Chong - Kaya Karen
Central Thai Sa'och - Bwe Karen
Thai Korat Kensiu - Pa'O
Thai Takbai Samre - Padaung Karen
Thai Loei Thavung - Kayo Karen
Tai Lue So Jingpaw / Kachin
Tai Ya Nyah Kur (Chaobon) Chinese
Shan Nyeu Yunnanese Chinese
Southern Thai Bru (Kha) Bisu
Phu Thai Blang (Samtao) Burmese
Phuan Palaung (Dala-ang) Lahu (Muzur)
Yong Mon Lisu
Yoy Lawa Akha
Lao Khrang Mlabri (Tongluang) Mpi
Lao Ngaew Lamet (Lua)
Lao Ti Lavua (Lawa / Lua)
Lao Wiang/Lao Klang Wa
Lao Lom Vietnamese
Lao Isan
Saek

Regional breakdown

Regional language data is limited. The following table shows all the language families of Northeast Thailand, as recognized in the report which is the source for the national breakdown.

Language families of Northeast Thailand[3]
Tai Language Family Persons Austroasiatic Language Family Persons
Lao Esan / Thai Lao 13,000,000 Thailand Khmer / Northern Khmer 1,400,000
Central Thai 800,000 Kuy / Kuay (Suay) 400,000
Thai Khorat / Tai Beung / Tai Deung 600,000 So 70,000
Thai-Loei 500,000 Bru combined
Phu Thai 500,000 Vietnamese 20,000
Ngaw 500,000 Ngeu 10,000
Kaleung 200,000 for Ngah Kur / Chao Bon / Khon Dong 7,000
Yoy Kaleung, Yoy and Phuan So (Thavaung) 1,500
Phuan combined Mon 1,000
Tai-dam (Song) (not specified)
Total: 16,103,000 Total: 1,909,000
Cannot specify ethnicity and amount: 3,288,000
21,300,000

Note that numbers of speakers are for the Northeast region only. Languages may have additional speakers outside the Northeast.

Provincial breakdown

Provincial-level language data is limited; those interested are directed to the Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand resource,[4] or to the Ethnologue Thailand country report.

Khmer speakers as a percentage of the total population in various provinces of Thailand
Province Khmer % in 1990 Khmer % in 2000
Buriram[5] 0.3% 27.6%
Chanthaburi[6] 0.6% 1.6%
Maha Sarakham[7] 0.2% 0.3%
Roi Et[8] 0.4% 0.5%
Sa Kaew[9] N/A 1.9%
Sisaket[10] 30.2% 26.2%
Surin[11] 63.4% 47.2%
Trat[12] 0.4% 2.1%
Ubon Ratchathani[13] 0.8% 0.3%

Thai dialects

Two major dialects of Thai, the national language, are spoken in Thailand: Central Thai and Southern Thai. Northern Thai is spoken in the northern provinces that were formerly part of the independent kingdom of Lan Na while Isan, a Lao dialect, is the native language of the northeast. Both languages are partly mutually intelligible with Central Thai, with the degree depending on standard sociolinguistic factors.

The sole official language of Thailand is Central Thai, a native language in Central (including the Bangkok Metropolitan Region), Southwestern and Eastern Thailand. Central Thai is a Kra-Dai language closely related to Lao, Shan, and numerous indigenous languages of southern China and northern Vietnam. It is the principal language of education and government and is spoken throughout the country. The standard is written in the Thai alphabet, an abugida that evolved from the Khmer script.

Although Isan, Northern Thai and, to a lesser extent, Southern Thai are classified as separate languages by most linguists, the Thai government has historically treated them as dialects of one "Thai language" for political reasons of Thai national identity building.

Minority languages

The position of all minority languages, including the largest, i.e., the Lao-based Isan in the Northeast and Kham muang in the North, is precarious given that they are not well supported in Thailand's language education policy.[14] In the far south, Yawi, a dialect of Malay, is the primary community language of the Malay Muslims. Khmer is spoken by older Northern Khmer. Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the older Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect being best represented. However, the younger Thai Chinese and Northern Khmer trend towards speaking Thai. The Peranakan in Southern Thailand speak Southern Thai at home.

Sign languages

Several village sign languages are reported among the mountain peoples ('hill tribes'), though it is not clear whether these are independent languages, as only Ban Khor Sign Language has been described. Two related deaf-community sign languages developed in Chiangmai and Bangkok; the national Thai Sign Language developed from these under the influence of American Sign Language.

Endangerment status of languages

The 2014 Ethnologue country report for Thailand, which uses the EGIDS language endangerment assessment scale,[15] lists one national language (Thai), one educational language, 27 developing languages, 18 vigorous languages, 17 threatened languages, and 7 dying languages.[16]

Most widely spoken languages

ICERD 2011 country report data

The following table shows ethnolinguistic groups in Thailand with equal to or more than 400,000 speakers according to the Royal Thai Government's 2011 Country Report to the Committee Responsible for the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD).[3]:99 and the Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand project.[4] Note that the degree to which language speakers will have shifted in their idiolects towards Central Thai will depend on standard sociolinguistic factors, like age, education, gender, and proximity to an urban center.

Ethnolinguistic groups of Thailand with equal to or more than 400,000 speakers[3]:99

Language Speakers Language Family
Central Thai 20.0 million Tai-Kadai
Lao 15.2 million Tai-Kadai
Kham Muang (Northern Thai) 6.0 million Tai-Kadai
Pak Tai (Southern Thai) 4.5 million Tai-Kadai
Northern Khmer 1.4 million Austroasiatic
Yawi 1.4 million Austronesian
Ngaw 0.5 million Tai-Kadai
Phu Thai 0.5 million Tai-Kadai
Karen 0.4 million Sino-Tibetan
Kuy 0.4 million Austroasiatic

Ethnologue data

The figures in the following table are for first language speakers, following Ethnologue.[16] Note that Ethnologue describes 'Isan' as 'Northeastern Thai', following Thai government practice until the 2011 Country Report.

Languages in Thailand with more than 1 million speakers according to Ethnologue

Language Code Speakers Language Family
Central Thai mbf 20.2 million Tai-Kadai
Northeastern Thai tts 15.0 million Tai-Kadai
Northern Thai nod 6.0 million Tai-Kadai
Southern Thai sou 4.5 million Tai-Kadai
Northern Khmer kxm 1.4 million Austroasiatic
Chinese (Min Nan) nan 1.1 million Austroasiatic
Yawi mfa 1.1 million Austronesian

Census data

The following table employs 2000 census data and includes international languages. Caution should be exercised with Thai census data on first language. In Thai censuses, the four largest Tai-Kadai languages of Thailand (in order, Central Thai, Isan (majority Lao),[17]Kam Mueang, Pak Tai) are not provided as options for language or ethnic group. People stating such a language as a first language, including Lao, are allocated to 'Thai'.[18] This explains the disparity between the three tables in this section. For instance, self-reporting as Lao has been prohibited, due to the prohibition of the Lao ethnonym in the context of describing Thai citizens, for approximately one hundred years.[19][20] The 2011 Country Report data is therefore more comprehensive in that it differentiates between the four largest Tai-Kadai languages of Thailand and between languages described as 'local languages' and 'dialects and others' in the census.

Population of Thailand by language[21]
Language Language family No. of speakers (2000)* No. of speakers (2010)
Thai Tai-Kadai 52,325,037 59,866,190
Khmer Austroasiatic 1,291,024 180,533
Malay Austronesian 1,202,911 1,467,369
Karen Sino-Tibetan 317,968 441,114
Chinese Sino-Tibetan 231,350 111,866
Miao Hmong-Mien 112,686 149,090
Lahu Sino-Tibetan 70,058 -
Burmese Sino-Tibetan 67,061 827,713
Akha Sino-Tibetan 54,241 -
English Indo-European 48,202 323,779
Tai Tai-Kadai 44,004 787,696
Japanese Japonic 38,565 70,667
Lawa Austroasiatic 31,583 -
Lisu Sino-Tibetan 25,037 -
Vietnamese Austroasiatic 24,476 8,281
Yao Hmong-Mien 21,238 -
Khmu Austroasiatic 6,246 -
Indian Indo-European 5,598 22,938
Haw Yunnanese Sino-Tibetan 3,247 -
Htin Austroasiatic 2,317 -
Local languages - 958,251
Dialect and others in Thailand 33,481 318,012
Others 33,481 448,160
Unknown 325,134 -
Total: 56,281,538 65,981,659

* Above the age of five

Language education policy

Thai is the language of education. The curriculum introduced by the 1999 National Education Act,[22] which introduced 12 years of free education, emphasized Thai as being the national language. The 2008 Basic Education Core Curriculum[23] prioritises Thai, although it also mentions 'dialects' and 'local languages', i.e., ethnic minority languages. The monolingual education system is generally seen as ineffective, with one-third of teenagers functionally illiterate.[24] Illiteracy in Thai is particularly widespread in Thailand's three southernmost provinces as the Patani dialect of Malay is the mother tongue for the majority Malay community. International programs and schools which teach, for example, English or Chinese alongside Thai exist, as do a small number of pilot projects to teach ethnic minority languages alongside Thai in Thai schools.[14]

See also

Further reading

  • Bradley, D. 2007. East and Southeast Asia. In C. Moseley (ed.), Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages, pp. 349-424. London: Routledge.
  • Bradley, D. 2007. Languages of Mainland South-East Asia. In O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds.), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, pp. 301-336. Oxford Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand. 2004. (in Thai). Office of the National Culture Commission, Bangkok.
  • Lebar, F. M., G. C. Hickey, and J. K. Musgrave. 1964. Ethnic groups of mainland Southeast Asia. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press (HRAF).
  • Luangthongkum, Theraphan. 2007. The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand. In Lee Hock Guan & L. Suryadinata (Eds.), Language, nation and development in Southeast Asia (pp. 181-194). Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.
  • Matisoff, J. A. 1991. Endangered languages of Mainland Southeast Asia. In R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered languages, pp. 189-228. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
  • Matisoff, J. A., S. P. Baron, and J. B. Lowe. 1996. Languages and dialects of Tibeto-Burman. Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus Monograph Series 1 and 2. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Smalley, W. 1994. Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Suwilai Premsrirat. 2004. "Using GIS For Displaying An Ethnolinguistic Map of Thailand." In Papers from the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, edited by Somsonge Burusphat. Tempe, Arizona, 599-617. Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies.

References

  1. ^ "Thailand". Ethnologue.
  2. ^ "UNdata | record view | Population by language, sex and urban/rural residence". data.un.org. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b c d e International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention: Thailand (PDF) (in English and Thai). United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2016.
  4. ^ a b Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand (PDF) (in Thai). Office of the National Culture Commission. 2004. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ "burirum.xls" (PDF). Retrieved .
  6. ^ http://web.nso.go.th/pop2000/finalrep/chanburifn.pdf
  7. ^ "mahakam.xls" (PDF). Retrieved .
  8. ^ http://web.nso.go.th/pop2000/finalrep/roietfn.pdf
  9. ^ "Sakaeo: Key indicators of the population and households, Population and Housing Census 1990 and 2000" (PDF). Retrieved .
  10. ^ "Si Sa Ket: Key indicators of the population and households, Population and Housing Census 1990 and 2000" (PDF). Retrieved .
  11. ^ "Surin: Key indicators of the population and households, Population and Housing Census 1990 and 2000" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-15. Retrieved .
  12. ^ http://web.nso.go.th/pop2000/finalrep/tratfn.pdf
  13. ^ "Ubon Ratchathani: Key indicators of the population and households, Population and Housing Census 1990 and 2000" (PDF). Retrieved .
  14. ^ a b Draper, John (2019-04-17), "Language education policy in Thailand", The Routledge International Handbook of Language Education Policy in Asia, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2019. |: Routledge, pp. 229-242, doi:10.4324/9781315666235-16, ISBN 978-1-315-66623-5CS1 maint: location (link)
  15. ^ Lewis, M.P.; Simons, G.F. "Assessing endangerment: Expanding Fishman's GIDS" (PDF). Revue Roumaine de Linguistique. 55: 103-120.
  16. ^ a b M.P., Lewis; Simons, G.F.; Fennog, C.D. (2014). Ethnologue: Languages of Thailand. SIL International.
  17. ^ Draper, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit (2016). "The Thai Lao Question: The Reappearance of Thailand's Ethnic Lao Community and Related Policy Questions". Asian Ethnicity. 19: 81-105. doi:10.1080/14631369.2016.1258300. S2CID 151587930.
  18. ^ Luangthongkum, Theraphan. (2007). The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand. In Lee Hock Guan & L. Suryadinata (Eds.), Language, nation and development in Southeast Asia (pp. 181-194). Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.
  19. ^ Breazeale, Kennon. (1975). The integration of the Lao states. PhD. dissertation, Oxford University.
  20. ^ Grabowsky, Volker. (1996). The Thai census of 1904: Translation and analysis. In Journal of the Siam Society, 84(1): 49-85.
  21. ^ Population by language, sex and urban/rural residence, UNSD Demographic Statistics, United Nations Statistics Division, UNdata, last update 5 July 2013.
  22. ^ National Education Act B.E. 2542(1999) (PDF). Bangkok: Ministry of Education. 1999.
  23. ^ The Basic Education Core Curriculum B.E. 2551 (A.D. 2008) (PDF). Bangkok: Office of Basic Education. 2008.
  24. ^ "Thailand Economic Monitor - June 2015: Quality Education for All". World Bank. Retrieved .

External links


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