Labiodental Approximant
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Labiodental Approximant
Voiced labiodental approximant
IPA Number150
Entity (decimal)ʋ
Unicode (hex)U+028B
X-SAMPAP or v\
Braille? (braille pattern dots-236)? (braille pattern dots-1236)
Audio sample

The voiced labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is similar to an English w pronounced with the teeth and lips held in the position used to articulate the letter V. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\. With an advanced diacritic, ⟨⟩, this letter also indicates a bilabial approximant, though the diacritic is frequently omitted because no contrast is likely.[1][2]

The labiodental approximant is the typical realization of /v/ in the Indian and South African varieties of English. As the voiceless /f/ is also realized as an approximant , it is also an example of a language contrasting voiceless and voiced labiodental approximants.[3]


Features of the voiced labiodental approximant:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[4] ? [ski] 'gold'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hawa [ha:?a] 'wind' Predominant in the Urmia dialects. For some speakers, is used. Corresponds to in the other varieties.
Catalan Balearic treballava [tb?'a] 'worked' Allophone of /v/.[5] See Catalan phonology
Valencian[5] [te?bä'a?ä]
Chinese Mandarin ? / wèi [?êi] 'for' Prevalent in northern dialects. Corresponds to /w/ in other varieties.
Danish Standard[6] véd [?e?:?ð] 'know(s)' Also described as a short plosive ; rarely realized as a fricative instead.[7] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard wang [] 'cheek' In southern dialects of the Netherlands realised as bilabial . See Dutch phonology
English Indian South African[3] vine [?a?n] 'vine' Corresponds to a fricative in other accents.
Some speakers red [?e?d?] 'red' Mostly idiosyncratic but somewhat dialectal[8] (especially in London and South East England). See English phonology and R-labialization
Faroese[9] ða ['?ø:?a] 'speech' Word-initial and intervocalic allophone of /v/. In the first case, it is in a free variation with a fricative .[9] See Faroese phonology
Finnish vauva ['u] 'baby' See Finnish phonology
German Standard was [?as] 'what' Post-consonantal allophone of /v/ for most speakers. Also used word-initially by some, especially in the South. See Standard German phonology.
Swiss Corresponds to /v/ in Standard German[10]
Guaraní avañe'? [?ãã'] 'Guaraní language' Contrasts with /w/ and /?/
Hawaiian wikiwiki [?iki?iki] 'fast' May also be realized as [w] or [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi ? [ru?] 'Varuna' See Hindustani phonology
Italian Some speakers[11] raro ['?ä:?o] 'rare' Rendition alternative to the standard Italian alveolar trill , due to individual orthoepic defects and/or regional variations that make the alternative sound more prevalent, notably in Alto Adige (bordering with German-speaking Austria), Val d'Aosta (bordering with France) and in parts of the Parma province, more markedly around Fidenza. Other alternative sounds may be a uvular trill or a voiced uvular fricative .[11] See Italian phonology.
Lithuanian vanduo [n?d?u?] 'water' See Lithuanian phonology.
Marathi ? [(d)z?n] 'weight' See Marathi phonology
Miyako[12] [t?] 'thick' May be syllabic.
Norwegian Urban East[13][14] venn [?e?n:] 'friend' Sometimes realized as a fricative .[14][15] See Norwegian phonology
Nsenga ?anthu [?a?t?u] 'people'
Punjabi [?ä:l] 'hair'
Russian[16] ? ['o?s] 'hair' Common realization of /v/; contrasts with palatalized form.[16] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian ??? / cvr?ak [t?s:tak] 'cricket' May also be realized as [v], depending on dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Shona vanhu [?an?u] 'people' Contrasts with /v/ and /w/.
Slovak[17] voda 'water' Usual realization of /v/.[17] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[18] veter ['?é:t?r] 'wind' Also described as fricative .[19][20] See Slovene phonology
Swedish vän [:n] 'friend' Some speakers. See Swedish phonology
Spanish[21] Chilean hablar [ä'?lä?] 'to speak' Allophone of /b/. See Spanish phonology
Tamil ? [j] 'mouth' See Tamil phonology
Ukrainian[22] ? [?in] 'he' Possible prevocalic realization of /w/, most commonly before /i/.[22] See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian wêr [:r] 'where' See West Frisian phonology

See also


  1. ^ Peter Ladefoged (1968) A Phonetic Study of West African Languages: An Auditory-instrumental Survey, p. 26.
  2. ^ Joyce Thambole Mogatse Mathangwane (1996), Phonetics and Phonology of Ikalanga: A Diachronic and Synchronic Study, vol. 1, p. 79
  3. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004:960)
  4. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:20)
  5. ^ a b Saborit Vilar (2009:52)
  6. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:27 and 66)
  8. ^ Foulkes & Docherty (1999:?)
  9. ^ a b Árnason (2011:115)
  10. ^ Schmid, Stephan (2010), Segmental features of Swiss German ethnolects, retrieved
  11. ^ a b Canepari (1999), pp. 98-101.
  12. ^ Thomas Pellard, Why it is important to study the Ryukyuan languages Archived 2015-10-18 at the Wayback Machine (presentation)
  13. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:22 and 25)
  14. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:41)
  15. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  16. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bun?i? (2015:223)
  17. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  18. ^ ?u?tar?i?, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  19. ^ Priestley (2002:394)
  20. ^ Greenberg (2006:18)
  21. ^ "El alófono labiodental sonoro [v] del fonema /b/ en el castellano de Concepción (Chile): Una investigación exploratoria" (PDF).
  22. ^ a b ?ovtobrjux & Kulyk (1965:121-122)


  • Árnason, Kristján (2011). The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199229314.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard J., eds. (1999), Urban Voices, Arnold
  • Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373-378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (2004), "Indian South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 953-963, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Priestley, T.M.S. (2002), "Slovene", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 388-451, ISBN 0-415-28078-8
  • Saborit Vilar, Josep (2009), Millorem la pronúncia, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
  • ?u?tar?i?, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135-139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bun?i?, Daniel (2015), "Russian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221-228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395
  • ?ovtobrjux, M.A.; Kulyk, B.M. (1965), Kurs su?asnoji ukrajins'koji literaturnoji movy. ?astyna I., Kiev: Radjans'ka ?kola

External links

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