|La forza del destino|
|Opera by Giuseppe Verdi|
c. 1870 poster by Charles Lecocq
|Librettist||Francesco Maria Piave|
|Based on||Ángel de Saavedra's|
Don Álvaro o la fuerza del sino of 1835
La forza del destino (Italian pronunciation: [la 'f?rtsa del de'sti:no]; The Power of Fate, often translated The Force of Destiny) is an Italian opera by Giuseppe Verdi. The libretto was written by Francesco Maria Piave based on a Spanish drama, Don Álvaro o la fuerza del sino (1835), by Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas, with a scene adapted from Friedrich Schiller's Wallensteins Lager. It was first performed in the Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre of Saint Petersburg, Russia, on 10 November 1862 O.S. (N.S. 22 November).
La forza del destino is frequently performed, and there have been a number of complete recordings. In addition, the overture (to the revised version of the opera) is part of the standard repertoire for orchestras, often played as the opening piece at concerts.
After its premiere in Russia, La Forza underwent some revisions and made its debut in Europe with performances in Rome in 1863 under the title Don Alvaro. Performances followed in Madrid (with the Duke of Rivas, the play's author, in attendance) and the opera subsequently travelled to New York, Vienna (1865), Buenos Aires (1866), and London (1867).
Following these productions, Verdi made further, more extensive revisions to the opera with additions to the libretto by Antonio Ghislanzoni. This version, which premiered at La Scala, Milan, on 27 February 1869, has become the standard performance version. The most important changes were a new overture (replacing a brief prelude); the addition of a final scene to Act 3, following the duel between Carlo and Alvaro; and a new ending, in which Alvaro remains alive, instead of throwing himself off a cliff to his death. The opera in this version is frequently performed in the world's opera houses today.
In November 2005, the critical edition of the 1869 version was first performed by the San Francisco Opera whose program book included an essay by Gossett on the evolution of the various versions: 'La forza del destino': Three States of One Opera. The Caramoor International Music Festival gave a concert performance of the critical edition of the 1862 version, plus never-performed vocal pieces from the 1861 version, in July 2008.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere cast
10 November 1862
Conductor: Edoardo Bauer (Baveri)
Conductor: Eugenio Terziani
|The Marquis of Calatrava||bass||Meo||Giuseppe Vecchi|
|Leonora, his daughter||soprano||Caroline Barbot||Teresa Stolz|
|Don Carlo di Vargas, his son||baritone||Francesco Graziani||Luigi Colonnese|
|Don Alvaro, Leonora's suitor||tenor||Enrico Tamberlik||Mario Tiberini|
|Curra, Leonora's maid||mezzo-soprano||Lagramante||Ester Neri|
|Preziosilla, a young gipsy||mezzo-soprano||Constance Nantier-Didiée||Ida Benza-Nagy|
|Mayor||bass||Ignazio Marini||Luigi Alessandrini|
|Maestro Trabuco, a muleteer and peddler||tenor||Geremia Bettini||Antonio Tasso|
|Il Padre Guardiano (The Father Superior), a Franciscan||bass||Gian Francesco Angelini||Marcel Junca|
|Fra Melitone, a Franciscan||baritone||Achille De Bassini||Giacomo Rota|
|A surgeon||bass||Alessandro Polonini||Vincenzo Paraboschi|
|Peasants, servants, pilgrims, soldiers, vivandières and friars|
2 flutes (2nd doubling piccolo), 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (2nd doubling bass clarinet), 2 bassoons; 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, cimbasso; timpani, percussion (side drum, bass drum); 2 harps; strings. Onstage: organ, 6 trumpets, 4 side drums.
The mansion of Leonora's family, in Seville
Don Alvaro is a young nobleman from South America (presumably Peru) who is part Indian and who has settled in Seville where he is not very well thought of. He falls in love with Donna Leonora, the daughter of the Marquis of Calatrava, but Calatrava is determined that she shall marry only a man of the highest birth. Despite knowing her father's aversion to Alvaro, Leonora is deeply in love with him, and she determines to give up her home and country in order to elope with him. In this endeavor, she is aided by her confidante, Curra. (Me pellegrina ed orfana - "Exiled and orphaned far from my childhood home").
When Alvaro arrives to fetch Leonora, she hesitates: she wants to elope with him, but part of her wants to stay with her father; she eventually pulls herself together, ready for their elopement. However, the Marquis unexpectedly enters and discovers Leonora and Alvaro together. He threatens Alvaro with death, and in order to remove any suspicion as to Leonora's purity, Alvaro surrenders himself. As he flings down his pistol, it goes off, mortally wounding the Marquis, who dies cursing his daughter.
Scene 1: An inn in the village of Hornachuelos
About a year has passed since the death of the Marquis of Calatrava. While fleeing the scene, Leonora and Alvaro have gotten separated, and neither has made any concerted effort to find the other.
In this scene, the Alcalde, several peasant muleteers, Don Carlo of Vargas (the brother of Donna Leonora), and many others are gathered in the kitchen of the inn as dinner is served. Don Carlo, disguised as a student from Salamanca and using the fictitious name Pereda, is now seeking revenge against Alvaro and Leonora for dishonoring the family name. (Son Pereda son ricco d'onore - "I am Pereda, of honorable descent"). During the supper, Preziosilla, a popular young gypsy girl, arrives, and she tells the young men's fortunes and exhorts them to enlist in the war (Al suon del tamburo - "When side drums rattle") for Italy's freedom, which all agree to do. Leonora arrives in male attire, on her way to a nearby monastery, but luckily she slips away without being discovered by Carlo.
Scene 2: A monastery nearby
Leonora has come to take refuge in the monastery to live out her remaining days secluded from the rest of mankind. (Son giunta! ... Madre, pietosa Vergine - "I've got here! Oh, thank God!") After a somewhat surly reception by Fra Melitone, she tells the abbot, Padre Guardiano, her true name and her wish to spend the remainder of her life in the monastery's hermitage. The abbot recounts the trials she will have to undergo. Leonora, Padre Guardiano, Fra Melitone, and the other monks join in prayer as she is accepted in the hermitage.
Scene 1: A forest near Velletri, in Italy
Meanwhile Don Alvaro has joined the Spanish army under the name of Don Federico Herreros (La vita è inferno all'infelice ... O tu che in seno agli angeli - "Life is a hell to those who are unhappy....Oh, my beloved, risen among the angels"). One night he saves the life of Don Carlo who is serving in the same army under the name of Don Felix Bornos. They become close friends and go side by side into the Battle of Velletri, an historical event which occurred in 1744.
Scene 2: The officers' quarters
In one of these engagements Don Alvaro returns, believing himself to be mortally wounded. He entrusts to Don Carlo's care a valise containing a bundle of letters which he orders his friend to destroy as soon as Don Alvaro dies: (Solenne in quest'ora - "Swear to me, in this solemn hour"). Don Carlo has sworn not to look at the contents of the letters; but he becomes suspicious of his friend. (Morir! Tremenda cosa! ... Urna fatale del mio destino - "To die! What an awesome thought...Get away, fatal lot sent to my Destiny!"). He opens the valise, finds his sister's picture, and realizes Alvaro's true identity. At that moment a surgeon brings word that Don Alvaro may recover. Don Carlo is overjoyed at the idea of avenging his father's death.
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Scene 3: A camp near the battleground
Having recovered, Alvaro is confronted by Carlo. They begin to duel, but are pulled away from each other by the soldiers. As they restrain Carlo, the anguished Don Alvaro vows to enter a monastery.
The soldiers gather. Trabucco, the peddler, tries to sell them his wares; Fra Melitone chastises them for their godless ways; and Preziosilla leads them in a chorus in praise of the military life (Rataplan, rataplan, della gloria - "Rum-tum-tum on the drum is the music that makes a soldier's martial spirit rise").
Scene 1: The monastery
Under the name of Father Raphael, Don Alvaro has entered the monastery at Hornachuelos, near which is Leonora's cave. Don Carlo arrives and forces him to fight (Le minacce, i fieri accenti - "May the winds carry off with them").
Scene 2: A desolate spot near Leonora's hermitage
Leonora prays that she may find peace in death (Pace, pace mio Dio! - "Peace, O mighty Father, give me peace!"). Alvaro runs in, calling for help, having mortally wounded Carlo in their duel. The two lovers recognize each other. Leonora seeks her brother and, as she bends over him, he stabs her in the heart. Leonora returns with Padre Guardiano; he and Alvaro pray to heaven as she dies.
Over the years La Forza has acquired a reputation for being cursed, following some unfortunate incidents. In 1960 at the Metropolitan Opera, the noted baritone Leonard Warren collapsed and died during a performance of the opera. The supposed curse reportedly kept Luciano Pavarotti from ever performing the opera and the tenor Franco Corelli to follow small rituals during performances to avoid bad luck.
The main theme in the musical scores for the films Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources was adapted by Jean-Claude Petit from the aria "Invano, Alvaro" in La forza del destino. The Korean film The Scarlet Letter opens with "Pace, pace mio Dio", introducing a film about intensely powerful obsession which brings its lovers to the brink of madness.La forza del destino also plays a thematic role in the novel series A Series of Unfortunate Events (1999-2006).