Kyrie-Gloria Masses, BWV 233-236
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Kyrie%E2%80%93Gloria Masses, BWV 233%E2%80%93236
Lysa castle, possibly the location of performances of BWV 233 to 236

Apart from the 1733 Missa in B minor for the Dresden court (later incorporated in the Mass in B minor), Johann Sebastian Bach wrote four further Kyrie-Gloria Masses, BWV 233-236. These compositions, consisting of the first two sections of the Mass ordinary (i.e. the Kyrie and the Gloria), have been indicated as Missae breves (Latin for "short masses") or Lutheran Masses. They seem to have been intended for liturgical use, considering a performance time of about 20 minutes each, the average duration of a Bach cantata. They may have been composed around 1738/39.[1] Possibly they were written for Count Franz Anton von Sporck or performed by him in Lysá.[2]

Each of the Kyrie-Gloria Masses is in six movements: the Kyrie is one choral movement (with Kyrie/Christe/Kyrie subdivisions) and the Gloria is in five movements. The first and last movement of the Gloria are also choral, framing three arias for different voice types. The music consists mostly of parodies of earlier cantata movements.[3] Bach changed the music slightly to adjust to the Latin words, but kept the original instrumentation. For instance, the opening chorus of Es wartet alles auf dich, BWV 187, became the final movement of the Missa in G minor, Cum sancto spiritu. Occasionally he switched a voice part, for example he asked for a tenor in the Quoniam of that Missa, a parody of the soprano aria Halt ich nur fest an ihm of that cantata.

History

Compositions

Kyrie-Gloria Mass in F major, BWV 233

For the Missa in F major, BWV 233, scored for horns, oboes, bassoon, strings, SATB, and basso continuo, Bach derived most of the six movements from earlier cantatas as parodies.[4] The first movement derives from Kyrie "Christe, du Lamm Gottes" in F major, BWV 233a, which may have been performed for the first time on Good Friday, 6 April 1708.[5]

No. Title Voice Base
  1 Kyrie eleison - Christe eleison - Kyrie eleison Chorus BWV 233a
  2 Gloria in excelsis Chorus
  3 Domine Deus Bass possibly BWV Anh. 18/6[6]
  4 Qui tollis Soprano BWV 102/3
  5 Quoniam Alto BWV 102/5
  6 Cum sancto Spiritu Chorus BWV 40/1

Kyrie-Gloria Mass in A major, BWV 234

For the Missa in A major, BWV 234, scored for flute, strings, SATB, and basso continuo, Bach parodied music from at least four earlier cantatas.[4]

No. Title Voice Base
  1 Kyrie eleison - Christe eleison - Kyrie eleison Chorus
  2 Gloria in excelsis Chorus BWV 67/6
  3 Domine Deus Bass
  4 Qui tollis Soprano BWV 179/5
  5 Quoniam Alto BWV 79/2
  6 Cum sancto Spiritu Chorus Vivace part: BWV 136/1

Kyrie-Gloria Mass in G minor, BWV 235

For the Missa in G minor, BWV 235, scored for oboes, strings, SATB, basso continuo, Bach derived all six movements from cantatas as parodies.[4]

No. Title Voice Base
  1 Kyrie eleison - Christe eleison - Kyrie eleison Chorus BWV 102/1
  2 Gloria in excelsis Chorus BWV 72/1
  3 Gratias Bass BWV 187/4
  4 Domine Fili Alto BWV 187/3
  5 Qui tollis - Quoniam Tenor BWV 187/5
  6 Cum sancto Spiritu Chorus BWV 187/1

Kyrie-Gloria Mass in G major, BWV 236

For the Missa in G major, BWV 236, scored for oboes, strings, SATB, basso continuo, Bach derived all six movements from cantatas as parodies.[4]

No. Title Voice Base
  1 Kyrie eleison - Christe eleison - Kyrie eleison Chorus BWV 179/1
  2 Gloria in excelsis Chorus BWV 79/1
  3 Gratias Bass BWV 138/5
  4 Domine Deus Soprano, alto BWV 79/5
  5 Quoniam Tenor BWV 179/3
  6 Cum sancto Spiritu Chorus BWV 17/1

Reception

In 1818 the Missa in A major, BWV 234, was one of a very few of Bach's compositions for voices and orchestra to appear in print prior to the Bach Gesellschaft complete edition in the second half of the 19th century.[7]

Discography

References

  1. ^ Christoph Wolff: Johann Sebastian Bach, 2nd edition 2007. S. Fischer, Frankfurt, ISBN 978-3-596-16739-5
  2. ^ "Count Frantisek Antonin von Sporck". baroquemusic.org. Retrieved 2010.
  3. ^ Margaret Steinitz. "Bach's Latin Church Music". London Bach Society. Retrieved 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d (in German) Schmieder, Wolfgang, Alfred Dürr, and Yoshitake Kobayashi (eds.). 1998. Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis: Kleine Ausgabe (BWV2a). Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel. ISBN 978-3765102493, pp. 234-250
  5. ^ Work 0292 at Bach Digital website.
  6. ^ (in Italian) Alberto Basso. Frau Musika: La vita e le opere di J. S. Bach, Volume 2: Lipsia e le opere de la maturità (1723-1750). Turin: EDT, 1983. ISBN 88-7063-028-5, p. 518
  7. ^ Charles Sanford Terry. "Introduction" of Johann Sebastian Bach: His Life, Art, and Work. London: Constable (1920), p. xvii

External links


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